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Kњига LXXII

Kњига LXXII

134 ZORAN STEVANOVIĆ et

134 ZORAN STEVANOVIĆ et al. Fig. 2. Hydrogeological sketch map of eastern Serbia and main groundwater sources (based on Hydrogeological digital map of Serbia, Stevanovic & Jemcov 1995). Cretaceous (Albian). Throughout this period, thick deposits, primarily of carbonate rocks, were formed to a total thickness of about 1300 metres. Carbonate rocks are characterized by the non-uniformity of the facies with prevalent limestone but also by ”impure” varieties in lower sections, such as sandy limestones of the Dogger, or Oxfordian-Kimeridgian chert limestones. The carbonate complex was formed mostly

Prospects for wider energetic utilization of subgeothermal water resources: eastern Serbia case study 135 during the Tithonian, Valanginian, Hauterivian, Barremian and Aptian and it contains predominantly pure carbonates or magnesium carbonates. The karst aquifer formed in carbonate rocks is rich in groundwater, and is recharged mainly from rainfall and from sinking flows which gravitate from impermeable rocks at higher altitudes. Carbonate rocks are well-karstified and contain very large groundwater reserves (STEVANOVIĆ 1994, 2009). The karstic groundwater is used mostly for drinking purposes or for small industry supply; almost all the cities in the region are consumers. Although the total dynamic reserves in karst often surpass by far the exploitation capacities, most of the tapping structures are constructed simply to tap the natural discharge of the springs and thus depend solely on the natural flow regime. Aiming to overcome this problem, during the last three decades several successful aquifer control projects have been completed (STEVANOVIĆ et al. 2007). Karstic groundwater is extracted in a very small amount for irrigation purposes. In the Timok tectonic trough on the eastern part of Carpathian arch, a volcanogenic-sedimentary series over 2000 meters thick (andesites, pyroclastics, tuffa) was formed during the Senonian and the Paleogene (Fig. 2). Fissured aquifer of this complex contains several important thermal and thermomineral occurrences with the water temperature ranging from 30–40ºC (Brestovačka spa, Gamzigradska spa, Sokobanja, Nikoličevo, Šarbanovac). Clastic sediments, marls, clays, and sands were deposited in a number of the intermountain depressions filled with lake waters during the Neogene (e.g. Žagubica, Bogovina, Sokobanja, Babušnica, Pirot). The sandy water-bearing layers could have an artesian pressure (confined aquifers) and are tapped in several locations (e.g. Negotin, Zaječar). Most recent are alluvial sediments which follow major streams in the region (Nišava, Timok, Resava etc.) and are used mostly to supply local villages. The exception is Niš where a large amount of alluvial water is tapped (Mediana source) for Niš itself, the third largest city in the country. are primarily used for low-temperature heating systems, with the temperature of the secondary carrier up to 45°C. In high temperature heating systems, the temperature of the secondary carrier must be even higher than 60°C. With an appropriate refrigerant, a two stage heat pump with a flash vessel could be used for high temperature heating systems. But it is difficult to find a refrigerant which allows the exploitation of the temperature of geothermal water by cooling it to 10° C and at the same time reach a high temperature in the condenser of the second stage in the heat pump (GORIČANEC et al. 2009). This problem has initiated research for a two stage heat pump with a heat transmitter (heat exchanger), schematically shown in Figure 3. The heat pump in fact consists of the two single stage heat pumps which are connected by a heat transmitter. The advantage of such a cascade heat pump is that, according to their physical-chemical characteristics, different refrigerants can be used at each stage. In choosing the refrigerant considerable attention must be paid to its physical-chemical characteristics, ecological acceptability, and use of recognized brands. Utilizing geothermics by cascade heat pump - Discussion For heating purposes three basic types of heat pumps are used (GORIČANEC et al. 2008): – a single stage heat pump, – a two stage heat pump with a flash vessel, – a two stage heat pump with a heat transmitter. Using a single stage heat pump for heating buildings, the temperature of the secondary carrier can reach 55°C maximum, which is quite a bit too low for the heating of buildings with a “classical” radiator heating system. Therefore, single stage heat pumps Fig. 3. Scheme of two stage heat pump with a heat transmitter (Goričanec et al. 2009) The heat transmitter between the two stages represents a condenser for the first stage and an evaporator

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