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A land manager's guide to conserving habitat for forest birds in ...

A land manager's guide to conserving habitat for forest birds in ...

Unharvested Changes

Unharvested Changes in forest structure following various silviculture and harvesting approaches Clear cut Shelterwood Group selection Year 30 Year 15 Year 5 Harvest - year 0 Clear cut Shelterwood Group selection Artwork: Peter Burke, Graphic Design and Editing: Lyn Thompson and Ken Elliott 42 Forest Harvesting

This table illustrates the structure and composition of a typical deciduous forest in southern Ontario under six different harvesting methods at five distinct time periods over the course of 30 years. Forests with more vertical structure or layering will provide more habitat types for a great variety of forest bird species. The unharvested condition is the starting point for each of the six cutting scenarios, and reveals a multilayered structure that is the product of a forest left undisturbed for many decades. Year 0 illustrates the immediate impact of tree removal. Year 5 shows the amount of growth and development that occurs within the first five years following harvesting. Year 15 shows the structure and composition at 15 year mark following harvesting. With shelterwood, group selection, stand improvement, and single-tree selection another harvest would likely occur around Year 15. Trees considered for removal are marked with a spot of orange tree marking paint on their stem. Year 30 shows another 15 years of growth and development on the trees that remained following the initial harvests and the regeneration from Year 0 and Year 15. Each frame in this diagram shows a different stand structure within this 30 year period. If our landscape included a mixture of these 25 varying stand conditions along with others, such as old growth, then we would provide a broad range of habitats over the long term, for a broad range of species, while also allowing for economic returns from the harvesting of wood products. Diameter-limit Stand improvement Single-tree selection Harvest - year 0 Year 5 Year 15 Year 30 Diameter-limit Stand improvement Single-tree selection Forest Harvesting 43

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