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A land manager's guide to conserving habitat for forest birds in ...

A land manager's guide to conserving habitat for forest birds in ...

Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms successional stages — an identifiable stage of development of a plant community as it moves along from bare ground to a climax. Includes early-, mid-, and late-succession. supercanopy tree — large, living trees that project above the height of the main canopy of a stand. White pine is a common supercanopy tree species in central Ontario. sustainable — capacity to maintain a certain process or state for an indefinite period without damaging the environment, or without depleting a resource. symbiosis — a close, mutually beneficial, often long-term relationship between two, or more, groups of organisms. tending — operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual, at any stage of its life. Usually involves removing competing vegetation during regeneration by cutting, or herbicides application. territory — an area actively defended by an organism against members of the same species or occasionally animals of other species. Male birds typically defend territories by singing, but will also use aggressive postures or even attack if another bird of the same species breaches their territory. thinning — removal of selected trees from a stand to accelerate diameter growth and improve the average form of the trees that remain. Thinning decreases resource competition and increases growth rate. threatened — any native species that, based on the best available science, is at risk of becoming endangered if limiting factors or threats are not reversed, or populations continue to decline. threshold — the point at which an effect or change can be detected. unaltered habitat — natural habitat that has not been influenced by human activities such as logging or development. under stocked — an area having insufficient trees to meet a desired management objectives (wildlife or timber). It may be lacking in trees of all sizes or from a particular size. For example, stands harvested by diameter-limit will be under stocked in large trees greater than 50 cm dbh. understorey — vegetation (herbs shrubs, seedlings, saplings, small trees) within a forest stand. In our case we include an intermediate storey above the understory and below the overstorey (canopy). uneven-aged management — the removal of individual or groups of trees to create a multi-aged forest stand in the future. ungulate — a group of mammals with hooves, includes deer and moose. upland forest — a broad class of forest, opposed to a lowland forest, consisting of dry to moderately moist soils and higher canopy coverage. Upland forest stands usually include sugar maple and beech. urban sprawl — the gradual spreading of a city and its suburbs over the surrounding rural land, at the fringe of an urban area. urbanization — the conversion of land into built up cities and urban areas. vernal pool — small, shallow, temporary pools of fresh water present in spring and fall (filled by snow melt and rain), which do not support fish, but are used by many insects and amphibians for breeding. vertical structure — the arrangement of plants in a given community from the ground (herbaceous and woody shrubs) into the forest canopy. vertical (structural) diversity — the complexity of vertical layering in the forest. High vertical structural diversity is characteristic of old growth forests that have abundant vegetation in each layer (e.g., groundcover, sapling, and understorey). viable population — a population of plants or animals of sufficient size and distribution to maintain its existence over time despite normal fluctuations in population levels. vulnerable species — a term that has now been replaced by species of special concern. wetland — any area that is flooded for at least part of the year by surface or ground water and supports an abundance of vegetative or aquatic life. Wetlands include swamps, marshes, bogs, wet meadows, river overflows, mud flats, and natural ponds. wildlife tree — any tree used by wildlife for food or shelter. This includes any standing live or dead tree with special characteristics that provide valuable habitat for the conservation or enhancement of wildlife. Characteristics include trees that produce mast, have stick nests, super-canopy trees, and those with cavities. wintering area — the geographic location where a species spends the winter. Deer wintering areas typically include area of dense conifers. wintering ground — the geographic location where a migratory species spends the winter months during the non-breeding season. woodland — synonymous with forest, any land covered with trees and shrubs. woodlot — a segment of forest, or woodland, usually privately owned, that is capable of producing forest products such as merchantable timber or maple syrup, as well as recreational uses such as bird watching or hiking. woody plant — any plant that has a permanent above ground stem that is covered by a layer of thickened bark. All trees, shrubs and vines are woody plants, whereas all herbs are not. 98 Glossary of Terms

Chestnut-sided Warbler — Photo: Brad Woodworth Bird Species Accounts 99

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