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Lake Erie North Shore Watershed Plan - Niagara Peninsula ...

Lake Erie North Shore Watershed Plan - Niagara Peninsula ...

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE WATERSHED PLAN The following includes potential best management practices for the Lake Erie North Shore watershed derived in part from Niagara Region‟s and NPCA‟s policies regarding stormwater management; Stormwater Management Policies and Guidelines, January 2010. For detailed information regarding the policies please refer to directly to the document. Management Alternative Description Stormwater Best Management Practices At Source and Lot-Level Quantity Controls Retrofit Existing Stormwater Modify older basins that were designed to control only the Basins 100-year storm into multi-functional stormwater wetlands or conventional wet ponds. Retrofit Existing Detention Devices Modify to incorporate forebays. Sediment forebays allow polluted sediments to settle out before water is discharged into the detention pond, thereby increasing treatment time and capacity. Retrofit Infiltration Devices Where soil permeability and depth to groundwater are sufficient, infiltration measures such as permeable pavement and infiltration trenches should be considered for introduction. Lot Control Ensure proper foundation drainage and type of soil and long-term behaviour as far as compaction should be considered. Reduced lot grading can be implemented for soil types with a minimum infiltration rate of 15mm/hr or greater. Off-line Infiltration Basin In new development areas design drainage corridors to include an infiltration basin which is not part of the main channel to capture water and allow it to slowly infiltrate into the soil. Extended Detention Dry Basin Design new developments to include stormwater basins that capture water and detain it for 24-40 hours before releasing it. Catch Basin Restrictors Detain storm water on parking lots or divert flows onto road surfaces, delaying the entry of storm water into the conveyance system. Green Parking Lots Install new bioretention areas, infiltration areas, underground vaults, or other practices to detain and clean parking lot storm water before discharging. Encourage businesses to share parking space, require that vegetated spaces in parking lots be used to treat stormwater, encourage mass transit, and encourage permeable spillover parking. Rain Gardens Planted depressions designed to receive excess rainwater runoff from buildings and associated landscape. During a storm event the rain garden fills with water and slowly percolates into the ground rather than draining towards a Porous Paving for Low Traffic Roadways and Pathways Conveyance Controls “Daylighting” Storm Sewers Vegetated Swales vs. Curb and Gutter storm drain. Parking areas, fire lanes, bicycle paths that consists of open-graded asphalt on a crushed stone base are capable of absorbing water reducing the amount of runoff entering the storm sewers. Eliminate a storm sewer or culvert and replace it with an open, vegetated channel. Where density, topography, soils, and slope permit, vegetated open channels should be used in the street right- 260

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE WATERSHED PLAN Vegetated Swale Road and highway runoff improvements Pervious Pipe Systems Pervious Catch Basins End-of-Pipe Controls Wet pond Dry Ponds Constructed Wetlands Infiltration Trench or Dry Well Sand Filters Screening Oil/Grit Separators Conservation Tillage/Agricultural Filter Strips/Buffer and Filter Strips Lawn Debris Management of-way to convey and treat stormwater runoff instead of curb and gutter systems. Compared to storm sewers, overland flow offers longer contact time with the soil and allows settling of pollutants, nutrient uptake by vegetation and complete infiltration of smaller events. Construct stormwater wetlands, pond systems, grassed swales, natural vegetation in highway rights-of-way open space. Convey runoff below ground level by allowing water to infiltrate through the pipe into adjacent soils, providing pollutant removal and reducing the amount of runoff in the storm sewer system These are normal catch basins with a large sump connected to an exfiltration storage area. The storage area may be located either directly below the catch basin floor through a series of holes or beside the catch basin where low flows discharge through the wall of the catch basin into the exfiltration storage area. In new development areas include wet ponds that use a permanent storage pool to capture or transform dissolved pollutants thereby holding water and releasing it slowly back to the environment. Wet ponds also reduce peak flows and assist in sedimentation control. Dry ponds only contain water during runoff events and for the length of time it takes for draw down. Dry ponds also provide storage, reduce peak flows, and assist in sedimentation control and pollutant removal. Offer peak flow reduction, storage, filtration, sedimentation, biological uptake, and absorption. Beneficial from a water quality perspective as they have the ability to trap and hold contaminants and pollutants. Design new developments to include an infiltration trench, which receives runoff in a shallow excavated trench that has been backfilled with stone to form a below-grade reservoir. Water can then slowly infiltrate into the soil. Sand filters can be used for smaller developments and urban areas with limited open space. This system uses sand in an underground catchment to filter stormwater. Generally installed upstream of storage facilities or overflow structures to remove floatable material before water discharges into the receiving waters. Screening requires maintenance and can be prone to clogging. Located in the place of conventional manhole below the ground in a storm drain system. Sediment in the runoff entering the separator is settled out and oil is removed through skimming and trapping. The separator implements the use of a permanent pool storage in the removal of hydrocarbons and sediment from storm water runoff before discharging into receiving waters or storm sewers. Rural/Urban Best Management Practices Alter agricultural practices to encourage naturally vegetated buffers/filters around streams and rivers. Discourage landowners adjacent to watercourse from mowing to streambank. Grass trimmings and leaf litter can be controlled by 261

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