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Lake Erie North Shore Watershed Plan - Niagara Peninsula ...

Lake Erie North Shore Watershed Plan - Niagara Peninsula ...

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE WATERSHED PLAN dolostone and limestone bedrock, making these soils problematic during summer droughts and having little agricultural value. The rapidly drained Plainfield soils can be found along Point Abino westward to Silver Bay. Plainfield soils are mainly aeolian sands with a very rapid permeability and low capacity to hold water. The Plainfield Soils in this extent are associated with the dune system that lines the shoreline of Lake Erie. Organic soils groups such as Quarry soils, Lorraine soils, Holly soils, Sherkston soils and Portsmouth soils can also be found throughout the Lake Erie North Shore watershed. These organic soils are very poorly drained. They are rapidly permeable, but are usually saturated with groundwater. They also have a high capacity to hold water and a very slow surface runoff. Typically, before these organic soils can be used for agriculture, extensive clearing and drainage is necessary as well as continued maintenance to control the subsurface water level and prevent the loss of the organic surface horizon through wind erosion. When drained these soils are suitable for common field crops and vegetable crops such as broccoli, potatoes, celery and onions. The nature of the organic material in Quarry soils is dominantly woody forest peat with occasional sedge fen peat layers and a texture variation from silty clay loam to silty clay. These soils are associated with swamps and forested wetlands and have been mapped east of Port Colborne along Lake Erie. In Lorraine soils, the nature of the organic materials range from woody fen peat to sedge fen peat. The textures vary from silty clay loam, to silty clay and clay. These soils are associated with fens and forested wetlands and can be found in association with Portsmouth organic soils. The nature of the organic material in Portsmouth soils range from woody forest peat to woody sedge fen peat with occasional sedge fen peat horizons. These soils are typically associated with forested wetlands and swamps and a texture varying from silty clay and clay to heavy clay. Sedge fen peat is primarily the nature of the organic material in Sherkston soils. The texture of this soil group is usually silty clay and is typically associated with wetlands and fens. The extent of this soil group in the Lake Erie North Shore watershed is limited to the area between Port Colborne and Fort Erie near Lake Erie. In Holly soils, the nature of the organic materials range from woody forest peat to sedge fen peat, and a texture that typically varies from silt loam to silt clay loam. These soils are generally associated with forested wetlands. In the Lake Erie North Shore watershed the extent of Holly soils is limited to south of the Onondaga Escarpment. 34

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE WATERSHED PLAN Table 1: Soils of the Lake Erie North Shore Watershed Plan Study Area Soil Series Geologic Deposits Mineral Soils Welland Mainly reddishhued deep water Soils (WLL) lacustrine heavy Malton Soils (MAT) Lincoln Soils (LIC) Brooke Soils (BOK) Chinguaco usy Soils (CGU) Jeddo Soils (JDD) Farmingto n Soils (FRM) Plainfield Soils (PFD) clay 40-100cm clayey sediments over clay loam till Deep water lacustrine heavy clay Variable sediments 10- 100cm over mainly limestone & dolostone bedrock Natural Drainage Poor Poor Water Holding Capacity Relatively High Relatively High Permeability Slow Surface Runoff Slow to Moderate Poor High Slow Slow to Rapid Poor Fairly High Moderate to Slow Clay loam till Imperfect Relatively High Clay loam till Poor Relatively High Variable sediments 10- 100cm over mainly limestone & dolostone bedrock Eolian dunes, sand dunes Organic Soils Quarry Organic swamp Soils sediments 40- (QRY) 160cm over Lorraine Soils (LRR) Portsmout h Soils (PUH) Sherkston Soils (SRK) Holly Soils (HOY) loamy sediments Organic fen sediments 40- 160cm over clayey sediments Organic swamp sediments >160cm Organic fen sediments >160cm Organic swamp sediments 40- 160cm over loamy sediments Class 3WD, 4W, 5W Land use Comments Range from unsuitable to poorly suitable for most fruit & vegetable crops Slow Slow 3W Limited use for agriculture; artificial drainage recommended Moderate to Slow Slow 3WD Unsuitable for most horticultural crops Moderate 4W, 5W Not suited for most agricultural uses due to shallowness to bedrock & poor drainage Moderate to Rapid Moderate to Rapid 2D 3W Widely used for growing common field crops Over compaction is a serious management concern Well Variable Good Variable 3R, 4R Little agricultural value due to shallow bedrock & droughtiness conditions Rapid Low Rapid Slow 3F Limitations due to seasonal droughtiness, low fertility & pH problems Very Poor High Rapid Very Slow Very Poor High Rapid Very Slow Very Poor High Rapid Very Slow Very Poor High Rapid Very Slow Very Poor High Rapid Very Slow 2HL-3H 2FHL- 3FH 2FL-3F 4K 3H-4H Extensive clearing & drainage necessary before suitable for agriculture Extensive clearing & drainage necessary before suitable for agriculture Extensive clearing & drainage necessary before suitable for agriculture Extensive clearing & drainage necessary before suitable for agriculture Extensive clearing & drainage necessary before suitable for agriculture 35

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