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Extensive Validation of the Code FUROM Based on the IFPE ...

Extensive Validation of the Code FUROM Based on the IFPE ...

1.

1. Introduction The fuel modelling code ong>FUROMong> (FUel ROd Model) [1], developed at AEKI for several years, works in ong>theong> quasi-static approximation and is suitable for modelling WWER and PWR UO 2 (and gadolinia bearing UO 2 ) fuel rod behaviour during normal operation and slow transients. The validation ong>ofong> ong>theong> code has so far been based on ong>theong> individual calculation ong>ofong> many relevant experiments, which was a time consuming process that could give rise to errors both at ong>theong> input and at ong>theong> evaluation stage. A new procedure has been devised in order to make ong>theong> validation uniform and automatic, based primarily on ong>theong> International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database, and also on any furong>theong>r experimental data available to AEKI. The experiments proposed in ong>theong> framework ong>ofong> ong>theong> FUMEX-III exercise are important sources ong>ofong> data as well. The validation procedure will make it possible to choose a group ong>ofong> experiments, generate ong>theong> ong>FUROMong> inputs (or ong>theong> input to some oong>theong>r fuel behaviour code), perform ong>theong> runs, store ong>theong> results, retrieve ong>theong> quantities ong>ofong> interest from both ong>theong> experiment and ong>theong> corresponding calculation and evaluate ong>theong> results, i.e. represent ong>theong>m graphically, make statistical analyses, etc. 2. The ong>FUROMong> ong>Codeong> ong>FUROMong> is a powerful WWER (and PWR) fuel rod performance code designed to calculate ong>theong> behaviour ong>ofong> UO 2 (and gadolinia bearing UO 2 ) fuel sheaong>theong>d in zirconium alloy cladding. The code predicts ong>theong> behaviour ong>ofong> fuel rods during steadystate and transient in-reactor operation. The ong>FUROMong> code is a flexible tool suitable for making ong>theong> independent calculations required for fuel licensing, i.e. for verifying ong>theong> accomplishment ong>ofong> criteria. The purpose ong>ofong> ong>theong> code is primarily to perform analyses and R&D tasks for Paks NPP. 3. The IFPE Database The International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) Database [2] is a comprehensive and well-qualified database on nuclear fuel for model development and code validation. The data encompass both normal and ong>ofong>f-normal operation and include prototypic commercial irradiations as well as experiments performed in Material Testing Reactors. The work is carried out in close co-operation and coordination between ong>theong> NEA, ong>theong> IAEA and ong>theong> IFE/OECD Halden Reactor Project. Emphasis has been placed on including well-qualified data that illustrate specific aspects ong>ofong> fuel performance. Of particular interest to fuel modellers are data on fuel temperatures, fission gas release (FGR), fuel densification/swelling, radial and axial clad deformation (e.g. creep-down, ridging) and pellet-clad mechanical interactions. In addition to direct in-pile and PIE measurement, every effort is made to include PIE information on clad characteristics (oxide thickness, hydrogen content), fuel grain size and porosity, Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) measurements on ong>theong> distribution ong>ofong> caesium, xenon, oong>theong>r fission products and actinides in ong>theong> fuel pellet. To date datasets about 1445 rods/samples from various sources encompassing BWR, CAGR, PHWR, PWR, and WWER reactor systems have been included. The datasets in ong>theong> database are in diverse formats and need individual pre-processing before any code calculation can be performed. 4. The Database Management System HERMES

HERMES [3] is a subroutine package for data storage and retrieval written entirely in FORTRAN-90 standard, which can be called from programs coded in any high level language. The data is organized in a hierarchical structure. The system lets ong>theong> client program (ong>theong> one calling ong>theong> HERMES services) store, locate and retrieve collections ong>ofong> data. These collections ong>ofong> data are called "lists" in ong>theong> HERMES documentation and can be used in much ong>theong> same way as "files" in operative systems. The lists are contained in "catalogs" which are given names as well (resembling directories in operative systems). A catalog can, in turn, be contained in anoong>theong>r catalog, and so on. The data ong>ofong> ong>theong> lists, ong>theong> names ong>ofong> ong>theong> entries and ong>theong> addressing information reside in a single standard random access file which is called an HMS (HERMES) file. HERMES provides all ong>theong> services necessary to create, populate, access, merge, copy and maintain HMS files. 5. Standardisation and Verification ong>ofong> ong>theong> Experimental Datasets: ong>theong> Fuel Behaviour Data Files (FBDF) 5.1 Concept The datasets available to AEKI are not uniform in several respects: ong>theong> types and units ong>ofong> ong>theong> quantities included in ong>theong>m are not identical; ong>theong> formats ong>ofong> ong>theong> files are different; ong>theong>y are not equally detailed; etc. A new, standardised database named Fuel Behaviour Data Files (FBDF) and managed by HERMES has been devised and created at AEKI for ong>theong> validation ong>ofong> ong>theong> ong>FUROMong> code or any oong>theong>r quasi-static fuel performance code. The IFPE datasets and oong>theong>r experimental data originally provided in diverse formats are stored in this database in a uniform format so that a single set ong>ofong> programs can process ong>theong>m. The elements ong>ofong> ong>theong> FBDF are HERMES files containing ong>theong> data ong>ofong> one fuel rod each and consisting ong>ofong> ong>theong> main catalogs (see Section 4) INPUT, HIST and MEAS (Fig. 2). These catalogs contain respectively ong>theong> initial data (ong>theong> technological parameters), ong>theong> irradiation and cooling history and ong>theong> measured quantities for ong>theong> given rod. The time series ong>ofong> histories and, in given cases ong>ofong> ong>theong> measured data are stored in sub-catalogs, one for each time step. 5.2 Realisation First, a so-called summary table is completed for ong>theong> rod, with ong>theong> values ong>ofong> ong>theong> available input parameters in fixed units and a mark to indicate what time series are given. The table also contains ong>theong> results ong>ofong> post irradiation examinations (PIE) where this result is one number (e.g. axial elongation ong>ofong> ong>theong> cladding). Part ong>ofong> such a summary table is presented in Table 1. The (irradiation and cooling) history time series used as input to ong>theong> code are transformed into a standard format, togeong>theong>r with ong>theong> occasionally available measured time series (e.g. fuel centreline temperature in each time step). After verification ong>theong> summary table and ong>theong> time series are processed and loaded into a HERMES database file, i.e. an HMS file (Fig. 1). Each fuel rod is represented in a separate file. The first IFPE data sets loaded into ong>theong> FBDF were those concerning WWER rods in normal operation conditions: Kola-3 and Song>ofong>it 1.1 for WWER-440, Novovoronezh and Zaporoshye for WWER-1000, i.e. ong>theong> data ong>ofong> more than 150 WWER fuel rods. The Loviisa measurements [4] have also been added for AEKI’s own use. 5.3 Storage ong>ofong> ong>theong> Calculations

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