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Table 12. Indigenous tools, practices, methods, machines, or equipment used by farmers in various stages of SP production. Stage Tools Machines/Equipment Practices/Methods Land Preparation Plow Hand Tractor Plowing + harrowing Wooden Harrow 4 wheel Tractor Crosswise stable Stick Hoe Planting Trowel - Manual/Practical Bolo Furrow ing Plow Cuttings Wooden Harrow Hired Labor Manual 2 passing of tractor 3 times plowing + 3 times harrowing 4 times plowing + 4 times harrowing Weeding Hoe - Handweeding Plow Chemical spraying Bolo Off-barring and hilling up Trowel Plowing and harrowing Fertilization Pail - Manual Basket/”Laba” Per hill Plow During planting, either basal application or broadcasting Harvesting Plow - Manual Scythe Plowing then picking up tubers Cart Hiring people to pick-up tubers Sack Bamboo basket Harrow Drying Sack - Solar drying Cart Under the shade, air drying Rake 2-3 times drying until ready to mill air dry in vacant room Storing Bamboo basket - Put tubers in vacant room Sack Air drying by hanging the tubers Cart Storing in sacks Placing tubers under shady areas Place tubers in bamboo beds Put tubers in bamboo baskets Store in clean, dry, shady place Processing Frying - Sweetened (camote cue) Kettle Boiled Pot Fried Land preparation The moldboard plow and harrow (wooden or spike tooth harrow) were the common tools used in this activity. For small scale (backyard) gardening, the tools used were either stick or hoe (“asarol”). In the cultivation of bigger areas, either the hand tractor or a 4-wheel tractor is needed. Most of the farmers (42 or75%) under category 4, where the lahar deposit were as deep as 2.1 meters or more, the 4-wheel tractor was used.
As to the practices, the most common was three times harrowing. This was common among farmers belonging to categories 1 and 2 where lahar deposits ranged from less than a meter to as deep as 1.5 meters. Deep plowing by means of stable was used in farms devastated with very thick lahar. Planting sweetpotato The plow and harrow were the common tools used in planting except for backyard gardening where trowel, bolo and hoe were used. There were no machineries nor equipment used in this activity. The job was done manually in furrows. Sometimes, the family hired other people to help them plant. This is done by hired labor or “bayanihan” system. Weeding Usually, weeding was done manually, off-barring and hilling-up by plowing. In small-scale farming, trowel, bolo and hoe were utilized. Fertilization In most parts of Zambales, inorganic fertilizer were not used. For those who applied fertilizers in Tarlac, they do it manually both during the first and second application. Basal application by broadcasting is usually adopted during the first application and by side-dressing during the second application. Fertilizers are placed in pail or in bamboo baskets (“labba”). Harvesting and drying Harvesting was done manually, by plowing then picking the tubers. Most families hired laborers to pick-up the tubers and put them in sacks or bamboo baskets. They used cart in transporting the gathered SP from the farm to the houses. In other cases, the packed tubers were picked –up by the buyers using big trucks right in the field. Solar drying of SP tubers intended for milling into SP flour was practiced. For fresh root market, the tubers are air-dried in vacant rooms or under the shade. GENDER ROLES The farm-related activities concerning overall management of projects and decision making functions in the households were analyzed. The respondents were asked to identify from the list activities usually performed by men, women, or both and