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Raman

Raman

Raman Spectroscopy Session #1: Theoretical background and computer simulations of molecular vibrations. Goals: • Understand the origin of the Raman effect. • Understand the vibrational normal modes of molecules. • Learn how to operate a Raman spectrometer. You will be using a class IIIb laser. Do not disconnect the optical fibers from the laser; do not disconnect the optical fibers from the Raman probe; do not defeat the safety interlock of the enclosure; and do not remove the Raman probe from the laser enclosure. The laser should always be turned off when you open the enclosure. Never look directly at the beam of any laser. I. Theoretical background When light is traveling through a material, the electric field dipole p = αE , (1) E induces a local electric where α is the polarizability of the material. α is not a constant, but depends on strain u α(u) = α + α u + α u + ... (2) 0 1 2 2 If both a strain field u(t) = u 0 cos(Ωt) and an electric field E(t) = E 0 cos(ωt) are present in the material, the induced electric field has a component 1 α1Eu 0 0cos(ωt)cos(Ωt) = α1Eu ⎡ 0 0 cos( ( ω+ Ω) t) + cos( ( ω−Ω) t) ⎤ 2 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ . (3) Thus photons at frequencies ω ± Ω can be emitted, accompanied by excitation or de‐excitation of a vibration of frequency Ω. 1

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