3 years ago




126 RADE JELENKOVIĆ & BLAŽO BOEV Fig. 3. A: Simplified geologic cross-section of the Alšar Sb–As–Tl deposit showing palaeosurfaces for different periods (5 Ma and 1 Ma), positions of the ore bodies and potentially mineralized rocks in the As–Tl mine (Crven dol) and the Sb–As–Tl mine (Central) locations. B: Characteristic geological cross-section at Crven dol (adit 823 m) and C: Characteristic geological cross-section at the Central part (adit 823 m) showing the positions of the identified ore bodies and the vertical intervals of ore mineralization verified in underground workings. 5. The average depth of erosion over the As–Tl ore bodies (Crven Dol) in the northern Alšar deposit was calculated to be 36 m for a period of million years (Fig. 3). The average depth of erosion in the Central area of the Sb–As–Tl ore bodies, where the old mine workings are located, was 54 m. Since the deposition of the minerals is associated with a period 4.31 ± 0.02 Ma and was concomitant with the onset of intensive hydrothermal alteration of the rocks surrounding the ore bodies, the average thickness of the eroded overlying rock complex should be ≈150–230 m. 6. The upper contour of the ore bodies in Crven dol, northern Alšar, is ≈10 m below the land surface. The mean depth of the ore bodies in the Central area is ≈50 m at present. In view of the abovementioned thickness of the overlying eroded rocks, the palaeodepth of the Sb–As–Tl ore-body formation in the Alšar deposit varied from 165 m to 380 m. 7. Vertical interval of the Alšar ore minerals was found by geological prospecting and excavations to be ≈80 m thick (depth interval 760–840 m) in Crven dol and ≈75 m (depth interval 775–850 m) in the Central area. The palaeointerval of their formation varied from 200 m to 430 m, or was ≈230 m. This value agrees with the vertical mineralization interval of most of the low- to medium-temperature hydrothermal mineral deposits, the duration of which is associated with young volcanogenic-intrusive complexes of calc-alkali magma (interval 200–300 m in length). 8. The position of a potentially mineral-bearing interval to be searched geologically is located at depths from 10 m to 280 m from the ground surface (Fig. 3). Conclusions The presented data may lead to the conclusion that the method of quantitative geomorphological analysis gives reliable information on the level and velocity of erosion used in preliminary and detailed prospecting

Vertical mineralization interval and forecast of the position of an ore-body in the Alšar Sb–As–Tl deposit, FYR Macedonia 127 for mineral resources, and for their geological exploration. Compared to the methods of the erosion level and velocity study by measurement of stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides, GMA has many advantages, such as comparatively simple application, fast operation and low cost. The limitations of quantitative geomorphological analysis are many compared to other methods for the determination of the velocity and level of land erosion. Unlike other methods that give fairly reliable information on the erosion levels for geographically well-defined sampling microlocations, the GMA data are approximations, interpretations of the statistically processed information drawn on corresponding maps. For this reason, the level of erosion determined by GMA for accurately defined geographical locations mainly differs from the actual erosion values. Another group of limitations is related to the personal attitude of the researcher using GMA, or the subjective approach to the interpretation of the geologic evolution of the region. Additional factors affecting the accuracy of the calculation the level and velocity of erosion by GMA are: the scales of the geological and topographical maps used, the surface areas of the individual blocks from which data were collected for calculation of the erosion level and the calculation time interval. The quantity of the calculation error increases with increasing scale of the maps employed and the period for which the erosion is determined. For the scales of the maps used and the time interval for which the erosion level was determined, the mean calculation error empirically determined for the Alšar deposit area was ±25 %. The palaeodepth of the ore body formation was accordingly defined as an interval ≈120–350 m below the ground surface. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the reviewer VESE- LIN KOVACHEV (University of Sofia) for his constructive comments on the manuscript and an anonymous reviewer for the critical comments and helpful suggestions. The work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Projects Nos. 176016 and 176019) and FWF der Wissenschaftsfonds, Austria, Project P20594-N16. Our gratitude is due to MIODRAG PAVIĆEVIĆ (University of Salzburg) who gave us his assistance in processing the results of the research under the LOREX Project and for the laboratory analyses of the stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides. References BALIĆ-ŽUNIĆ, T., STAFILOV, T. & TIBLJAS, D. 1993. Distribution of thallium and the genesis at Crven dol locality in Alšar. Geologica Macedonica, 7 (1): 45–52. BERAN, A., GOTZINGER, M. & RIECK, B. 1994. A Fluid Inclusion study of Realgar from Allchar deposit, FYR Macedonia. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, 167 (2/3): 345–348. BOEV, B. 1988. Petrological, geochemical and volcanic features of volcanic rocks of the Kožuf Mountain. Unpublished PhD dissertation, 195 pp., Faculty of Mining and Geology, Štip (in Macedonian). BURCHFIEL, B.C., NAKOV, R., DUMURDZANOV, N., PAPANI- KOLAOU, D., TZANKOV, T., SERAFIMOVSKI, T., KING, R.W., KOTZEV, V., TODOSOV, A. & NURCE, B. 2008. Evolution and dynamics of the Cenozoic tectonics of the South Balkan extensional system. Geosphere, 4 (6): 919–938. DIMANATOPULOS, A. 2006. Plio–Quaternary Geometry and Kinematics of Ptolemais Basin (Northern Greece): Implications for the Intra-Plate Tectonics in western Macedonia. Geologia Croatica, 59/1: 85–96. DUMURDZANOV, N., SERAFIMOVSKI, T. & BURCHFIEL, C. 2005. Cenozoic tectonics of Macedonia and its relation to the South Balkan extensional regime. Geosphere, 1 (1): 1–22. FRANTZ, E., PALME, H., TODT, W., EL GORESY, A. & PAVI- ĆEVIĆ, M. 1994. Geochemistry of Tl–As minerals and host rocks at Allchar (FYR Macedonia). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, 167 (2/3): 359–399. FREEDMAN, M.S., STEVENS, C., HORWITZ, P., FUCHS, L., LERNER, L., GOODMAN L., CHILDS W. & HESSLER J. 1976. Solar Neutrinos: Proposal for a New Test. Science, 193 (4258): 1117–1119. IVANOV, T. 1965. Zonal distribution of elements and minerals in the deposit Alshar. Symposium Problems of Postagmatic Ore Deposition, In: ŠTEMPROK, M. & RIEDER, M. (eds.), II, 186–191, Prague (in Russian). IVANOV, T. 1986. Allchar the richest ore deposit of Tl in the world. In: NOLTE, E. (ed.), GSI-report 86–9: 9. Darmstadt. JANKOVIĆ, S. 1960. Allgemeine Charakteristika der Antimonit Erzlagerstätten Jugoslawiens. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, 94: 506–538. JANKOVIĆ, S. 1993. Metallogenic features of the Alshar epithermal Sb–As–Tl deposit (the Serbo–Macedonian Metallogenic Province). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, 166 (1): 25–41. JANKOVIĆ, S. & JELENKOVIĆ, R. 1994. Thallium mineralization in the Allchar Sb–As–Tl–Au deposit. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, 167 (2/3): 283–297. JANKOVIĆ, S., BOEV, B. & SERAFIMOVSKI T. 1997. Magmatism and Tertiary Mineralization of the Kozuf Metallogenic district with Particular Reference to the Alšar District. 262 pp. Monograph, Special Issue No. 5, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Štip. JELENKOVIĆ, R. & PAVIĆEVIĆ, M.K. 1994. Erosion investigation of Allchar district based on the applied geomorphological and structuro-geological methods. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, 167 (2/3): 299–309. KARAMATA, S., PAVIĆEVIĆ, M.K., KORIKOVSKIJ, S.K., BO- RONIHIN, V.A. &. AMTHAUER, G. 1994. Petrology and mineralogy of Neogene volcanic rocks from the Allchar

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