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Niagara River Remedial Action Plan Stage 2 Update Report

Niagara River Remedial Action Plan Stage 2 Update Report

Quick Facts about the

Quick Facts about the Niagara River AOC }} The Niagara River was designated as a binational AOC by the International Joint Commission in 1987. 8 }} Remedial Action Plans are being developed independently by the Canadian and U.S. sides to improve the overall health of the Niagara River. 8 }} The Niagara River corridor received the global designation as an Important Bird Area (IBA) in 1996. 9 }} The Niagara River AOC falls within the Carolinian life zone and contains, or is in proximity to, unique habitats for wildlife, most notably Wainfleet Bog, Niagara Gorge, and the Niagara Escarpment. }} Over 100 wetlands within the AOC are recognized as provincially significant wetlands. 10 8 International Joint Commission. June 2002. Niagara River Area of Concern Status Assessment. 9 Niagara River Corridor IBA Working Group. 2002. IBA Conservation Plan for the Niagara River Corridor IBA. 10 Environment Canada - Canadian Wildlife Service. 2006. Current Status, Trends and Distributions of Aquatic Wildlife in the Niagara River (Ontario) Watershed. It is important to note that, although the Niagara River AOC encompasses the Niagara watershed on both sides of the border, RAPs are being developed separately in New York State and Ontario. The Ministry of the Environment (MOE) is the lead agency for the Ontario portion under the Canada-Ontario Agreement (COA) Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) continues to be the lead agency for the New York State portion. 1.2 Land Uses in the Area of Concern The major land uses in the AOC are rural with areas of urban development. The majority of the land base in Niagara is classified as prime agricultural land under the Canada Land Inventory. The combination of climate, physiography, soils and location make the Niagara region one of the most productive areas in Canada, and it ranks second in North America in terms of stability for producing stone fruit. These productive areas result in Niagara being recognized as one of the most significant agricultural areas in Canada. In addition to the climate and good soils, Niagara farmers have access to one of the world’s largest supplies of fresh water. The richness of Niagara’s physical attributes allows the area to produce much more than fruit and grapes; the greenhouse, poultry and egg, cash crop, livestock, and dairy commodity sectors also thrive in Niagara. 4 The major urban centres in the AOC are the cities of Niagara Falls and Welland (with populations of 82,184 and 50,331 respectively 5 ). Niagara Falls is the primary tourist destination in Ontario, receiving 50 percent of all travellers entering the province. Nearly 20 percent of all cross-border crossings from Canada to the United States are accommodated by the four major bridges spanning the Niagara River. 6 The geographic location and extent of the Niagara River (Ontario) AOC is shown on the previous page (figure 4). 4 Regional Municipality of Niagara. July 25, 2003. Regional Agricultural Economic Impact Study. 5 Statistics Canada Census 2006. 6 Innovation in Canada: Innovation Performance – Niagara Region. 4

Niagara river remedial action plan stage 2 update 1.2.1 The Welland River watershed The Welland River watershed is the largest (total drainage area of 1,023 km 2 ) and most stressed watershed within the Canadian side of the AOC. With a significant vertical drop (78 m) over the first 55 km, and only a slight (4 m) drop over the lower 80 km, the Welland River is a meandering, sluggish river from Port Davidson downstream 7 . Runoff and wastewater inputs from agricultural and urban areas, the lack of riparian plants in some sections, the generally warm water temperatures, and the lack of any aeration sites such as rapids or waterfalls, result in low dissolved oxygen concentrations within sections of the river 11 . Consequently, as the largest tributary in the Niagara River AOC, it is the focus of many of the recommendations and implementation activities which are designed to support ecosystem recovery in the Niagara River RAP. This recovery is evaluated through the delisting criteria. The Queenston-Chippawa Power Canal flows northward from the Welland River at a point six kilometres west of the junction with the Niagara River. This human made structure causes the entire flow of the Welland River to flow through the Power Canal. The operation of flow diverting control structures in the Niagara River also cause a portion of the Niagara River to flow into the natural outlet of the Welland River (moving upstream) and into the power canal. This water diversion causes the section of the Welland River between Chippawa and the Queen Elizabeth Way (locally known as Chippawa Creek) to flow westward (upstream) once a day as a larger amount of water is impounded during the night. This regulated diversion of water in the lower Welland River creates a pattern of regular diurnal fluctuation in water levels that extends approximately 60 km upstream of the diversion. The Welland River now discharges to the Lower Niagara River via the tailraces of the power plants at Queenston. This water flow alteration has resulted in impacts to the existing fish populations and their habitat. PAC History Input from the Public Advisory Committee (PAC) guided the development of the Stage 1 and Stage 2 reports. The PAC then became incorporated as the Niagara River Restoration Council 12 to implement some of the Recommendations. Since then, the Council has been active in building stream buffers 13 , as well as removing or remediating barriers to fish migration in streams within the AOC. 14 (See Appendix 3 – for the members of the PAC) What Do They Mean? Goals = Community derived milestones Delisting Criteria = Performance targets which define the desired future state of the environment in AOCs, serving as targets for environmental response to clean-up activities. To be effective, these criteria need to be measurable, achievable, and scientifically defensible. Delisting criteria are defined by the RAP and agreed upon by RAP agencies and the public. Recommendations = Actions to be accomplished to achieve performance targets Implementation Activities = Compiled into a work plan 7 Niagara Peninsula Conservation Authority. November 1999. Welland River Watershed Strategy. 11 Philips Engineering Ltd. November 2003. Draft Final Report. Welland River Water Level Fluctuation Study. 12 13 Niagara Restoration Council. March 2005. Niagara River Building Stream Buffers for Niagara’s Rivers Project. 2004-2005 FINAL REPORT. 14 Niagara Restoration Council. December 2004. Niagara River AOC Fish Barriers Project 2004. 5

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