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Lake Erie North Shore Watershed Plan - Niagara Peninsula ...

Lake Erie North Shore Watershed Plan - Niagara Peninsula ...

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE WATERSHED PLAN Wainfleet Wetlands Conservation Area .................................................................. 59 Gord Harry Conservation Trail (formerly Wainfleet Rail Trail) ................................. 59 Baird Estate Conservation Area and Wildlife Reserve ............................................ 59 Philips Conservation Area (not indicated on mapping) ........................................... 59 Important Bird Areas .................................................................................................. 60 NPCA Natural Areas Inventory Sites.......................................................................... 65 Species at Risk ............................................................................................................. 76 Fowler‟s Toad ........................................................................................................ 78 Aquatic Habitat .............................................................................................................. 79 Fish Community Studies ............................................................................................ 80 Significant Fish Species ............................................................................................. 80 Fish Habitat ............................................................................................................... 84 Municipal Drains ........................................................................................................ 84 Water Quality ................................................................................................................ 88 NPCA Water Quality Monitoring Program .................................................................. 88 Biological Monitoring and Assessment Program ........................................................ 90 Beach Postings Study ................................................................................................ 90 Groundwater Resources ............................................................................................ 94 Intake Protection Zone Study ..................................................................................... 97 Water Quantity .............................................................................................................. 98 Water Budget ............................................................................................................. 98 Identification of Challenges in the Lake Erie North Shore Watershed .......................... 100 Landfill Sites ............................................................................................................ 100 Quarry Operations ................................................................................................... 100 Water Quantity ......................................................................................................... 100 Groundwater Sensitivity ........................................................................................... 101 Septic Systems ........................................................................................................ 101 Wainfleet .............................................................................................................. 102 Road Salt ................................................................................................................. 103 Nutrient Management .............................................................................................. 104 Beach Postings ........................................................................................................ 104 Urban Development ................................................................................................. 105 Urban Storm Water Management ............................................................................ 105 Combined Sewer Overflows .................................................................................... 106 Ballast Water Regulations ........................................................................................ 106 Municipal Drain Maintenance ................................................................................... 107 Natural Heritage and Resources .............................................................................. 108 Wetland Habitat .................................................................................................... 108 Riparian Cover ..................................................................................................... 108 Upland Habitat: Woodland and Grasslands (Prairies and Meadows) .................... 109 Fish and Aquatic Habitat .......................................................................................... 109 Climate Change ....................................................................................................... 110 Ecological Restoration and Environmental Planning Tools .......................................... 111 Communication and Education ................................................................................ 111 Policy Tools and Incentive Programs ................................................................... 111 Funding Sources for Environmental Projects ........................................................... 113 Water Quality Improvement Program ................................................................... 113 Conservation Land Tax Incentive Program ........................................................... 114 The Managed Forest Tax Incentive Program ....................................................... 114 Farm Property Class Tax Rate ............................................................................. 114 Species at Risk Farm Incentive Program.............................................................. 115 vi

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE WATERSHED PLAN Water Well Decommissioning Program ................................................................ 115 EcoAction Community Funding Program .............................................................. 116 Watershed Best Management Practices .................................................................. 116 Urban Best Management Practices ...................................................................... 116 Stormwater Best Management Practices .............................................................. 117 Managerial Best Management Practices .............................................................. 117 Agricultural Best Management Practices .............................................................. 117 Watershed Habitat Restoration ................................................................................... 118 Watershed Restoration Guidelines .......................................................................... 118 Watershed Strategy..................................................................................................... 119 Restoration Suitability Mapping ................................................................................ 120 Riparian Habitat Restoration Suitability ................................................................ 120 Wetland Habitat Restoration Suitability ................................................................ 120 Upland Habitat Restoration Suitability .................................................................. 121 Lowbanks Drain Restoration Strategy ...................................................................... 128 Hoover Drain Restoration Strategy .......................................................................... 138 Lake Erie 8 Restoration Strategy ............................................................................. 144 Casey Drain Restoration Strategy ............................................................................ 150 Lake Erie 5 Restoration Strategy ............................................................................. 159 Wainfleet Marsh Restoration Strategy...................................................................... 165 Lake Erie 3 Restoration Strategy ............................................................................. 171 Eagle Marsh Drain Restoration Strategy .................................................................. 177 Wignell Drain Restoration Strategy .......................................................................... 186 Beaver Dam Creek Restoration Strategy ................................................................. 198 Oil Mill Creek Restoration Strategy .......................................................................... 206 Bearss Drain Restoration Strategy ........................................................................... 212 Point Abino Drain Restoration Strategy .................................................................... 220 Bay Beach Area Drain Restoration Strategy ............................................................ 228 Overview of Restoration Strategy ................................................................................ 233 Estimating Ecosystem Services ............................................................................... 234 Implementation Responsibilities and Recommended Management Actions ................ 235 Implementing the Recommended Actions ................................................................ 235 Monitoring ................................................................................................................... 239 Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 241 References .................................................................................................................. 242 Acronyms .................................................................................................................... 250 Glossary ...................................................................................................................... 251 List of Tables Table 1: Soils of the Lake Erie North Shore Watershed Plan Study Area ...................... 35 Table 2: Natural Heritage Resources ............................................................................ 50 Table 3: Listed Species at Risk in Lake Erie North Shore Watershed ............................ 77 Table 4: Provincially Rare Species in Lake Erie North Shore Watershed ...................... 79 Table 5: Fish Species Identified in the Lake Erie North Shore Watershed ..................... 81 Table 6: Municipal Drains .............................................................................................. 87 Table 7: Water Quality Parameters (as modified from NPCA 2010) .............................. 89 Table 8: Summary of NPCA Water Quality Data for Lake Erie tributaries (2007-2009) .. 91 Table 9: Provincial Benchmark Threshold Values ......................................................... 99 Table 10: Lowbanks Drain Subwatershed Restoration Strategy .................................. 129 vii

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