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A land manager's guide to conserving habitat for forest birds in ...

A land manager's guide to conserving habitat for forest birds in ...

Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms regeneration cut or seed cut — under the shelterwood system, where mature trees are harvested to create openings and provided conditions for securing regeneration from the seed of trees retained for that purpose. rehabilitation — to restore a habitat to its original condition or former capacity. Rehabilitation includes a wide variety of activities such as tree planting, stream bank stabilization, removal of exotic species, garbage clean up, etc. removal cut — the last one or two cuts used in the shelterwood system to release the established seedlings and saplings, which often occurs approximately 3–15 years after the regeneration cut (in hardwoods). Managers harvest most of the remaining mature trees to give the regeneration full sunlight and to encourage rapid growth. reproductive success — measure of the number of young surviving. For birds, this refers to survival up until the time the young fledge from the nest. resident — any organism that does not undergo seasonal migration. restoration — the renewal of degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems through active human intervention. retention — to keep individual trees or groups of trees in harvested stands for varying lengths of time to provide a particular value, such as the retention of cavity trees during harvesting operations. riparian — the interface between land and water. Related to, living in, or located in conjunction with a wetland, on the bank of a river or stream but also at the edge of a lake or tidewater. riparian area — also referred to as riparian zone, which is an area of land adjacent to a stream, river, lake, or wetland that contains vegetation that, due to the presence of water, is distinctly different from the vegetation of adjacent upland areas. rotation — rotation age or length is the number of years required to establish and grow a stand of trees to maturity and when it would be considered ready for the next regeneration harvest. sapling — a young tree larger than a seedling but smaller than a pole. Saplings are typically 1–2 metres tall and range from 1–9.9 cm in dbh. sapwood — the living wood in a tree that surrounds the heartwood. It conducts water and minerals from the roots to the leaves. scale — a spatial perspective. second growth forest — a forest or stand that has grown up naturally after harvesting (especially clear cutting). secondary cavity nester — any animal that uses cavities for nesting but are incapable of successfully excavating their own nest. Secondary cavity nesters use natural cavities or cavities previously excavated by woodpeckers as nesting sites. Examples include southern flying squirrel and House Wren. sedentary — non-migratory animals that typically inhabit a small home range. seed bank (soil) — the reservoir of viable seeds present in the soil. seedling — a young tree smaller than a sapling, with a diameter less than 1 cm and height

site preparation — chemical (e.g., herbicides) or mechanical (e.g., cutting) processes used to remove unwanted vegetation and other material to prepare the soil surface as a favourable seedbed for either naturally or artificially dispersed seed or for planted seedlings. site quality — the productive capacity of a site as determined by the amount of available light, heat, water, and nutrients. size class — see diameter class. skidder — a large wheeled or tracked vehicle used for dragging trees or logs from where they are cut to a log landing. slash — the residue, such as treetops and branches, left on the ground after logging. small scale disturbance — events that cause temporary change in average environmental conditions, and invoke a pronounced change in an ecosystem over a small area. Small-scale disturbances caused by wind, ice, disease, and harvesting result in a patchy distribution of disturbed (or gap) areas. snag — a standing dead tree, or standing portion of a broken off tree. soft edge — a boundary between habitat types that is less distinct in terms of habitat structure, such as the boundary between coniferous and deciduous forest types. soft mast — fleshy fruits and catkins produced by plant species such as birch and raspberry that are consumed by wildlife. softwood — wood produced from coniferous trees, which generally (but not always) have lower density and hardness than broad-leaved trees or hardwoods. soil compaction — the compression of soil caused by heavy machinery during harvesting operations which causes the soil to lose pore space. Compacted soils become less able to absorb rainfall, thus increasing runoff and erosion. Plants have difficulty in compacted soil because the mineral grains are pressed together, leaving little space for air and water, which are essential for root growth. soil scuffing — a mechanical method of site preparation that breaks up the surface of the soil to facilitate seed germination. songbird (also see passerine) — a small bird, usually in the Passeriformes order (perching birds). Songbirds include wellknown birds such as cardinals, sparrows, and bluebirds. Larger birds, such as hawks, owls, ducks, and herons are not songbirds. Songbirds have developed vocal organs that permit them to link various notes and sounds into a musical call or song. source-sink dynamics — the relationship between a network of habitat patches of varying quality termed sources and sinks, which are linked by dispersal. Sources are high quality habitats where populations tend to increase, while sinks, are low quality habitats that, on their own, are unable to sustain populations. Source habitats, typically larger woodlots, provide excess individuals to the neighbouring sinks, typically smaller woodlots, thus sustaining the sink populations. special concern — any native species that is not yet endangered or threatened, although it is uncommon, or has unique or highly specific habitat requirements or threats that deserve careful monitoring of its status. species at risk — any species that is designated as endangered, threatened, or vulnerable by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) under the Endangered Species Act. Overall, these species are of conservation concern and are at varying levels of risk of becoming extinct. species diversity (richness) — the number of different species present in a community or a given area. stand — a contiguous group of trees sufficiently uniform in age class, composition, arrangement, and condition to be distinguishable as a group from the forest or other growth on the adjoining area. stand improvement — an intermediate treatment made to improve the composition, structure, condition, health, and growth of a timber stand. Typically involves thinning to remove poor quality and diseased trees and improve stand health. steward — an individual who manages property. stewardship — the wise management and use of forest or other natural resources to ensure their health and productivity for the future with regard for generations to come. stick nest — a type of nest built with large twigs and sticks by large birds of prey such as hawks, owls, ravens, and crows. Birds usually build these nests in a crotch near the canopy of a large diameter living tree. They are rare habitat features that are used repeatedly. stopover areas — a habitat or natural area that consistently provides migrating birds with the opportunity to feed (refuel), obtain shelter, and rest. structure — landscape structure is determined by the composition, configuration, and proportion of different patches across the landscape. Vegetation and forest structure refer to the horizontal and vertical distribution of layers in a forest, including height, diameter, pattern of openings, and species present in a given area. succession — the natural and gradual replacement of one plant community (and the associated fauna) by another over time and in the absence of disturbance. Glossary of Terms 97

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