Views
3 years ago

A land manager's guide to conserving habitat for forest birds in ...

A land manager's guide to conserving habitat for forest birds in ...

American

American Robin Turdus migratorius human-modified habitats. It will breed in parks, backyards, gardens, orchards, riparian zones, and deciduous, mixed or coniferous forest edges and interiors. The female builds a nest of grass and mud, saddled on a branch of a tree or shrub, or on a flat man-made structure. They are prolific breeders, typically laying four blue eggs, and raising two or three broods per season. Diet The American Robin is omnivorous, feeding mainly on a wide variety of invertebrates during the breeding season and on fruit in the fall. The robin gleans vegetation in search of food on the ground, in trees, or shrubs. Earthworms, snails, moths, and many kinds of fruit (including juniper, hawthorn, chokecherry, wild grape, honeysuckle, and dogwood) are commonly eaten. Male American Robin — Photo: Garth McElroy Identification (20–28 centimetres) The American Robin is perhaps the most familiar bird in North America. Known by many as the harbinger of spring, it is often seen hopping across lawns in search of food. The robin is best characterized by its brick-red breast. It has a white throat and white crescent around the eye, and a relatively thin yellow bill. The male is usually a little brighter than the female and has a blacker head. Though robins are commonly associated with backyard lawns and parks, this species is very adaptable and occurs in a variety of habitats, including large forests. Management Guidelines Since the American Robin often occurs in open areas interspersed with trees and shrubs, forestry practices that create early successional habitats can be beneficial for this species. None of the currently recommended silviculture practices for existing woodlands have been shown to be detrimental to breeding robins. How to Find If you want to see an American Robin all you have to do is scan your lawn in the spring or summer and you will likely spot one foraging for worms. It’s that simple! Photo: OMNR Conservation Status The American Robin is the most abundant and most widespread thrush in North America, and has a stable or increasing population. Unlike many species, this highly adaptable bird has benefited from suburbanization and widespread forest loss and fragmentation. However, robins are sensitive to pesticides (due to high intake of earthworms) and populations are susceptible to dieoffs or reduced nest success due to chemical pollution. Breeding Biology The American Robin breeds from Alaska and northern Canada southward to northern Florida and Mexico. Although it’s at home breeding in deep, mature forests, the robin is tolerant of Did you know? • Having evolved together, American Robins easily recognize and remove Brown-headed Cowbird eggs. • Although the appearance of a robin typically heralds the arrival of spring, they are short-distance migrants and many of them actually spend the winter in southern Ontario. The number of robins wintering in Ontario varies each year with local weather conditions. However, because they congregate in large flocks during winter, and spend less time in backyards, you’re much less likely to see them. 120 Bird Species Accounts

Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis a wide variety of fruits (e.g., raspberries, grapes, cherries). Its diet shifts from 80 percent insect in the spring to 80 percent fruit in the fall and winter. Management Guidelines The Gray Catbird benefits from activities that maintain or create early successional habitat usually associated with even-aged systems or group selection. This includes isolated patches within forests, regenerating cutovers, forest edges, fencerows, and suburban areas. Adult Gray Catbird — Photo: Garth McElroy Identification (21–24 centimetres) Heard more than seen, the Gray Catbird is a secretive, but curious skulker of dense thickets. Its rambling song includes imitations of other birds, but the characteristic “mew” call note is reminiscent of a cat. It is a grey medium-sized bird with rufous undertail feathers, and a black cap and tail. The sexes are identical. How to Find Because the Gray Catbird spends much of its time in dense shrubby areas, it can be difficult to spot. However, it is a loud and persistent songster. Listen for its hodgepodge of rambling, warbling sounds interspersed with its cat-like mew to find this low lying skulker. Conservation Status The Gray Catbird is widespread and common in early successional forest habitats across southern Canada and south through most of the United States, except the dry Southwest. Its continental population is essentially stable, though there has been a slight decline of 1.6 percent annually in Ontario since 1966. This species has benefited from human activity, and is very common in dense tangles associated with openings and edges in southern Ontario. Breeding Biology Catbirds select shrub-sapling stage successional habitats, nesting in dense shrubs or vine tangles. Breeding occurs between early May and mid-August in Ontario. The female builds a bulky nest of grasses, twigs, leaves, rootlets, and bark strips, lays three or four blue eggs, and can raise two broods per year. Diet The Gray Catbird is an opportunistic feeder, foraging from the ground up to the canopy, but primarily at low heights. It will search through leaf litter, glean insects from bark and leaves, hover or hop on branches, catch insects in flight, and pick fruit and flowers off trees and shrubs. Its diet includes ants, moths, flies, dragonflies, spiders, caterpillars, grasshoppers, beetles, and Photo: OMNR Did you know? • The Gray Catbird is one of the few species that has learned to recognize and eject cowbird eggs. However, this learning can go awry if a cowbird lays an egg in the nest before the female catbird does. In such cases, the female may eject her own eggs as they are laid. • Its Latin name reveals that it is associated with shrubby habitats (Dumetella means “small thicket”) and that it primarily occurs in the Carolinian zone (carolinensis). Bird Species Accounts 121

A land manager's guide to conserving habitat for forest birds in ...
A Land Manager's Guide to Improving Habitat for Forest Thrushes
GOldEN-wiNGEd WARblER HAbitAt - American Bird Conservancy
Top 10 Threatened Bird Habitats - American Bird Conservancy
The Conservation of Thorn Scrub and Dry Forest Habitat in the ...
Managing Land in the Piedmont for Birds & Other Wildlife - Virginia ...
Management and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources in the ...
Managing for Cavity-Nesting Birds in Ponderosa Pine Forests
A Land Manager's Guide to Point Counts of Birds in the Southeast
Forest Management & Bats - Bat Conservation International
Managing Land in the Piedmont of Virginia for the Benefit of Birds ...
Top 20 Most Threatened Bird Habitats in the U.S. - American Bird ...
birding - Sustainable Forests Education Cooperative - University of ...
Land and Habitat Conservation - African Wildlife Foundation
Spring 2012 - American Bird Conservancy
Proactive Conservation Management of an Island-endemic Bird ...
Avian communities of managed and unmanaged Minnes ota forests
A Landowner's Guide to New England Cottontail Habitat Management
riparian forest management - Alberta Conservation Association
Conservation and sustainable management of forests
LAY OF THE LAND - The Nature Conservancy
Fall 2012: Is Species Conservation Enough? - American Bird ...
Design of US Habitat Banking Systems to Support the Conservation ...
Oak Ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest - American Bird Conservancy
Managing Chesapeake Bay's Land Use, Fish Habitat, and Fisheries ...
GIS application to bird conservation in Puerto Rico - CoHemis
Cover and TOC - STANFORD HABITAT CONSERVATION PLAN ...
Read ABC's report on the Top 20 Most Threatened Bird Habitats in ...
AlliAnce for Zero extinction - American Bird Conservancy