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activities, although were usually done by men or women, were sometimes performed by either the sexes. The activities composed of 22 specific tasks were both on-farm and off-farm and non-farm. These could gleaned in Appendix Table 1. The table revealed that there had not been any activity which was a monopoly of either men or women except on two off-farm activities; being a mason and thresher operator. Chicken raising was identified as a shared activity between men (48%) and women (39%). Swine raising, according to the majority of respondents (64%) was usually a job for women, although 56 or 36% stated that some men are doing it. Varietal selection, use of input, collection of planting materials, storage of planting materials, land preparation, seedbed preparation, planting of crops, and applying of fertilizers were identified by 93 – 99% as roles usually played by men. On the other hand, cutting of SP planting materials, weeding, harvesting, storage of harvested products, farm budgeting, marketing of products, allocating income, contacting credit outlet, social networking for food security were found to be farm operations usually performed by both men and women. Records keeping was mostly done by women, although there were also some men who were doing it. Regarding records keeping it was found out that 36 or 33% of the farming families were not keeping records but relied on their memory when it comes to expenses, yield, and income. The sharing of work and responsibilities was not only true to farm operations but to off-farm activities as well. This includes buying and selling, domestic help, and hired labor. Obviously, carpentry was the domain of men, although 13 or 8% indicated that some women were also doing it particularly at home. Finally, regarding the access and control of benefits and resources, most men had more and better access and control of the land, labor, capital credit, technology and education and training. Health services were mostly accessed and controlled by women. Almost of equal access and control are the income, food, and improved status. The data presented showed that there are activities that are generally considered the domain of men or women or both. However, sharing of work is evident particularly among Ilocanos and Zambal families wherein even the women did the land preparation, vegetable production, cattle raising, weeding, harvesting, storage of harvested products and the like. The joy and value of cooperation for better family life is their motivation to go on with these tasks. Role of Government and Non-Government Organization and People’s Organization in the Transfer/Adoption of INM Practices Availability and access to support services related to INM This initial study explored the available support services related to INM found in the environment of the farmers and whether they have access to them or not (Appendix Table 2).
Three-fourths (75%) of the farmers indicated the availability of support services and one-fourth mentioned the unavailability. The agencies which had been promoting INM and to which they have been access to are : Agency No. % Rank Department of Agriculture 110 71 1 Central Luzon State University 15 10 2.5 Tarlac College of Agriculture 15 10 2.5 Sta. Monica Social Action Development Center 1 1 4.5 Cooperative 1 1 4.5 Eight (%) farmers did not give any answer. The data also indicated that this program of the agencies had been going on from one (1) to more than six (6) years involving the following areas of concern: use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, use of indigeneous varieties, use of low input requiring varieties, composting, use of HYV and early maturing varieties and time and kind of fertilization. As to their attendance to trainings on INM, only a little more than one-fourth (29%) attended trainings which were conducted from 1978 to 1997 on varied occasions. These trainings were sponsored by DA-LGU, ATI, UPLB,TARAID, TCA-DA, Sta. Monica Social Action Development Center and the cooperatives. Moreover, the table also revealed that 43 of the farmers or (28%) other household members were affiliated with associations/organizations that were working on INM such as Farmers’ Cooperatives (South Farmers’ Coop, Banaoang West Irrigators’ PMPC, Sapang PMPC, TARAID and RIC whose projects include the following: Livelihood on Camote Chips Making Agricultural Loans/Loans from Dutch Government High Value Crops/Key Commercial Crops Farmers’ Classes Joining these organizations, they perceived had brought them benefits like capital for their livelihood projects, technical assistance, technology updates and water systems for their crops (shallow tube wells). Agencies working in the barangay The project aims to collaborate with the LGUs and other agencies working in the barangays in the promotion of INM. It came out that there are existing agencies to work with which include LGUs both at the barangay and municipal levels, LBP, The Farmers’ Cooperatives and DA. Two state institutions where the researchers belong could spearhead the collaboration. These agencies offered multiple services and programs to the farmer households ranging from agriculture, health, cooperatives, technical assistance, postharvest technology, farmers’ classes and financing. The frequency of assistance extended by the existing agencies ranged from once a week (29%) to once a year.