Gigabit Ethernet - Ideal Industries

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Gigabit Ethernet - Ideal Industries

© 2004 IDEAL INDUSTRIES, INC.

Gigabit Ethernet Analyzer

Handheld Testing

John McDermott

Product Manager

Trend Communications


Gigabit Ethernet

Agenda

About the Ideal Gigabit Ethernet Analyser - a brief introduction

Who is the customer?

Why do testing?

Overview of Ethernet and Packet transmission

Ethernet in the Wide Area Network

Gigabit Ethernet Analyser - feature summary

Test requirements - RFC2544

Gigabit Ethernet Analyser - demo

Installation and maintenance testing

Competition

2


Gigabit Ethernet

Analyzer introduction

Handheld analyzer for Installation &

Maintenance of Gigabit Ethernet

networks

Verification of fibre optics, IP routing, and

network Performance

From a simple Ping to full RFC2544 -

all the information you need

Easy to use for the non-expert, and

detailed enough for expert investigations

3


Gigabit Ethernet

Test Features

Two Gigabit interfaces for comprehensive testing/analysis

Line rate traffic generation and statistics, plus protocol support

RJ45 interface for legacy testing of 10/100M, and 1000M cable test

GigE port A

GigE port B

10bT/100bT Ethernet testing

Off-board Protocol Decoding

10/100/1000 Physical copper testing

4


Gigabit Ethernet

Who is the Customer?

Campus LAN support engineers

Metro network installers / maintainers

Large company / Government WAN users

Telco / Dataco installation depts.

High Speed - High reliability - High value networks

Downtime costs so Plan to Prevent

Budget for test equipment purchase

Equipment developers

Improved productivity with individual equipment

Less conflict for and better utilisation of high cost analyzers

5


Gigabit Ethernet

Typical applications

1. High speed workstations,

e.g. medical graphics

2. LAN connection of hubs to high speed servers

3. LAN inter-connection on the campus (


Gigabit Ethernet

What is Ethernet?

Data packet transmission

Unique source and destination addresses on every packet

Packet transmission only when there is data

Originally a shared medium for all devices on LAN (coax)

UTP or Fibre for each device now common

No error correction

No bandwidth management

No management functions

Re-transmission due to errors is a higher layer function

7


Gigabit Ethernet

Media structure

LLC - Logical Link Control

MAC - Media Access Control

MII - Media Independent Interface

PCS - Physical Code Sublayer

PMA - Physical Medium Attachment

MDI - Media Dependent Interface

8


Gigabit Ethernet

Frame format

9


Gigabit Ethernet

Principle of CSMA/CD

Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection

1. E.g. Three devices share a LAN

2. Packet is transmitted and propagates in both

directions

3. Packet sent from a 2nd device

4. Collision occurs at 2nd device receiver

5 Packets continue and device 1 receives OK

6. Device 2 transmits JAM signal to indicate collision

7. All devices receive JAM signal and stop transmission

for a random time

Method allows many devices to share bandwidth

reliably. Protocol must support re-transmission of

errored data. As utilisation increases so does chance of

collision (and buffer overflow), typically 40% utilisation is

reliable.

CSMA/CD is NOT used on full duplex (RJ45 and

Gigabit) !

10


Gigabit Ethernet

Ethernet Hubs

The Hub is the media. Each device has a dedicated UTP connection.

MAC address learning and bridging function limits unnecessary traffic at each port.

Full duplex link operation is possible. Server connection and Hub bandwidth limits data rate.

11


Gigabit Ethernet

10 / 100 / 1000 Mbit key differences

Standard Version Media type FDX Coding MFS Distance

10GBASE-SR Two 8-10 µm SMF, 850nm Yes 64B/66B N/A 300m

10GBASE-ER Two 8-10 µm SMF 1550nm Yes 64B/66B N/A 40Km

10GBASE-LR Two 8-10 µm SMF 1310nm Yes 64B/66B N/A 10Km

IEEE

802.3ae

XGMII

IEEE 802.3z/ ab

(clauses 34- 42)

GMII

IEEE 802. 3u

(clauses 21-

29)

MII

IEEE 802. 3a- t

(clauses1- 20)

AUI

10GBASE-LW Two 8-10 µm SMF 1310nm Yes 64B/66B N/A 10Km

1000Base-ZX Two 8-10 µm SMF 1310nm Yes 8B/10B 520 80Km

1000Base-LX Two 8-10 µm SMF1310nm Yes 8B/10B 520 5Km

1000Base-LX Two 50 µm SMF Yes 8B/10B 520 550/2000m

1000Base-LX Two 62.5 µm MMF 1310nm Yes 8B/10B 520 550/1000m

1000Base-SX Two 50 µm SMF 850nm Yes 8B/10B 520 500/750m

1000Base-SX Two 62.5 µm MMF 850nm Yes 8B/10B 520 220/400m

1000Base-CX Two pairs 150 Ohm STP (twinax) cabling Yes 8B/10B 520 25m

1000Base-T Four pair UTP 5 (or better) cabling Yes 4D-PAM5 416 100m

100Base-Fx Two optical 50 µm SMF Yes 4B/5B 64 40Km

100Base-Fx Two optical 62.5 µm MMF Yes 4B/5B 64 2Km

100Base-Tx Two pairs of STP cables Yes 4B/5B 64 200 m

100Base-Tx Two pairs of UTP 5 (or better) Yes 4B/5B 64 100m

100Base-T4 Four pairs of UTP 3 (or better) No 8B/6T 64 100m

100Base T2 Two pairs of UTP 3 (or better) Yes PAM5x5 64 100m

10Base-FB Two optical 62.5 µm MMF sync hub No Manchester 64 2000m

10Base-FP Two optical 62.5 µm MMF passive hub No Manchester 64 1000m

10Base-FL Two optical 62.5 µm MMF asyn hub Yes Manchester 64 2000m

10Base-T Two pairs of UTP 3 (or better) Yes Manchester 64 100m

10Broad36 One 75 Ohm coaxial (CATV) No Manchester 64 3600m

10Base2 One 50 Ohm thin coaxial cable No Manchester 64 185m

10Base5 One 50 Ohm thick coaxial cable No Manchester 64 500m

FDX = Full Duplex (or half duplex)

MFS = Minimum Frame Size

12


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet in the WAN

Why are high speed connections necessary?

DSL broadband connections have raised expectations

Users expect fast response regardless of distance

Remote offices want to have seamless access to corporate LAN

Disk servers are off-site for security / backup

Applications generate large amounts of data, e.g. graphics, video

13


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet in the WAN

1. Metro dark fibre

Low cost service

2. Point to point, packet connection

Bandwidth leasing, reliability & maintenance service

3. Point to multi-point, switched Ethernet/VLAN/VPN/IP

Bandwidth leasing, reliability & maintenance service

14


Gigabit Ethernet

Why do testing?

Prove that fibre optic cable is OK

Prove that copper cabling is OK

Prove that network connection is made

Prove that packet transmission occurs

Prove that bandwidth reservation is correct

Prove that network addressing is correct

Prove that network connectivity is correct

Ensure Network Installation is 100% correct

and Service Operation is reliable

15


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet Key Features

Gigabit Ethernet Analyser

Lightweight and Handheld

Immediate Go / No Go test results

Excellent colour GUI

Fantastic PDA features

- email, diary, address book

16


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Key Features

Intuitive operation

based on Go / No Go test configurations

Easy, Fast, Reliable

Minimal training

One Button test mode

User defined thresholds for

test Pass/Fail indication

Test scripts to automate procedure, with

pre-defined thresholds and detailed results

Large PDA memory for Config and Results

17


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Key Features

Dual port for plug-in SFP GBIC modules

- SX, LX, ZX, 1000bT

Endpoint, Monitor and Through modes

Single port testing, and dual port monitoring

Built in RJ45 10/100bT and 1000bT Cable Test

18


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Key Features

Optical power meter and Link indication

Auto-negotiation setup and report

Line rate Bit Error Rate Test

- proves physical link reliability

Ethernet Layer Statistics

- comprehensive data saved with every test

Traffic Generator with rate profile editor

- constant, burst, ramp, 100% line rate

19


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Key Features

IP Ping and Trace Route

- with DNS and DHCP support

RFC2544 Traffic test

Objective QoS measurement of:

Throughput, Latency,

Frame Loss, Bursting Capability,

System recovery

Top Ten traffic list

- MAC, VLAN, IP address

- Talker or Listener

- Filter to 10/100 port for Protocol Decode

20


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Key Features

Ethernet layer statistics include...

Frame statistics


Gigabit Ethernet

Testing - RFC2544

RFC2544

Benchmarking Methodology for

Network Interconnect Devices

Device (and Network) performance analysis and stress testing

Measurements done using increasing packet size

Frame length: 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, 1518 bytes for each test

Throughput, Latency, Frame Loss, Back to back frames, System recovery

Each test is repeated and averaged, total procedure duration can be many

hours. Select specific tests and parameters to reduce test duration.

22


Gigabit Ethernet

Testing - RFC2544

RFC2544

Test progress indication

Current test, percent complete

Elapsed time and estimated min/max

time

23


Gigabit Ethernet

Testing - RFC2544

RFC2544

Throughput

For each frame size discover the maximum data rate at which no frame

loss occurs for a specified period (of 60 seconds).

Latency

For each frame size transmit at the maximum (not line) data rate for a period

of at least 60 seconds, and then measure the round trip delay using

marked packets. Repeat at least 20 times, and average the result.

24


Gigabit Ethernet

Testing - RFC2544

RFC2544

Frame Loss

For each frame size transmit packets at 100% line rate for a specified period

(of 60 seconds), and measure the % of lost frames. Reduce the data rate

by 10% and repeat measurement. Continue repeating with 10% reduction in

data rate until two successive trials have no lost frames.

Back to back frames

For each frame size send a burst of frames with the minimum inter-burst

gap. Increase or decrease the frame count to discover the burst length that

is supported with no frame loss. Repeat test (50 times) and average the

result.

25


Gigabit Ethernet

Testing - RFC2544

RFC2544

System Recovery

For each frame size transmit packets at 110% of the known throughput

rate for a specified period (of 60 seconds), reduce the data rate by 50% of

the above rate and record the period at which frame loss ceases to occur.

Repeat test (10 times) and average the result.

Comments

Short (64 byte) frames require more network resource to process

Long (1518 or max PSU) frames require more buffer memory to process

26


Gigabit Ethernet

Demonstration

27


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet testing

Cable test for dark fibre

- to check fibre reliability before equipment is connected

Bit Error Rate Testing (BERT) to check that fibre operate error free

Optical power meter to check that fibre loss is OK.

28


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet testing

Device test (e.g. router)

- of configuration and performance before installation

Optical power meter to check that ports are enabled.

IP Ping (with IPCP/DHCP if necessary) to check port configuration

Traffic test to check throughput (frame loss test)

RFC2544 to validate performance

29


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet testing

Installation test for Link (e.g. to edge router)

- to prove connection is working before customer handover

Optical power meter to check that fibre far end is connected and is reliable.

IP Ping (with IPCP/DHCP if necessary) to check port configuration

Traffic test to check throughput (frame loss test)

Ethernet layer statistics to check for errors etc

VLAN support if necessary

2nd unit can provide packet loopback fiunction

30


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet testing

Installation test for Link (from network to customer)

- to prove connection is working before customer handover

IP Ping (with IPCP/DHCP if necessary) to check port configuration

Traffic test to check throughput (frame loss test)

Ethernet layer statistics to check for errors etc

VLAN support if necessary

Test can be done on an in-service network with connection to spare port on

router

31


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet testing

Network testing

- to prove complete service installation

IP Ping / Trace Route (with IPCP/DDHCP/DNS) to verify service operation

Top ten talker list to check network activity

Ethernet layer statistics to check for errors etc

VLAN support if necessary

32


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet testing

Network monitoring

- of in-service link, passive connection

Top ten talker list to check network activity

Ethernet layer statistics to check for errors etc

VLAN support if necessary

Protocol decode for utilisation and performance analysis (via 10/100bT)

33


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet testing

Network monitoring

- of in-service link, active connection

IP Ping / Trace Route to verify link operation

Top ten talker list to check network activity

Ethernet layer statistics to check for errors etc

VLAN support if necessary

Protocol decode for utilisation and performance analysis (via 10/100bT)

34


Gigabit Ethernet

Summary - features and benefits

Low cost, handheld

PDA for user interface

Optical power meter and

line rate BERT

Traffic Generator

Built in RJ45 port

Wide range of tests

Deploy to many sites for portable use

Top quality software, workflow functions -

email, diary, address

Quick proof that cable is OK

Proof that bandwidth meets SLA

One tester includes 10/100M Ethernet/IP

testing, and cable test for 1000M

Easy for fast installation

Detailed for fault investigation

Test at all protocol layers

35


Gigabit Ethernet

Competition - Acterna FST2802

4 times bigger, 2 times weight

No power meter

No BERT

No IP Ping/Trace route

No protocol decode

No top talker lists

Battery life lower?

Higher list price ($10K), but

aggressive discounts possible

36


Gigabit Ethernet

Competition - Sunrise MTT

Similar size and weight

Separate modules for 10/100 and

GigE.

Text menus more difficult to use

No RFC2544

No power meter (another module)

No protocol decode

No top talker lists

Higher list price ($10K), but

aggressive discounts possible

37


Gigabit Ethernet

Competition - Fluke and Agilent

Fluke Optiview and Onetouch

Agilent Framescope

LAN configuration and analysis

Limited GigE capability

38


Gigabit Ethernet

Aurora Tango test module

Low cost tester for Installation / Maintenance of Gigabit networks

Verification of fibre cables, IP routing, and network Performance

From a simple Ping to full RFC2544 - all the information you need

GigE port A

GigE port B

10bT/100bT Ethernet testing

Off-board Protocol Decoding

10/100/1000 Physical copper testing

39


© 2004 IDEAL INDUSTRIES, INC.

Gigabit Ethernet Analyzer

Handheld Testing

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