Southern Cross University Study - Kangoo Jumps

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Southern Cross University Study - Kangoo Jumps

UNIVERSITY STUDY

REDUCING GROUND IMPACT FORCES DURING JOGGING :

AN EVALUATION OF SHOES WITH SPRINGS.

Robert U. Newton, Brendan J. Humphries, & I. Barry Ward

Center for Exercise Science and Sport Management

Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia.

Running Head

Shoes with springs

Date of Submission

October 30, 1995

Corresponding Author

Robert Newton

Centre for Exercise Science and Sport Management

Southern Cross University

PO Box 157,

Lismore NSW 2480, Australia

Telephone Int + 61 66 203 234

Facsimile Int + 61 66 203 880

Email RNEWTON@SCU.EDU.AU

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ABSTRACT

Impact forces experienced during running have been recognised as a

source of injury Kangoo Jumps are a revolution in shoe design which includes a

spring attached to the sole of the shoe. The aim of this study was to investigate

the effects of wearing Kangoo Jumps on the vertical ground reaction forces

produced during the support phase of jogging. Seventeen male and seventeen

female subject participated in the study. Each completed three trials jogging over

a force plate wearing his or her normal training shoes and three trials wearing the

Kangoo

Jumps. Vertical ground reaction force was measured at 750Hz and normalised to

the subject’s Body weight. MANOVA with repeated measures followed by

univariate ANOVA tests were used to determine the effects of the shoe type. A

criterion alpha lever of p ≤ 0.01 was used There was a significant multivariate

effect of shoe type and subsequent univariate analysis revealed that the mean

force and 50 ms impact decreased 5.4 ± 9.3 % and 46.9 ± 14.8 %respectively.

The total impulse, time to peak force, and contact time increased 16.5 ± 7.5

%.24.2 ± 12.5 % and 49.9 ± 24.8 % respectively. Peak force was not significantly

different between the conditions. It was concludes that the Kangoo Jumps

significantly reduced the impact forces experienced while jogging. Wearing such

shoes may have application for the recreational jogger, cross training for

competitive athletes, or as a rehabilitiation modality for patients with lower limb

injuries.

Key words:

Shoe design, shock absorption, rehabilitation, Kangoo Jumps

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INTRODUCTION

The current strategies adopted for sport shoe constrution are to limit ground

reaction forces associated with repetitive landings ( McNeill-Alexander, 1987 ;

Nigg & Segesser, 1992) and optimise energy return (Nigg & Segesser, 1992).

Under normal circumstances of running, jumping and bounding, the elastic

compliance of a sports shoe and the internal structures of the foot, such as the

arch and supporting tendons, reduce impact forces but provide only 40 to 65%

energy return (Mc Neill-Alexander, 1987). Typically, the average runner impacts

the ground at 2-4 times their own bodyweight with the initial impact producing

damaging effects on the internal tissues and skeletal structures (Nigg, Denoth &

Neukomm, 1981).

Invertigations with regards to impact forces have reported that between 27%

to 70%

Of runners or joggers are injured in first year after commencement of running as a

result of external forces (clement et al., 1981). Other studies have also shown that

between 21% and 50% of tennis players are injured per season (Kuhlund et al.,

1979) as a result of excessive forces. Additionally, research involving the military

found an increased frequency of overuse injuries for soldiers in relation to the low

absorbancy in the hell pad of standard issue army boots (Joergensen & Hansen,

1989).

Typically, when running, bounding or jumping, the musculature and joint

mechanism involved in the landing process dampen the impact forces placed on

the body. However, it has been reported that the neuromuscular system has a

limited reaction time response, between 50 to 75 ms, to forces applied to the body

(Nigg, Denoth & Neukomm, 19781; Devita & Skelly, 1992). When a force is

applied to the musculature prior to the response of the neuromuscular system, the

muscles involved are unable to absorb the shock of landing. This initial sharp

peak in the ground impact force has possible implications for injuries to the lower

limbs related to

Landings (Munro, Miller & Fuglevand, 1987; Ricard & Veatch, 1990). Possible

injuries occurring as a result of impact landings include cartilage degeneration

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(Radin, et al., 1973), fatigue fractures, shin splints (Andreasson & Peterson, 1986)

and achilles tendon problems (Joergensen, 1985).

The initial impact forces that occur within this 50 ms time frame of landing

are referred to as passive impact forces (Ricard & Veatch, 1990). It is these

passive impact forces that have been speculated to resut in injuries to the

musculature and skeletal systems (Ricard & Veatch, 1990). The impact forces that

the body sustains from landing appear to be influenced by the inter-relationship

between several mechanical parameters. The height of the stride, jump of bound

(Stacoff, Kaelin & Stuessi, 1988; Dufek & Bates, 1990) determines the

Velocity at impact (Valiant & Cavanagh, 1983; Munro, Miller & Fuglevand, 1987;

McNitt-Gray, 1991; Devita & Skelly, 1992) and therefore the loading applied to the

body (Frederick & Hagy, 1986; Scott & Winter, 1990). Subsequently it is the

momentum attained prior to ground contact that influences the impact loads upon

landing (McNitt-Gray, 1991). Landing technique (Frederick & Hagy, 1986; Scott &

Winter, 1990; Steele, 1990) and landing surface (McNeill-Alexander, 1987) have

been shown to effect the impact forces by changing the time period over which the

negative work of absorbing the downwards momentum is reversed to the positive

work leading to toe off. Any device which could attenuate the impact forces

associated with foot strike bears investigation for its possible use for reducing

injury risk during recreational activities and also rehabilitation from injury.

Recently, there has been a fun and fitness shoe developed, the Kangoo

Jumps shoe (Figure 1), that would appear to attenuate the damaging effects of

high impact forces. The shoe is constructed in a similar fashion to that of an inline

roller skate with the exception of wheels and bearings. Under the shoe is an

eliptical arch stretching from the toe to the heel of

The shoe that is bisected with a removeable band. At each depression of the arch

the band absorbs the energy and returns it in the form of positive work. The

design of these shoes is quite revolutionary and as such the implications for use in

training and rehabilitation need to be investigated. Injury to the lower extremities

an back as a result of chronic exercise involving ground impact is prevalent in a

wide rage of sports and recreational activities. Further, rehabilitation from injury

aims to improve muscle function, coordination, and cardiovascular fitness without

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impeding recovery or exacerbating the injury. The problem is to provide ground

based exercise while maintaining a low impact environment.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wearing

the Kangoo Jumps on the ground impact forces associated with jogging. Particular

attention was focused on the initial impact impulse and impact spike which have

been shown to be associated with injury.

METHODS

Subjects

Seventeen healthy males and seventeen healthy females volunteered to

take part in the study. The subjects were all undergraduate students and none

reported any significant musculoskeletal disorder. The Subject’s mean (±SD) age,

height and weight were 22.6 ± 6.6 yrs 1.73 ± 0.10 m and 70.7 ± 9.2 kg

respectively. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Southern

Cross University, and all subjects signed an informed consent document prior to

the commencement of testing.

Testing Procedures

The subject’s age, height, weight, and shoe size were recorded. The subject

was then instructed to run at his or her normal jogging speed over the force plate

while trying to ignore the force plate, that is, without attempting to target the plate.

All subjects began their approach from a minimum of 10 m from the force plate

and continued to jog for 10 m past the force plate. This was to ensure a

consistent gait pattern when crossing the plate. If the subject missed the plate or

the foot contacted the edges of the plate, the starting position was moved back by

the distance that the foot missed the centre of the plate and the trial was repeated.

Each subject completed three trials wearing the Kangoo Jumps and three trials

wearing their normal training shoes. As none of the subjects had worn the Kangoo

Jumps previously each was allowed an unlimited amount of time to familiarize

themselves with jogging in the boots. Not until the subject was comfortable did

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they begin the test trials. The order of the conditions was randomized between

subjects to reduce the possible confounding effects of learning, fatigue of

boredom. During each trial vertical force data from the force plate was collected

and stored for later analysis.

Equipment

Normal Training Shoes. The subjects were instructed to wear his or her

normal training shoes. That is , the shoes they would normally wear when jogging

or playing sport. These shoes will be referred to in the remainder of this paper as

normal training shoes.

Kangoo Jumps. The Kangoo Jumps (Kangoo Jumps, Switzerland) (Figure 1)

consist of a rigid boot similar to that used in a pair of inline skates with a leaf

spring configuration attached to the sole. A plastic band stretches between the

hing points of the leaf springs to provide added stiffness and elastic recoil.

Different band thicknesses are available and were

Selected based on the subject’s body mass and the manufacture’s

recommendations. The heavier the subject, the greater the thickness of band

used.

Force Measurement System. Vertical ground reaction force was measured

by means of a force platform (Type 9287) (Kistler, Switzerland) mounted level with

the surface of an articifial running track. The amplified signals from the charge

amplifiers were passed to a DT01EZ analog to digital card (Data Translation,

Marlboro, MA, USA) in an 80486DX computer running Windows 3.11. The

digitized data were stored on computer disk for later analysis. The force

measurement system was calibrated prior to each testing session. Vertical ground

reaction force was sampled at a frequency of 750 Hz.

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Data Analysis

The force data were normalized by dividing by the subject’s body weight in

Newtons. The following variables were then calculated to assess the impact

characteristics of the foot contact phase. Peak force was measured as the

highest force recorded. Mean force was calculated as the average force over

the entire contact phase. Total impulse was calculated byx integrating the force

time curve for the contact phase. The impact over the initial 50 ms was calculated

by integrating the force time curve over the 50 ms following the start of contact.

The time to reach the peak force was measured from the start of contact to ehen

the highest force was recorded. Contact time was the time that the foot was in

contact with the plate. The mean of the three trials for each variable was then

calculated and used in the statistical analysis.

Statistical Analysis

The results for peak force, mean force, total impulse, 50 ms impact, time to

peak force, and contact time were compared using MANOVA with repeated

measures and univariate ANOVA for follow-up comparisons. The criterion level for

significance was set at p < 0.01.

RESULTS

The MANOVA revealed no significant effect of gender on the dependent

variables so the data was pooled for all subsequent analysis. There was a

significant multivariate effect of shoetype and subsequent univariate analysis

revealed that the mean force and 50 ms impact decreased 5.4 ± 9.3 % and 46.9 ±

14.8 % respectively (Table 1). The total impulse, time to peak force, and contact

time increased 16.5 ± 7.5 %, 24.2 ± 12.5 %, and 49.9 ± 24.8 % respectively (Table

1). There was no significant difference in peak force (Table 1). Figure 2 contains a

graph of the force time data for a representative subject which shows that the

forces exerted during the contact phase increase more gradually and are applied

over a longer time period for the Kangoo Jumps compared to the normal training

shoe.

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Normal Taining Shoes

mean (SD)

Kangoo Jumps

mean (SD)

Difference (%)

mean(SD)

Peak Force (BW) 2.62 (0.21) 2.85 (0.37) 1.07 (1)

Mean Force (BW) 1.74 (0.14) 1.38 (0.12) -5.4 (9.3)

50 ms Impulse (BW.sec) 0.06 (0.012) 0.031 (0.008) -46.9 (14.8)

Total Impulse (BW.sec) 0.385 (0.022) 0.448 (0.032) 16.5 (7.5)

Time to Peak Force 0.103 (0.013) 0.152 (0.019) 24.2 (12.5)

Contact Time 0.265 (0.03) 0.327 (0.032) 49.9 (24.8)

Table 1: Impact forces and force time characteristics foot strike when wearing Kangoo Jumps

vesrus normal training shoes.

* indicates significant difference between normal shoes and the kangoo Jumps at the 0.01 level.

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DISCUSSION

The purpose of this study was to investigate the ground reaction force

characteristics when jogging in a pair of Kangoo Jumps compared to normal

training shoes. The results clearly show that the Kangoo Jumps result in

considerably less impact forces being transferred

To the lower limbs compared to the normal training shoes. In particular, the

impulse over the first 50 ms following initial ground contact was reduced some 47

% which should translate into reduced risk of impact force induced injury as a

result of jogging in the Kangoo Jumps.

Figure 2 clearly shows that the contact phase is lengehened such that the

forces are applied over a longer period of time. The force rises more gradually

after impact and as can be seen for the representative subject, the impact spike is

not observed in the Kangoo Jumps trial. Further, the time to achieve th peak

force is increased. Overall, the impact of foot strike is considerably more gentle

than that resulting from normal training shoes.

The peak force was not significantly different between the two shoes and

this was somewhat unexpected, particularly given that the contact time was

lengthened suggesting that a lower overall force was being produced over greater

time, requiring less magnitude of force. The overall force was lower as indicated

by the lower mean force, however, the total vertical impulse was greater for the

Kangoo Jumps. This indicates that the subjects may have adopted a more

bouncing gait pattern with increased vertical oscillation between strides. Thus, the

greater emphasis on vertical motion may help to explain the fact that the peak

force was not significantly different. The effect of the Kangoo Jumps on normal

gait patterns requires further investigation.

This preliminary study shows promise for the use of Kangoo Jumps for low

impact exercise such as recreational jogging and cross training for athletes. The

uninjured person may be able to continue with a high volume of ground based

activity without the impact injury risk inherent in their usual activity or sport.

Further, there may be application of these shoes in rehabilitating patients with

lower limb injuries. The patients could perform activities similar to normal running,

recovering muscle strength, and maintaining cardiovascular fitness, but in a low

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impact situation. Jogging with Kangoo Jumps may be a good intermediate step in

the

rehabilitation process between non-support work and fully loaded running. Such

training also has the advantages of being functionally similar to a normal gait

pattern.

CONCLUSIONS

The wearing of Kangoo Jumps rather than normal running shoes when

jogging significantly reduces the impact characteristics experienced during foot

contact which have been reported to result in injuries to the lower extremities.

Therefore, the Kangoo Jumps may have application for recreational jogging as

well as providing a safer environment for rehabilitiation of patients with lower

extremity injuries. Further research work is required to assess the changes in gait

pattern that the Kangoo Jumps may produce, energy efficiency of jogging in the

Kangoo Jumps, and the efficacy of using them in the rehabilitiation setting.

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