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15-16-18 Mile Creek - Niagara Peninsula Conservation Authority

15-16-18 Mile Creek - Niagara Peninsula Conservation Authority

Water

Water Quality................................................................................................................................... 25 Biological Monitoring and Assessment Program............................................................... 27 Historical Water Quality Data.................................................................................................... 27 Groundwater Resources............................................................................................................. 27 Challenges and Opportunities in the Fifteen-Sixteen-Eighteen Mile Creeks Watershed............................................................ 29 Erosion and Sedimentation........................................................................................................ 29 Septic Systems................................................................................................................................. 29 Landfill Sites................................................................................................................................... 30 Road Salt......................................................................................................................................... 30. Karst Environments...................................................................................................................... 30 Nutrient Management.................................................................................................................. 31 Irrigation Water............................................................................................................................ 31 Urban Development, Provincial Greenbelt and the Protected Countryside................... 31 Urban Storm Water Management.............................................................................................. 34 Municipal Drain Maintenance.................................................................................................... 34. Niagara to GTA Corridor............................................................................................................ 34 Natural Heritage and Resources............................................................................................... 34 Wetland Habitat........................................................................................................................... 35 riparian Cover.............................................................................................................................. 35 Forest Habitat and Meadows...................................................................................................... 35 Fish and Aquatic Habitat.............................................................................................................. 35 Climate Change.............................................................................................................................. 36 Ecological Restoration and Environmental Planning Tools............................ 36 Communication and Education................................................................................................ 36 Policy Tools................................................................................................................................. 36 Watershed Best Management Practices................................................................................... 38 urban Best Management Practices............................................................................................. 38 stormwater Best Management Practices................................................................................... 38 agricultural Best Management Practices.................................................................................. 39 Funding Sources for Environmental Projects...............................................................39 Water Quality Improvement Program......................................................................................... 39 Conservation Land Tax Incentive Program............................................................................... 40 the Managed Forest Tax Incentive Program............................................................................. 40 Farm Property Class Tax Rate....................................................................................................... 40 Water Well Decommissioning Program..................................................................................... 40 Watershed Habitat Restoration.............................................................................................. 41 Watershed Restoration Targets................................................................................................. 41 Watershed Strategy...................................................................................................................... 41 restoration Suitability Mapping.................................................................................................. 41 Fifteen Mile Creek Restoration Strategy..................................................................................... 46 sixteen Mile Creek Restoration Strategy.................................................................................... 52 eighteen Mile Creek Restoration Strategy.................................................................................. 58 iii

Implementation Responsibilities and Recommended Management Actions................................................................................... 62 Implementing the Recommended Actions................................................................................ 62 Monitoring....................................................................................................................................... 67 Conclusion....................................................................................................................................... 68 References.......................................................................................................................................... 68 Acronyms........................................................................................................................................... 70 glossary............................................................................................................................................. 71 Acknowledgements...................................................................................................................... 72 List of Tables Table 1: Natural Heritage Resources............................................................................................... 15 Table 2: Significant Flora.................................................................................................................. 18 Table 3: Fish Species in the Fifteen-Sixteen-Eighteen Mile Creeks Watershed........................... 22 Table 4: Water Quality Parameters (as modified from NPCA 2006)............................................ 25 Table 5: Water Quality Data Monitored by the NPCA (2006)........................................................ 27 Table 6: Major Water Resources Legislation Governing Water Management in Ontario........................................................................................................ 37 Table 7: Fifteen Mile Creek Watershed Restoration Actions...................................................... 47 Table 8: Sixteen Mile Creek Watershed Restoration Actions...................................................... 53 Table 9: Eighteen Mile Creek Watershed Restoration Actions................................................... 59 Table 10: Watershed Monitoring Schedule.................................................................................... 67 List of Figures Figure 1: Geographic Location.......................................................................................................... 1 Figure 2: Watershed Planning Framework...................................................................................... 2 Figure 3: Topography............................................................................................................................ 7 Figure 4: Physiography......................................................................................................................... 8 Figure 5: Bedrock Geology................................................................................................................. 9 Figure 6: Soils....................................................................................................................................... 12 Figure 7: Land Use................................................................................................................................ 14 Figure 8: Natural Heritage Areas..................................................................................................... 16 Figure 9: Significant Natural Areas............................................................................................... 17 Figure 10: Cores and Connections of Carolinian Canada..................................................... 19 Figure 11: Fish Habitat Classification.............................................................................................. 23 Figure 12: Municipal Drains............................................................................................................... 24 Figure 13: Water Quality Sampling and Potential Contaminants........................................... 26 Figure 14: Shallow Intrinsic Susceptibility.................................................................................... 28 Figure 15: Raw Water for Irrigation Study Area.......................................................................... 32 Figure 16: Provincial Greenbelt Plan and Niagara Escarpment Plan Areas........................ 33 Figure 17: Natural Heritage System and Potential Corridors.................................................. 42 iv

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