Matrix: Contemporary Printmaking - Museum of Fine Arts - Florida ...

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Matrix: Contemporary Printmaking - Museum of Fine Arts - Florida ...

MATRIX: CONTEMPORARY PRINTMAKING

OCTOBER 9 - NOVEMBER 22, 2009


Fall 2009

Table of Contents

Introduction:

Letter to Educators……………………………………………………………………. 2

Sunshine State Standards…………………………………………………………… 3

Part 1: Obtaining a General Knowledge of Printmaking

Printmaking Past:

Printmaking Timeline……………………………………………..…… 6

Different Types of Printmaking and How They Work…………..….. 7

Different Uses for Printmaking throughout History…………………. 9

Artist Biographies:

Works from these artists will not be in the exhibition; they are examples of great printmakers

Albrecht Durer………………………………………………………….12

Rembrandt Van Rijn …………………………………………….……13

Francisco Goya…………………………………………………..……14

Katsushika Hokusai………………………………….………………..15

Andy Warhol…………………………………………..……………….17

Part 2: The Museum of Fine Arts Exhibit Information

Part 3: Lesson Plans

Part 4: Helpful Information

How Technology Has Changed Printmaking……………….…..… 20

How Museums Have Embraced Modern Printmaking…..………. 22

Artists’ Biographies………………………………………………….. 23

Pop Art Food……………………………………….…………………. 30

Relief Printing with Styrofoam ………………………...……………. 33

I’m a Little Culturist and Printmaker..……………………...……….. 38

Color, Color Magic Power………………………………………….....42

Roger Shimomura and the Battle Against Racial Discrimination...47

Glossary…………………………………………………………………………….52

Image List…………………………………………………….…………..………… 54

Bibliography……………………………………………………………………… 56

1


Fall 2009

LETTER TO EDUCATORS

Dear Leon County Educators,

The Florida State University Museum of Fine Arts would like to invite you

to attend our upcoming exhibit. The exhibit will be held in the Fall of 2009, and it

will highlight the print collection that the Museum of Fine Arts possesses. It will

also include prints from outside artists.

This packet will focus on the different types of prints, different uses of

prints, and it will also explore the differences between printmaking throughout

history and today. During the exhibit the museum will be offering guided tours and

events to help educators teach their students about the museum and the exhibit.

For tours and group information, contact Viki Thompson Wylder at (850) 644-

1299.

In this packet you will find a wealth of information to help you prepare your

students for a trip to the museum, or simply just spend a day teaching them about

printmaking. The packet includes informational articles, artist biographies, lesson

plans, a glossary of terms, and a list of prints being included in the exhibit. All

images included in this packet are for educational use only.

This packet is in accordance with Florida’s Sunshine State Standards, and

we hope it will be helpful to you in your classroom.

Hannah Dahm

Michele Frederick

Morgan Jones

Cosette Lin

Bethany Bussell

And

Bri Regis

Museum Education Program

Florida State University Museum of Fine Arts

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Fall 2009

SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

Visual Arts

Pre K-2

The student uses two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, techniques, tools, and

processes to depict works of art from personal experiences, observation, or imagination.

The student understands that works of art can communicate an idea and elicit a variety

of responses through the use of selected media, techniques, and processes.

The student knows that specific works of art belong to particular cultures, times, and

places.

3-5

The student knows the effects and functions of using various organizational elements

and principles of design when creating works of art.

The student understands what makes different art media, techniques, and processes

effective or ineffective in communicating various ideas.

The student develops and justifies criteria for the evaluation of visual works of art using

appropriate vocabulary.

6-8

The student creates two-dimensional and three-dimensional works of art that reflect

competency and craftsmanship.

The student knows how the qualities and characteristics of art media, techniques, and

processes can be used to enhance communication of experiences and ideas.

The student understands and uses information from historical and cultural themes,

trends, styles, periods of art, and artists.

9-12

The student uses two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, techniques, tools, and

processes to communicate an idea or concept based on research, environment,

personal experience, observation, or imagination.

The student knows how the elements of art and the principles of design can be used and

solves specific visual art problems at a proficient level.

The student understands critical and aesthetic statements in terms of historical reference

while researching works of art.

Language Arts

Pre k-2

The student uses knowledge and experience to tell about experiences or to write for

familiar occasions, audiences, and purposes.

The student listens for a variety of informational purposes, including curiosity, pleasure,

getting directions, performing tasks, solving problems, and following rules.

The student recognizes that use of more than one medium increases the power to

influence how one thinks and feels.

3-5

The student prepares for writing by recording thoughts, focusing on a central idea,

grouping related ideas, and identifying the purpose for writing.

The student writes notes, comments, and observations that reflect comprehension of

content and experiences from a variety of media.

The student understands that word choices can shape reactions, perception, and beliefs.

3


Fall 2009

6-8

9-12

SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

The student understands how idiomatic expressions have an impact on communication

and reflect culture, by using them correctly in both oral and written form.

The student understands selected economic, political, and social events that have

shaped the target culture and its relationship with the United States across time.

The student selects and uses appropriate prewriting strategies, such as brainstorming,

graphic organizers, and outlines.

The student organizes information using appropriate systems.

The student understands specific ways in which language has shaped the reactions,

perceptions, and beliefs of the local, national, and global communities.

Social Studies

Pre k-2

The student compares everyday life in different places and times and understands that

people, places, and things change over time.

The student understands that history tells the story of people and events of other times

and places.

The student understands the significance and historical contributions of historical figures

during this period (e.g., the journeys of famous explorers).

3-5

The student understands how individuals, ideas, decisions, and events can influence

history.

The student uses a variety of methods and sources to understand history (such as

interpreting diaries, letters, newspapers; and reading maps and graphs) and knows the

difference between primary and secondary sources.

The student understands various aspects of family life, structures, and roles in different

cultures and in many eras (e.g., pastoral and agrarian families of early civilizations,

families of ancient times, and medieval families).

6-8

The student understands how patterns, chronology, sequencing (including cause and

effect), and the identification of historical periods are influenced by frames of reference.

The student knows the relative value of primary and secondary sources and uses this

information to draw conclusions from historical sources such as data in charts, tables,

graphs.

The student understands the impact of significant people and ideas on the development

of values and traditions in the United States.

9-12

The student understands how ideas and beliefs, decisions, and chance events have

been used in the process of writing and interpreting history.

The student identifies and understands themes in history that cross scientific, economic,

and cultural boundaries.

The student understands how social, cultural, economic, and environmental factors

contribute to the dynamic nature of regions.

4


9

Fall 2009

PRINTMAKING PAST:

OBTAINING A GENERAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT PRINTMAKING

Emory Adams

Old-Style Screw Printing Press

Woodblock, 1919

5


Fall 2009

Printmaking TimeLine

105 AD Paper is invented in China.

1380 The earliest known woodcut in

Europe is made: The Bois Protat.

1420-30

Silversmiths

and armorers

begin to

reproduce

decorative

engravings

from metal

plates, making the

first printed

engraving.

1439 Johannes

Gutenberg

produces the first

printing press.

A silversmith carving into a

metal surface to create a

design

1497 The Apocalypse is published by

German artist Albrecht Durer.

The printing press

1513 Possibly the first

etching is produced by Swiss artist Urs

Graf.

1653 Rembrandt

creates the etching

The Three Crosses.

1839 An early photographic process

called daguerreotype in invented by

Louis Jacques Mande Dauguerre.

1852 William Henry Fox Talbot patents

an early version of the photographic

printmaking process.

1880-90 Four-color process printing is

invented.

1896 Aluminum and zinc begin to

replace limestone in the lithographic

process.

1906 Offset lithography is invented in

America. In this process the image is

transferred from a plate, to a rubber

blanket, and then a printing surface.

1960

Automatic

electrostatic

copiers

become widely

available.

1964 Andy

Warhol prints

Brillo Boxes.

Andy Warhol with Brillo

Boxes

1796 German

playwright, Alois

Senefelder, discovers

lithography.

1796-98 Francisco Goya produces the

series of prints Los Caprichos.

Francisco Goya, Los

Caprichos:

Volaverunt, 1796-98,

6


Fall 2009

Different Types of Printmaking

and How They Work

There are many variations in the way prints are produced. Many involve complex,

nocuous, and expensive chemicals. There are also common ways prints can be produced with

everyday materials, such as wood block or even fruit.

The four main categories of printmaking are: relief printing, intaglio, planography, and

stenciling or serigraphy. These four main types have both complex and simple ways in which

they can be accomplished. Each of these categories may have differing methods, but they all

have one main goal, producing multiple copies from one master image.

Relief Printmaking:

This is the oldest type of printmaking,

and includes the invention of movable type. A

very simple, modern example of a relief print

would be the image produced when using a

rubber stamp. Typically throughout history relief

printmaking is produced with a woodcut, but

today anything where the image is raised from

the surface will produce a relief image. In

Japanese woodcuts, multiple blocks would be

produced, allowing for each block to add a

different color to the image. Woodblocks

have been produced by artists such as

Vincent Van Gogh, and many Japanese

printmakers including Hokusai.

To create a woodblock without

having expensive equipment, or toxic

chemicals, a soft piece of wood can be used.

The wood around the image is removed

leaving only the raised edges that are

desired to create the image. Relief images

can also be produced using various fruits and

vegetables. By cutting them open to reveal the

different textures inside, and applying ink, the

varying heights of the fruit’s flesh and seeds

will produce different images. Relief prints can

also be made with

Styrofoam as a

substitution for

wood.

Hokusai

The Great Wave off

Kanagawa woodcut print,

1823-29

Intaglio:

Pronounced in-TAL-yo, this type of

process is also known as etching. These prints

are made using the opposite of relief, by

scratching the image into the plate, typically

made of metal or Plexiglas. This can be done

with a sharp object, or as with etching, with

acids. Ink is then forced into the removed lines,

and the rest of the surface is wiped clean. The

plate is then forced through a press, or held

tightly together with a sheet of paper. The force

then transfers the ink onto the paper creating a

mirror image.

This form of printmaking was used by

famous artists such as Albrecht Durer and

Pablo Picasso. Such printmaking today is used

mainly in the creation of currency.

Albrecht

Durer

Rhinoceros

etching print,

1515

Creating an Intaglio print can be more

difficult than a relief. The process can be

adapted but there is still the need for sharp

tools and a fairly rough, nonporous surface

plate. Etching can be simulated be using a

softer material like Styrofoam, and incising

into it with a pencil, or similar object. Ink

can then be applied onto the surface the

same as with metal or Plexiglas plates.

When transferring the image to paper,

less pressure is applied, to compensate

for the fragile nature of the Styrofoam.

Planography:

Also known as lithography,

printing during this process is transferred

from a flat surface onto another flat surface.

Lithography began with an interest in

controlling chemical printing from stone. Now

lithograph prints can be produced from stone

plates, and from various types of metal plates.

7


Fall 2009

Different Types of Printmaking

and How They Work

The process of creating a lithograph

involves using oil crayons, water, acid and ink.

An image is created on the stone or metal plate

using the oily crayon. Then water is applied to

the plate. The water is repelled from the oil and

when ink is added to the plate, the oil based ink

is repelled from the areas that are wet from the

water, allowing only the drawn lines to soak up

ink and produce a print. In more

advanced forms of lithography

acid is used to prevent the ink

from moving to other parts of the

plate, by creating a stronger

barrier then water.

When attempting to create

a lithograph with color, the

process is very similar to that of

color wood block prints, or relief

printing. Multiple plates are

produced, each one

for a color intended

to be added to the

print. They are

layered onto the

paper.

This form of

printmaking allows

for a large amount

of prints to be

pulled, making it the

more popular

choice for modern

artists, like Eugene

Delacroix, Henri de

Toulouse-Lautrec,

and Edouard Manet.

Lautrec

1895

Henri de Toulouse-

May Milton

color lithograph,

Producing a lithograph without much

expensive equipment is difficult. It is possible

however to demonstrate the basic principles of

lithography with ease. The main principle is the

basic chemistry of oil and water. Using a sturdy

piece of metal, an image can be produced with

an oil crayon; a Crayola crayon will do the trick.

Once the image is drawn, the metal can be

held at an angle, and water poured from the

top down. This will show how the water is

repelled from the waxy image. Using this

method to create a print may take more steps,

but it is possible with the correct ink and

printing paper.

Serigraphy:

Most well known as stenciling, this

method is the most used among students and

non-artists. Stencils can be made from paper,

plastic, fabric, metal, or almost any material.

The design is

removed from the

material, and then

ink is rolled over the

opening to make a

print.

Andy Warhol

Campbell’s Soup Cans

silk screening on

canvas, 1962

This method of printmaking has

existed for many years. Stencils are

used in the fine

arts but also in the commercial arts.

Stenciling has also developed into an

art form that is utilitarian, proving to be

an asset in anything from decorating

walls, to creating unique designs for

T-shirts, known as silk screens.

Andy Warhol is known for having

used stencils and silk screens to complete

his famous representations of Campbell’s

soup cans. Many famous artists used

stencils to help them plan their works, for

example Michelangelo, who used a

stencil to outline his plans for the Sistine

Chapel in Rome. Although these examples

don’t result in prints in the technical sense of

the word, they do assist the artist in making

multiple copies of one image, which is the

essence of the idea of printmaking.

Creating stencil prints is one of the

easiest forms of printmaking to do without a

large amount of equipment. Simply begin with a

material that will block the ink, and not allow it

to permeate onto the print except in the desired

places. This can include cardboard or poster

board, and non-cotton fabrics. Then remove

the image from the material to create the

stencil. At this point the medium in which the

print can be created is very open. Paint, ink, or

a simple pencil can be used.

8


Fall 2009

Different uses for Printmaking

Throughout History

Before there was photography,

computers, the internet or television, our

only means of mass communication was

through printmaking. Prints have a long and

diverse history, beginning long before the

Common Era.

Before Printmaking was Art

In ancient times, as in Ancient

Egypt, Ancient Rome, Babylonia, and

Ancient China, different types of stamps

were made to produce official seals. These

could be considered the first relief prints,

although they were not made to be admired

as art. With the invention of block book

printing, mass produced text came about,

and made communication easier.

The Printing Press

With the invention of the printing

press and movable type in the 1400s,

printing books became quicker and more

efficient than ever before. With the printing

press, books became more affordable and

the literacy rate in Europe grew. With the

invention of the printing press, a canonized

set of books could be produced, which

included the Bible, but

the printing press also

canonized the

production of money

allowing

for

standardized paper

money to be produced.

The printing press

gave scientists a way

to share their

information more

freely, and helped

spread their ideas.

16 th century printing press

The Newspaper

With the invention of the printing

press, it was only a short time until the mass

production of newspapers began. With a

rotary printing press, the plate is curved

around a cylinder, to allow printing on a

continuous sheet of paper. The basic

process is still lithography, but with

adaptations to allow for quicker, more

efficient printing. This type of printing may

not specifically qualify as art, but the mass

communication of news and events brought

communities together. Newspapers are now

a staple in our society, and they are printed

in largely the same manner that they have

been for hundreds of years.

Printing Money

Most individuals

would not consider

money as art, but when

considering that money

is made using the

intaglio process, they

might reconsider. The

process of creating the

plates and

designing the money

for

each country is complex, Uncut sheet of $1

US bills and includes many artists

and designers. The United States currently

produces money with a high-speed press,

similar to that which creates newspapers.

This use of printmaking is an example of the

exact reason why printmaking was invented

and perfected, mass production and

accessibility to the masses.

Printmaking as Art

Printmaking as an art form has been

around almost as long as printmaking for

other purposes. It is in human nature to

create art, and when given a new medium

with which to work, people have always

embraced it. Printmaking for art’s sake is

commonly believed to have begun in the

Far East. Woodcuts appeared as early as

100 A.D. after paper was invented.

Printmaking arrived in Europe in the 1400s

and took the artists there by storm. Artists in

northern Europe became very adept at

creating prints, and carried this tradition

throughout the continent. Many prints were

produced to create awareness regarding a

specific event, or to make an artist’s work

more accessible to the public. Any number

of images were produced including religious

9


Fall 2009

Different uses for Printmaking

Throughout History

images, political images, scientific drawings,

or even humorous images, which we might

consider cartoons today.

Art with a Statement

Francisco Goya

Disasters of War:

It Always Happens

1810-1820

Many

times prints

were produced

to make the

artist’s thoughts

clear. An artist could make a statement

about the current rulers, or war, or the

division between the upper class and lower

class. And producing these images as prints

allowed artists to spread their views quickly.

Francisco Goya completed a series of prints

in which he protested the war going on in

Spain during his time. Honore Daumier

completed prints in which he made

comments about the political unrest in

France during his time. Rembrandt made

prints to represent his religious views. The

ease with which prints could be mass

produced allowed for the free flow of their

political ideas into the public consciousness.

Japanese Printmaking

Printmaking in the Far East has

been a long-standing

tradition. Printmaking in

Japan took on a unique

style of its own, and is one

of the most recognizable

styles in art.

Yoshida Hiroshi

Night Scene After the Rain

1925

Printmaking in

Japan began largely the

same way printmaking

began in Europe, as a

means to reproduce

documents, specifically

religious ones. The technique used was

woodblock printing, which continued into the

modern era. Artists such as Hokusai and

Hiroshi designed multiple blocks, to create

prints with color. As the centuries

progressed, the artists became more skilled,

and were able to include intricate color

details.

Japanese prints had a strong

influence on European prints in the 1800s

and 1900s. When Japan began to increase

trade with Europe in the later nineteenth

century, the style began to show up in

western prints and in the works of the

Impressionists. This was actually mostly

accidental, as Japan was not exporting the

prints specifically, but rather using the prints

to wrap the delicate

porcelain they were

exporting, much in the

way we use old

newspaper to wrap

dishes today. This

coincidence created one

of the strongest

influences of outside art

on the Impressionists,

including Manet, Monet,

Cassatt, and Renoir.

Mary Cassatt

The Bath

1891

Modern Printmaking

Printmaking today takes on many

forms and covers a wide variety of

purposes. With the advancement of

digital images, traditional printmaking

has become almost strictly an art

form, rather than a form for mass

communication. Many modern fine

artists use printmaking to develop

works. Screen-printing, which only

developed recently, is widely used as

a commercial printmaking process

today. Technology has advanced

enough that printmaking can still be

used, but the process can require

little or no human involvement, as is

the case with printed newspapers,

and printing money.

10


9

Fall 2009

ARTISTS’ BIOGRAPHIES:

A SELECT HISTORY OF PRINTMAKING

Israhel van

Meckenem

The Artist and His Wife, Self-Portrait

Engraving, 1490

This Artist Biographies section provides examples of famous printmakers throughout history.

These artists represent different types of printmaking, different styles, and different uses of

prints overtime. Exposing students to these artists gives them a foundation in printmaking.

The images shown here, and the artists discussed, will not be in the exhibit at the Museum of

Fine Arts. Rather, they provide a background for the exhibit on display which will include more

contemporary works, as well as selections from the permanent collection.

11


Fall 2009

Artists’ Biographies

Albrecht Durer, St. Jerome in

His Study, 1514, etching

Albrecht Durer

Albrecht Durer was one of the most influential

printmakers of his time. His father was a goldsmith, as well as

his godfather, but his godfather left to become a printer and

publisher the year Durer was born, 1471. His godfather became

one of the most successful publishers in Germany and owned

twenty-four printing presses. This probably had an influence on

Durer, sparking his interest in printmaking.

At age fifteen Durer became an apprentice to a local

artist in Nuremburg, Michael Wolgemut. He had a large studio

which produced many woodblock books. This is the studio

where Durer learned how to make woodblock and dry point

prints.

In 1494, at age 23, Durer got married to Agnes Frey, a

daughter of an important brass worker. They had no children

throughout their marriage.

Albrecht Durer, Self-portrait at

28, 1500, oil on panel

In 1494 Durer took his first trip to Venice, Italy to study

more advanced artists. He stayed for a year and went back to

Nuremburg to open his own workshop. Over the next five years

his style began to merge Italian influences with underlying

Northern forms. The first few years at his workshop he

produced mostly woodblocks of religious subjects. He also

trained himself in the difficult task of using the burin to make

engravings. He also became fascinated with proportion. He

actually studied it intensely for the rest of his life. His etching of

Adam and Eve shows his attention to proportion.

In 1505 he returned to Italy to work on painting. By this

time his etchings had gained a tremendous amount of

popularity and were being copied by other artists. In 1507 he

returned to Germany. By this time he was well established and had good relations with

most major artists like Raphael and Titian.

From 1513 to 1514 Durer created his three greatest

achievements in printmaking; Knight, Death, and the Devil,

St. Jerome in His Study, and Melencolia. After that he did

work for Emperor Maximilian.

In his later years, Durer wanted to create a unique

print as a means to celebrate his achievements. Durer made

The Triumphal Arch; to this day this work is still the largest

woodblock print. He used 192 woodblocks to make it.

Around 1520 Durer became a follower of Martin Luther. After

this his work seemed to focus more on religious subjects. He

was still a man of curiosity and wrote four books on human

nature. Sadly the books were published a few months after

his death in 1528. Even today Durer is respected as one of

the greatest printmakers.

Albrecht Durer, Melencolia,

1524, engraving

12


Fall 2009

Artists’ Biographies

Rembrandt, Self-portrait in Cap

with Eyes Wide Open, 1630,

etching

Rembrandt, The Three Crosses, 1653,

dry point and burin

Rembrandt

Rembrandt was born in Leiden, the Netherlands in

1606. He was the ninth child of a well-to-do family. He

was always interested in painting and as a young boy

had an apprenticeship with Jacob van Swanenburgh, a

local history painter, with whom he spent three years.

Around 1624 he opened his own studio in Leiden with a

colleague and friend, Jan Lievens. He produced small

detailed paintings with religious themes. In 1627 he

started to accept students.

Eventually, he wanted a bigger city with more to

offer so he moved to Amsterdam in 1631. Here he

practiced professional portraiture and stayed with an art

dealer who introduced his cousin, Saskia van Uylenburg,

to the artist. Rembrandt married her in 1634. During this

period he made much larger paintings and they were very dramatic and full of

movement. He still painted biblical stories but also some

mythological ones.

In the late 1630s Rembrandt started to make fewer

paintings and more etchings of landscapes. His work seemed

to be less eccentric, most likely because he was in mourning

for three of his children who died in the late 30s. His wife

followed in 1641. His works of her on her death bed are some

of his most personal and moving.

In the late 1640s Rembrandt started a relationship with

his maid, Hendrickje Stoffels. With her he had a little girl but

they never married.

Rembrandt had always been a frivolous man with his

money. He bought up artwork and eventually he went

bankrupt in 1656. He was forced to sell all his possessions

including his printing press. After he was forced to sell his

printing press he never did printmaking again. To help in the

hard times Hendrickje and their only surviving child, Titus,

started an art dealing business and Rembrandt became an

employee. For the rest of Rembrandt’s life he had a steady

flow of commissions but he never regained his financial

stability.

He outlived both Hendrickje and his son and was left

important in Dutch history.

Rembrandt, Landscape, 1640, etching

with his baby daughter. Rembrandt died a few months after

Titus in 1669. He left behind one of the biggest collections

of artwork, including around 400 etchings and over 600

paintings. Still to this day he is considered one of the

greatest European painters and printmakers and the most

13


Fall 2009

Artists’ Biographies

Franciso Goya, Self Portrait,

1792-93, brush and gray

wash on paper

Francisco Goya, Disasters of War:

Gloomy Presentiments of Things to

Come, 1810, aquatint and etching

Francisco Goya

Known as “the last of the old masters, and the first of

the modern artists,” Goya inspired many artists with his

determination and talent. He was born in Fuendetodos, Spain

in 1746 to a family that displayed his mother’s crest. His father,

on the other hand, was a guilder.

At fourteen Goya secured an apprenticeship with Jose

Lujan. Later he moved to Madrid where he studied with Mengs,

a German artist whose work was a pre-curser to neoclassicism.

As his art developed he started to enter

competitions. In 1763 and 1766 he submitted his art to the

Royal Academy of Fine Arts but was rejected. He then traveled

to Rome where he entered a painting competition and won a

prize for his work.

Goya then returned home and started studying with

Francisco Bayeu y Subias, a neo-classical painter who focused on religious subjects.

During this time Goya’s paintings started to develop and he gained his own style. He was

bold with his paintbrush and liked to make bold marks. In 1774 he married Josefa, Bayeu’s

sister. He was made a court painter to Charles the Third in 1786 and stayed in that position

for quite some years.

In 1792 his life took at turn for the worse. After a high fever Goya

was left deaf. He did not let that stop him; in fact he succeeded even

more. In 1799 he was made the first court painter to Charles the Fifth.

On his own time Goya started to make a series of aquatint

etchings about the French Revolution and the philosophy behind it. The

aquatints contain disturbing content. Captions let the viewer know what

they are about. An example of such a caption reads, “The sleep of reason

produces monsters.” The series was published in 1799 under the name

Caprichos.

In 1800-1814 the French invaded Spain in the Peninsular War.

This war sparked inspiration for Goya. He painted The Third of May 1808

and another aquatint etching series named Disasters of War. This series

was very brutal and was not published until 1863 due to the controversial

subject matter.

His wife died in 1812. Goya moved in with his

housekeeper in 1814, with whom he is

thought to have born a child. Toward the

last years of his life he wanted to be

isolated so he moved to a house in

Francisco Goya, Los Caprichos:

The Sleep of Reason Produces

Monsters, 1796-98, aquatint and

etching

Manzanares. The house was named “Quinta del Sordo,”

The House of the Deaf. This is where he made his Black

Paintings, a series of portraits that portray shocking themes.

He made 14 of them and painted directly on the walls with oils. Goya left Spain in 1824 and

moved to Bordeaux and settled in Paris where he died in

1828 at the age of 82.

14


Fall 2009

Artists’ Biographies

Hokusai, Self-portrait as an

Old Man, 1839, woodblock

Hokusai

Hokusai was born in 1760 into an artisan family in Japan.

He was born with the name Tokitaro. His name was changed

many times throughout his life because it was common in Japan

for an artist to change his name. However, his changed

more than usual.

At twelve years old he was sent by his father to work at a

book shop. This is where his interest with printmaking started. At

fourteen he became an apprentice to a wood-carver, where he

worked till he was eighteen. This was good practice for him for

carving his future woodblocks. He was then accepted into the

studio of Katsukawa Shunsho, an artist of ukiyo-e, a style of

woodblock prints and paintings. After a year his first name

changed to Shunro. Under this name he published his first series

of prints in 1779.

Shunsho died in 1793 and

Hokusai began to explore other

styles of art such as European

styles. Soon he was expelled from

his school, for unknown reasons. He said that his

embarrassment inspired him to work harder. He then

became more focused on landscapes. He became

associated with the Tawaraya School and adopted the

name Tawaraya Sori.

In 1798, after producing a large amount of brush

paintings, he gave his name to a pupil. For the first time

he was a free artist, not affiliated with any school. He

adopted the name Hokusai Tomisa.

Hokusai, Mount Fuji in Clear Weather, 1837,

color woodblock

By 1800 he changed his name to the one that he is now known by, Katsushika

Hokusai. He then published two collections of landscapes and began to attract students.

Over the next decade he became increasingly popular. In 1807 he paired with a novelist

to produce images for books. They had artistic differences and had to stop working

together. However, the publisher kept Hokusai on the project because he felt images

were more important than words.

In 1811, at age 51, he changed his name yet again to Taito and created the

Hokusai Manga. The Manga were art manuals that were very popular at the time. He

published 12 volumes. In 1820 he changed his name to Listu; this name marked the

start of the period in which he secured his fame in Japan. During this period he

produced the famous 36 Views of Mount Fuji, which included the Great Wave of

Kanagawa.

15


Fall 2009

Artists’ Biographies

Hokusai, The Great Wave of Kanagawa, 1832,

color woodblock

Then in 1834 tragedy hit. A fire burned down Hokusai’s studio. He was old at this

time and younger artists were starting to over-shadow him but he never stopped making

art.

He died in 1849 and on his death bed he said that he just wanted five more years

so he could produce a few more pieces. After his death his fame grew throughout the

world and he is still thought of as one of the greatest Japanese artists.

16


Fall 2009

Artists’ Biographies

Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol, Self-portrait, 1966,

screen-printing

Andrew Warhol was born in Pittsburgh,

Pennsylvania in 1928. He was the third child of

working class parents, who were immigrants from

Slovakia. He was raised as a strict Catholic. In

third grade he suffered from the disease called St.

Vitus dance, a complication of scarlet fever. This

resulted in long-term effects to his skin coloration

and he became a hypochondriac. He was bedridden

for a lot of his childhood. To occupy time in

bed he collected old pictures of movie stars and put

them up around his bed. He also drew and listened

to the radio. He says that this period of his life was

important to the development of his personality.

From a young age he showed talent in art.

When he was old enough he studied commercial art at the School of Fine Arts at

Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh. In 1949 he moved to New York

City and began a successful career in magazine illustration and advertising. In

1950 he gained fame, something he

always craved, from his shoe ads that

were created by using a loose inkblotting

style. RCA hired him to make

record covers and promotional

material. In 1962 he held his first

exhibit, which included the Marilyn

Diptych, 100 Soup Cans, 100 Coke

Bottles, and 100 Dollar Bills.

During the 60s Andy founded

“the factory,” a studio that became a

hang-out for artists of all kinds. Once

Andy started working in the factory he

began to use silk-screening. With his

process he was able to produce his

artwork “en masse.” Warhol liked the

idea of silk-screening because he

was making art work using images of

mass produced products and he was

then mass-producing his art work. He

said that he wanted to be a machine.

Warhol became quickly known for his

brightly colored pop art. Some critics

were turned off by his glorification of

Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup, 1968, silk screen-printing

17


Fall 2009

Artists’ Biographies

market goods but it was

clear that there had been a

change in the art world and

he had sparked it.

He started to make

films as well. He cast his

friends, who were artists

and socialites, and would

film in “the factory.” In 1968

Valerie Solanas, a radical

feminist who had been in

one of the Warhol films,

came to the studio to pick

up a script but was denied

entry. In a fit of anger she

came back and shot

Warhol, as well as an art

critic, and a curator.

Everyone survived.

The 70s were a

Andy Warhol, Turquoise Marilyn, 1962, silk screen-printing

calmer time for Warhol. He

was well-established and

some of his patrons were

well-known movie stars and musicians. In 1975 he wrote a book, Philosophy of

Andy Warhol, where he discussed the nature of art.

During the 80s Andy started to get back into the limelight, mainly because

of his friendships with new upcoming artists such as Jean-Michel Basquiat.

However, critics were starting to turn on Warhol, saying that he was a “business

artist.” The majority of his art was of celebrities. People thought he had become

very superficial but Warhol had always been fascinated with celebrities and

people of the elite.

In 1987, after gallbladder surgery, Warhol suffered from a heart attack and

died. It was a tragedy in the art world and many gathered at his funeral. His ideas

were bold and different and helped to change the art world. He took chances and

become an icon of the 60s and 70s.

18


Fall 2009

THE MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:

MATRIX: CONTEMPORARY PRINTMAKING

Roger Shimomura

Kabuki Party

1988

19


Fall 2009

How Technology has changed Printmaking

When we consider the vastly

different uses of prints throughout history, it

is difficult to see where prints might fit into

our modern society. In the years before

computers and the internet, prints were

made as a way of advertising an artist’s

skills, or a way to send back images from a

new land. During the time of newspapers,

the printing press led the mass production

of images and text allowing more of the

public to gain access to the news and

current events in their societies.

With the internet today, there is

literally almost no need for any printed

newspapers. Many companies are

switching to online publications in order to

be more eco-friendly. With laser printers

and Xerox machines, the idea of

painstakingly creating a lithograph or

etching seems humorous. Today

printmaking is used solely as an art form.

This has allowed modern printmakers to

create exceptionally beautiful and creative

prints, which push the boundaries of

traditional printmaking.

Many modern printmakers create

their prints by incorporating the new tools

and technologies available, even those

used in everyday household chores. The

artist Willie Cole is a prime example of this.

He makes lithographs that are based on the

patterns left by an iron when it is face down

for too long.

Willie Cole

Pressed

Iron

Blossom

2005

By incorporating the iron into his

prints Cole merges a modern technology

with the antique technique of printmaking.

Modern printmakers also incorporate

unique subject matter reflecting the new

freedom they feel with prints viewed purely

as art. The artist Mark Hosford (biography

on page 27) composes wildly imaginative

and colorful images. In his prints Hosford

draws fictional creatures with multiple arms

and distorted bodies. His figures seem to

float defying the laws of physics. Hosford

said these images came from his overactive

imagination as a child.

Mark Hosford

Weight of Worm

2005

With the rapid

advancement of the digital contribution to

the art world, many artists have begun to

play with the idea of the perfection achieved

by such media. Imi Hwangbo creates prints

by hand to mimic

digital precision. She

creates lithographs

that display an exact

repetition and

patterning. Hwangbo

painstakingly creates

prints in the tradition

of the old masters,

as if simply using a

computer is not an

option.

Imi Hwangbo

Echo Keeper 1

2001

20


Fall 2009

How Technology has changed Printmaking

Hwangbo exemplifies another trend

present in printmaking. With the new ease

with which prints can be produced, many

artists instead focus more attention on the

way a print can be hung in a museum.

Artists conceive works that defy the

confines of a traditional four-sided frame.

Hwangbo’s works achieve threedimensionality

in their finished state. By

layering print after print the artist builds up a

texture to give the work a presence in

space.

The artist Tim Dooley (biography on

page 24) resists the confines of a twodimensional

sheet of paper. Dooley creates

large installation pieces in which the prints

become almost interactive. Dooley includes

mixed media, which allows the viewer full

awareness of the intricate process and form

of prints.

Anita Jung

Madonna

and Child

with St.

Anne

2004

We can see through these many

examples that printmaking today is

drastically different from the printmaking of

the past. Our need for prints has changed

through the advancement of technology, so

the methods and reasons we create prints

has followed suit. The technology that

changed printmaking is not a bad thing, but

rather another adjustment that

contemporary artists have embraced in

creative ways.

Tim Dooley

That Joke Isn't Funny Anymore

2007

Modern printmakers also create

works that reference the heritage of

printmaking, but they add modern touches.

Anita Jung is known for works that visually

cite old masters’ paintings yet she

incorporates elements of home décor

through patterning. By combining new and

old Jung celebrates the roots of

contemporary art while embracing modern

influences.

21


Fall 2009

How Museums Have Embraced Modern Printmaking

With the new freedom experienced

by modern printmakers, it should come as

no surprise that artists are trying new and

unexplored forms that defy the conventions

of most typical museum exhibitions. But

museums are adapting and learning to

embrace the new forms. Museums now

recognize the artistic value of prints.

In recent years the number of print

exhibitions in the United States increased

exponentially. The Los Angeles County

Museum of Art offered five exhibitions on

prints just since 2007. They focused on

traditional Japanese prints while mounting

exhibits displaying prints by artists better

known for their other media, including

Picasso and Matisse.

In

recent

exhibits

museums

have adapted

to the new and expanded techniques and

dimensions of printmaking. The exhibit

Matrix at the Museum of Fine Arts at Florida

State University will display some of the

new techniques currently in practice.

Matrix will include artists whose

prints take on a variety of forms. The artist

Lynne Allen (biography on page 23) creates

three-dimensional works out of prints. Her

work draws on her Native American

heritage, and her paper sculptures

commonly take the shape of artifacts of that

culture. Her work displays the way prints

can be transformed into something entirely

different than their original form and intent.

Henri Matisse

Le Cauchemar de l'Eléphant Blanc

1947

(LACMA exhibition Matisse on Paper)

In 2001 the Museum of Modern Art in

New York held an exhibit titled What is a Print?

This exhibition examined the ever changing

medium of printmaking in relation to its past

and future. The Mary Brogan Museum of Art

and Science in Tallahassee recently

presented an exhibition that dealt with the

relationship between printing money and

fine art. Titled CURRENCY: Art As

Money/Money As Art, the exhibit showed

the influence that money as a print form

exerts on the printmaking of contemporary

artists.

Lynn Allen

Moccasin #2

2000

Matrix will include artists who

developed alternatives to paper as the

foundation on which they print. The artist

Cynthia Lollis prints on unique materials.

Cynthia Lollis created a detailed map of the

earth, and printed it on the inside of broken

egg shells.

22


Fall 2009

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:

ARTISTS’ BIOGRAPHIES

Lynne Allen

Moccasin #2

2000

Lynne Allen

Knife Sheath

2006

Lynne Allen

Lynne Allen is well known

both for her traditional as well as

her three-dimensional prints. Her

inspiration comes from the history

of the women in her family as

members of the Standing Rock

Indian Reservation in South

Dakota. When the matriarchs in

her family were sent to

government boarding schools as

part of a plan to “educate the

Indian,” they became outsiders in

both the Native American and

white worlds. Lynne Allen’s work

reflects her “foot-in-both-worlds”

existence. Although Native

American, she appears to the

outside world as a white woman. A

central theme of her prints and

three-dimensional objects is the

misunderstanding between Native

and white Americans.

In Moccasin #2, Lynne Allen showcases the one-of-a-kind quality of her work;

layered etchings on handmade paper have been sewn together to form threedimensional

moccasins. The moccasin is an iconic image of Native American culture.

The use of such a recognizable image to convey a message is characteristic of her

work; Allen often features moccasins, knife sheaths, and stamp bags constructed of

original 19 th century land documents or

etchings on handmade paper.

Lynne Allen is the Director of

the School for Visual Arts at Boston

University as well as a professor of art.

Her work has been exhibited both

nationally and internationally and is a

part of the permanent collection of

museums throughout the world. With

over 100 exhibitions featuring her work

in the United States alone, Allen has

been recognized both through awards

and exhibitions as one of the

outstanding artists of her field.

23


Fall 2009

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:

ARTISTS’ BIOGRAPHIES

Tim Dooley is known for

his printmaking as well as his

Mixed Product installations.

These installations are based

on and center around printed

panels. Dooley considers

these Mixed Product panels as

the core of his work. The

panels begin as traditional

collages which Dooley then

augments further using his

computer. The collage

imagery concentrates on the

space between oppositional

human emotions within a

violent, consumer-driven

society, feelings such as fear

and hope or alienation and

intimacy. Dooley is constantly

making new panels and feels

that Mixed Product will never

truly be finished as its

evolution coincides with his

evolution as an artist.

Tim Dooley

Tim Dooley

Mixed Product

2005

Dooley’s installations,

like the one pictured here,

employ brightly colored prints,

wires, and other media which twist and coil among each other, disguising what are often

sinister messages about the unpredictable and sometimes dangerous aspects of

modern technology and its place in society.

Tim Dooley is an Associate Professor of Printmaking at the University of

Northern Iowa. He has participated

in multiple group, solo, and juried

exhibitions in locations throughout

the United States.

Tim Dooley

Mixed Product (detail)

2005

24


Fall 2009

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:

ARTISTS’ BIOGRAPHIES

Denise Bookwalter

Denise Bookwalter

Luftschiff

2008

The other prints in the series

follow the same gray, white, and yellow

color scheme and, like the example

shown here, they resemble blueprints

that have been carefully arranged and

layered to detail Bookwalter’s

explorations into the changing

properties of German aviation.

Denise Bookwalter is an

Assistant Professor and Area Head of

Printmaking at Florida State University.

Generally, Denise Bookwalter’s

various print series result from research

and investigations into the history of

technology. They explore the changing

perspectives of the human view of

technological development. As an

expansion of a dialogue between the

historical and the contemporary,

Bookwalter’s prints often use 3-D

modeling software as well as other

technologies. Bookwalter translates her

prints using traditional and

experimental techniques, creating “a

dialogue between the virtual and the

actual … science and art.”

In Luftschiff (left), one of a series

of prints of the same title, Denise

Bookwalter demonstrates her interest

in the structure and history of

technology, specifically the

development of aviation. This print

details the luftschiff, German for

airship. Bookwalter shows the luftschiff

from multiple views via a process that

utilizes three-dimensional modeling

software to translate the modeling into

a two-dimensional print.

Denise Bookwalter

Pieces and Parts (detail)

2008

25


Fall 2009

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:

ARTISTS’ BIOGRAPHIES

Kabuya Bowens

Kabuya Bowens

The Blackburn Suite: Blackburn Wing Figures

2007

Kabuya Bowens’

interest in printmaking first

began while she was doing

graduate work for her MFA at

Pratt Institute in Brooklyn,

NY. Her early inspiration was

found in the work of German

artist Kathe Kollwitz and

American artist Elizabeth

Catlett, whose prints and

sculptures dealt with social

and political issues in relation

to the human condition. After

her graduate research

proposal to work with

Elizabeth Catlett was

accepted at Pratt Institute,

and Bowens was given a full

scholarship opportunity, she

was next introduced to

Robert Blackburn for an

independent study at The

Printmaking Workshop.

Bowens’ experience at

The Printmaking Workshop

with Blackburn heavily

influenced her work as a

printmaker. She learned to

work as a professional printer

for different artists, galleries,

and museums, getting the

opportunity to meet people

from all over the world. While

working with Blackburn, Bowens visited the facilities of the Tyler School of Art in

Philadelphia and transferred there, later traveling to Rome, Italy to work with Nona

Hershey.

Kabuya Bowens’ work is inspired by the visual critique of the African-American

experience in the United States, and explores ideas of memory, human relations, and

the questionable nature of truth. Her current work takes an interdisciplinary approach to

printmaking, concentrating on the unique and monoprint concepts of the printmaking

process rather than several images published in an edition. Her most recent creative

endeavor is Rituals and Masked Identities, a large group of prints consisting of several

smaller series.

Kabuya Bowens is an Assistant Professor of Art at Florida State University.

26


Fall 2009

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:

ARTISTS’ BIOGRAPHIES

Mark Hosford

Mark Hosford

The Hidden Pieces from Silhouette Series

2002 – 2008

Mark Hosford is a musician,

animator, and artist whose prints

and drawings are inspired by the

vivid dreams he had as a child as

well as the type of “fantastic

imagery and sociological

investigations” found in the prints

of Los Caprichos by Francisco

Goya. Hosford first became

interested in printmaking because

the method for creating an image

is indirect, and the process

afforded him the ability to produce

multiples.

When working on a print,

many steps are taken before the

actual outcome is known. Hosford

describes this relationship as

“collaborating” with the medium

instead of “commanding” it. He

also likens this process to a math

problem, his favorite subject in

school, where the artist has to go

through many steps in solving a

problem in order to be rewarded

with an answer.

His recent prints come from different moments in life, some specifically drawn

from Hosford’s own past, and some based on ambiguous scenarios from his

observations of society. The subjects of these range from the first contemplation of loss,

such as the death of a loved one, to issues such as gender and religion. His figures

often appear in silhouette so as to give a more general representation of these

experiences.

In The Hidden Pieces, Hosford includes slightly grotesque features that often

inhabit his works. The strange pile of monsters partially hidden behind the screen is

exactly the type of nightmarish image frequently seen in Hosford’s art. The prevalent

use of pink to dominate both the entire picture plane and the screen behind the figure

suggests a traditional characterization of the female gender. He renders the figure in

silhouette; she strokes her own hair and looks down. She symbolizes contemplation or

possibly melancholy. While the exact subject matter is intentionally ambiguous, the

contrast between the young girl and the horrific monsters evokes the strong emotions of

a vivid dream, or perhaps a nightmare.

Mark Hosford is an Assistant Professor of Art at Vanderbilt University in

Nashville, Tennessee, and holds both a Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees in

printmaking.

27


Fall 2009

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:

ARTISTS’ BIOGRAPHIES

Roger Shimomura

Roger Shimomura’s paintings and

prints address issues associated with

Asian-American culture, often inspired by

the diary kept by his immigrant

grandmother. Shimomura is a third

generation Japanese-American interned

with his family after the Japanese bombed

Pearl Harbor in 1942. His paintings, prints,

and theater pieces focus not only on racial

issues and stereotyping of Asian-

Americans but also on life in an internment

camp. For Tokio Ueyama (right) shows a

typical scene inside a Japanese internment

camp, combining the colors and graphic

elements of American Pop Art, like that of

Andy Warhol, with a stereotypical portrayal

of an Asian woman writing calligraphically

while dressed in a traditional kimono and

obi. The juxtaposition of these elements

evokes Shimomura’s dual interest. He

portrays the ill treatment of an entire

population as well as the ethnic confusion

of many Japanese Americans when faced

with the conflicting cultures of modern

America and their Japanese heritage.

Formerly a professor at universities

in Kansas and Minnesota, Roger

Shimomura retired from teaching in 2004,

and his personal papers and letters are

being collected by the Archives of American

Art, Smithsonian Institute, in Washington

D.C. Shimomura has had over 125 solo

exhibitions of his paintings and prints. He

has presented several pieces of

experimental theater in New York,

Minneapolis, and Washington D.C.

Roger Shimomura

Mistaken Identities: For Tokio Ueyama

2005

Roger Shimomura

Mistaken Identities: For Seattle P.I.

2005

28


Fall 2009

LESSON PLANS:

LEARNING ABOUT PRINTMAKING

Albrecht Durer

Mechanical Creation of a Perspective Image

Etching, 1525

29


Fall 2009

Lesson Plan

Pop Art Food

Session Activity: Students will look at Andy Warhol’s Soup Can print and discuss why they

think he created this work. They can also see that art can be found everywhere, even if it is a

soup can. After they discuss the work, students will draw their favorite foods and write short

poems on the drawings about the food. After they have finished they will share their pictures

and poems with the class.

Level: 1-5 th grade

Time: 45 minutes

Key Concept: 1. Students will learn about Andy Warhol and pop art.

2. Students will see that art can be found anywhere.

write

3. Students will get to create their own pop art images of their favorite foods and

about them.

Materials:

Image of Andy Warhol’s Soup Can

Paper

Markers /pencils/pens

Vocabulary: Pop art, printmaking, screen-printing

Procedure:

1. Students will learn about the pop art movement. They will learn about Andy Warhol and

his life and what he did for the art world.

a. Pop art is an art movement that began in the U.S. in the 1950s and reached

its peak of activity in the 1960s, chose as its subject matter the anonymous,

everyday, standardized, and banal iconography in American life, such as

comic strips, billboards, commercial products, and celebrity images, and dealt

with them typically in such forms as outsize commercially smooth paintings,

mechanically reproduced silkscreens, large-scale facsimiles, and soft

sculptures.

b. Andy Warhol was born in Pittsburg in 1928. He was always fascinated by

celebrities and socialites. He was sick a lot as a young kid and would spend

hours in his bed drawing or looking at magazine clippings. Once he was old

enough he went to an art school for commercial arts. He then gained an

interest in advertising. He did ads for shoes which gave him much success

and was then hired to do record covers by a large record company. Once he

had gained fame he started doing his own work in his own studio which

30


Fall 2009

Lesson Plan

became known as “the factory.” This became a hang- out to many socialites

and other artists. Everyone wanted to be in with Warhol. His art work was

original and eye catching. He made simple images using icons and objects

that were in everyday life but he found a way for people to appreciate them

as art. He made the process of silkscreening famous and continues to be the

face of pop art.

2. Students will view Andy Warhol’s Soup Can and discuss why they think he made it.

a. Why do you think he wanted to make a picture of a soup can?

b. What do you think the message was that he was trying to show people?

-Maybe that art is everywhere, even in your kitchen.

- Maybe soup is Warhol’s favorite food.

3. Students will then get pieces of paper and draw their own favorite foods.

4. Students will write short poems on their pictures about their favorite foods.

a. Students can use the template attached to aid them in writing the poems.

b. Students can make their poems into concrete poems by making the words

form a

different shape such as the shape of the food they are writing

about.

Summary: Students will then share their pictures and read their short poems out loud to the

class.

Evaluation:

1. Through discussion students showed an understanding of pop art.

2. Through discussion students showed learning about Andy Warhol and his contribution to

the art world.

3. Students made their own pop art images of their favorite foods.

4. Students wrote poems about their favorite foods.

Extension: Students can use their drawings as preparation for printmaking. Stencils could

be cut to replicate the idea of silk-screening and Warhol’s method. Styrofoam prints could be

made by following the directions in the next lesson plan.

Example of Concrete Poetry

31


Fall 2009

Lesson Plan

_

My Favorite Food

Name of Food:

_____________________________________________________________________

______

Two Adjectives Describing the Food:

________________________________________________

(Give color, shape, or texture words)

A Phrase to Describe the Taste of the Food:

________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Cheese

Soft, Yellow-orange

Extra Sharp

Comfort

Author: Morgan Jones

32


Fall 2009

LESSON PLAN

Relief Printing with Styrofoam

Printing Everyday Subjects like Durer and Hokusai

Session Activity:

Students will create relief prints, using inexpensive and readily available materials. This process

will show them how prints can be made, but will also give them a better understanding of how

more professional prints are produced using more advanced materials. They will explore prints

made by famous artists from various times. By looking at these older prints students can relate

their lives to the past. Printmaking for children develops manual skill, coordination, visual

projection and discipline.

Level:

1 st -8 th grade

Time Needed:

1-2 hours

Materials Needed:

Acrylic paint or ink

Styrofoam trays (clean ones used for meat packages are ideal)

Pencils or pens

Cookie sheet, or similar object, to hold paint

Paint rollers or paint brushes

Heavy weight paper

Images of prints

Worksheet for evaluation

Optional Material:

Rolling pin

Felt

Objectives:

1. Students will learn about historical printmakers, and the images they produced.

2. Students will relate things in their lives to the things they see in the prints.

3. Students will explore the process with which relief printing is made.

4. Students will demonstrate their creativity.

5. Students will develop an understanding of how one print may vary from another from the

same plate depending on paint applied and pressure used.

33


Fall 2009

LESSON PLAN

Vocabulary:

Relief

Woodcut

Bleeding

Procedure:

1. Teachers will show images of prints made by Durer and Hokusai, provided at the end of

the lesson plan.

2. Teachers will provide information about these artists and their historical significance;

information is provided on these artists and their significance throughout the packet.

3. Students will answer a series of questions designed to get them thinking and talking

about the prints they have seen.

4. Students will sketch images that relate to the themes of the prints they are shown, for

the Hokusai, students should be encouraged to draw a landscape they are familiar with,

and for the Durer, students should be encouraged to draw another animal.

5. Students will produce prints based on these sketches.

6. Teachers will cut the Styrofoam trays so that there are flat surfaces with which to work.

7. Students will use pencils or pens, or for older students carpenters nails, to cut out the

lines in their prints, remembering that the images will appear in reverse.

8. Students will use rollers or paint brushes to apply paint to their Styrofoam trays, or plates

to be technical.

9. Students will then lay the plates down on a table and place sheets of paper over the

plates, patting gently, to prevent bleeding, to transfer the paint.

10. Optional Steps: Students may place pieces of felt over their plates and gently roll over

them with rolling pins. This most closely simulates the action of using a printing press.

This step may also just be demonstrated by the teacher.

11. Students will allow their papers or piece of felt, to dry, and may repeat the process to

create an edition of prints.

12. Students will then answer questions relating to the images they created in comparison to

the sample images by Durer and Hokusai.

Evaluation:

Through hands-on creation, students will learn the process of creating relief prints, using

comparable materials to those of the professionals. By creating these relief prints, students will

be more aware of the time it takes to produce the plates and also the multiple images that can

be produced using this method. Through the production of prints, students will show a

relationship between historical knowledge and imagery and their own lives.

34


Fall 2009

LESSON PLAN

Images for Lesson Plan

Hokusai

The Great Wave off Kanagawa

woodcut print, 1823-29

Albrecht Durer

Rhinoceros

etching print, 1515

35


Fall 2009

LESSON PLAN

Worksheet prior to Printmaking:

Hokusai’s The Great Wave

Name everything in this print that is similar to something you have seen before?

Hokusai lived in Japan, an island country surrounded by ocean. Where do you think

Hokusai saw a huge wave like this? What was the weather like when he saw this?

Hokusai also wanted people to look at Mt. Fuji, an important mountain in Japan. What is

the reason Hokusai placed it behind the water?

Hokusai made many pictures of Mt. Fuji. When you look at this print, do you think

Hokusai though the ocean was more important or Mt. Fuji was more important to Japan?

Florida is a peninsula, a state surrounded by ocean on three sides. Hokusai’s Great

Wave shows his experience of Japanese terrain and weather. What picture of Florida

would you create to show your experiences of Florida Terrain and weather? Do you think

the land or the ocean is more important in Florida? If you were sitting in a boat off the

coast of Florida and you could draw a picture, what would it include? What would you

want to show about the ocean? What would you show on the land?

Durer’s Rhinoceros

Where have you seen this animal before? Your house, the zoo, in the wild?

Albrecht Durer lived in Germany (in Europe) in the 1400’s. He was creating

pictures of animals that live in Africa. Where do you think Durer saw this animal?

Were there zoos 500 years ago? Where else might Durer seen a rhinoceros?

Why would Durer draw this animal as opposed to another type of animal? How

would you decide which animal to draw? Would you consider your own

fascination with an animal’s appearance? Would you consider the rarity of an

animal? That an animal is threatened with extinction? That an animal holds an

important place in a local ecosystem? Something else?

36


Fall 2009

LESSON PLAN

Worksheet to complete after Printmaking:

How is your print the same as the Durer or Hokusai print?

How is your print different than the Durer or Hokusai? Why do you think there are

differences?

In what ways do we use prints today? In what ways were they used in the past?

How has technology changed our use of prints? Where can you see prints

today?

37


FALL 2009

LESSON PLAN

I’m a Little Culturist and Printmaker

Session Activity:

Students will create prints which characterize their own ethnic cultural traditions

using as inspiration the print works, Deer Skin Bottom Bag, Knife Sheath, and

Moccasin #2 by Lynne Allen. The United States is a melting pot; every American comes

from a different cultural and historic background. Many families still keep some of their

conventions throughout generations. In this activity, students will have the opportunity to

reflect on their own cultures, and design representative prints to express the shared

values and perspectives of their families.

Level: 5-7 grades

Time needed: two hours

Objectives:

1. Help students to recognize their own cultural backgrounds which play an

important role in shaping people’s identity and confidence.

2. Students will become aware that cultural diversity is one of the important

features of their environment and will discover family histories of people around

them.

3. Students will create cultural symbols from their own perspectives.

Materials: Newspapers, magazines, website images, collage materials, paper, glue,

scissors and copy machine.

Vocabulary:

1. Culture: the way of life, particularly general customs and beliefs of a group of

people at a specific time.

2. Tradition: a belief, principle or way of acting which people in a particular society

or group have continued to follow for a long time, or all of these in a particular

society or group.

3. Sheath: a cover into which a knife or sword fits so that the blade cannot cut

someone when it is not used.

4. Moccasin: a shoe which the wearer's foot slides into and which is made from

soft leather with stitches around the top at the front.

5. Vellum: a material used in the past for writing on or for covering a book, made

from the skins of young animals, especially cows or sheep.

38


FALL 2009

LESSON PLAN

Procedure:

1. Introduce the print works by Lynne Allen.

a. Show the images of Deer Skin Bottom Bag, Knife Sheath, and Moccasin

#2.

Lynne Allen, Deer Skin Bottom Bag,

etching on 19th-century handwritten

land document on vellum, handwork,

deer skin.

Lynne Allen, Knife Sheath, etching on 19th-century

antique handwritten land document on vellum, handwork,

porcupine quills, wire, rusted bottle caps,

Lynne Allen, Moccasin #2, etching on handmade paper, linen

thread, handwork.

39


FALL 2009

LESSON PLAN

b. Demonstrate the inspiration of the three works through the artist’s

statement.

“All the matriarchs in my family have been members of the Standing

Rock Indian Reservation in South Dakota. All were sent away to

government boarding schools, to realign their cultural heritage. All became

outsiders in both the native and the white world. Everybody comes to their

own cultural truths, and mine is that I am the product of the government’s

plan to educate the Indian. I can trace my Native heritage back six

generations to Ita ta Win (Wind Woman), born in the 1830’s. If you meet

me you don’t believe I have native blood. This fact, how we view each

other, plays a big part in my image making. Everyone always

misunderstands everyone else. My work is about the difference between

what is true about the unknown and what is imagined. … I combine

personal experiences with fiction, and as a visual artist I incorporate the

passions that drive me personally… .“

—LA

Because her family background mixed two distinctive civilizations, Lynne

uses her artworks to discuss the ways people view one another and the

misunderstanding that may cause in the process. She wants people to

realize the difference between truth and imagination when looking at the

culture and traditions of someone else. She therefore uses the art pieces

to describe real stories from her cultural perspective.

C. Discuss the idea of culture with students.

What is culture? What is tradition?

Do you know anything about your cultural background? Is your

family Italian, Asian, African-American? Does your family celebrate

that background in some way? Explain.

Does your family have its own traditions? Describe a tradition of

your family. Do you enjoy this family tradition or not? Explain.

Think about a symbol that represents your culture or your family.

2. Pass the papers and materials around and have students use the

newspaper and magazine pages to find images to symbolize their cultures

or families.

3. Students will start to collage and create their own cultural icons.

4. Students will use the copy machine to print out their cultural symbols.

5. Have students share and explain their cultural symbols.

40


FALL 2009

LESSON PLAN

Evaluation:

By making their own cultural symbols and sharing them, students will learn what

constitutes culture and tradition and will understand the diversified culture in the

United States.

Extension:

Have students follow Lynne Allen’s process by using their prints (Xeroxed copies)

to make three dimensional objects which also represent their families or ethnic

backgrounds.

Example:

41


FALL 2009

LESSON PLAN

Color, Color, Magic Power

Session Activity:

Students will concentrate on three printmaking artworks by two artists: Ripple Storm

by Luis Cruz Azeceta; Big House and Swirl House by Bradlee Shanks. The subjects in

these prints all describe the extremely powerful threat of nature, one that could bring

serious disaster. However, there are differences between the two artists’ color options

as well as their approaches to presenting their perspectives. Therefore, in this session

students will discover the mysterious force of color and learn a basic message about the

way every color expresses special emotion and evokes a distinct atmosphere.

Level: Grades 3– 6

Time needed: one and half hours.

Objectives:

1. Students will observe the opposing descriptions of disaster presented by the

two artists.

2. Students will learn that color is a capital component in the construction of an

artwork.

3. Students will compare and contrast different artworks by color.

4. Students will study the basic definition and potential expression of each color.

5. Students will use their own words to describe and interpret the three artworks.

Materials:

Image of Ripple Storm by Luis Cruz Azeceta, Big House and Swirl House by Bradlee

Shanks.

Markers/ Pencils/Pens/Worksheets

Vocabulary:

Ripple/ Swirl

Fertility /Nobility

Procedure:

1. The teacher will show the images of three printmaking works, Ripple Storm by

Luis Cruz Azeceta and Big House and Swirl House by Bradlee Shanks. The

students will be given information about the artists and the artworks.

42


FALL 2009

LESSON PLAN

a. Luis Cruz Azeceta is a full-time artist who owns a studio in New Orleans.

Hurricanes have repeatedly threatened his city. Luis gives the following art

statement for Ripple Storm:

“In New Orleans, where I now live, water … caused displacement post-

Katrina. [The] etching, … relate[s] to that experience.”

—LCA

b. Bradlee Shanks is now an associate Professor at the University of South

Florida in Tampa. His art statement follows:

“My pictures are meant to serve as a trigger, a point of departure for knowing

something I otherwise would not know. … Currently I am creating screen

prints using the landscape of a remote Florida island as my muse.”

—BS

Bradlee uses his works as a door to the unknown world. He uses his

artwork as an exploration of ideas and sees the process as an adventure of

discovery.

2. The teacher will use the worksheet to discuss several questions about the prints.

a. The students will give written answers to worksheet #1. A class discussion

will follow.

b. The teacher begins the discussion.

Ask the students, “What is the distinction among these three print works?

What elements make each look so different?

c. Do you think color choice decides the atmosphere of the artworks?

d. Which print better matches your idea of disaster? If you were the artist,

which colors would you use to depict the same topic?”

3. The teacher will give some basic meanings associated with color to the

students. Use worksheet #2, Color Matters to start a simple activity with color.

Use the worksheet to find out possible messages associated with each color.

Next give the students the information about the artist and their artworks as well

as information about color in the second section, the Color with Magic Words

section. Stress that color may mean different emotions and messages to different

people.

Evaluation:

1. Did the student understand and participate in the activities?

2. Did the student discover differences, including color differences,

among the three prints?

3. Did the student learn the possible meaning of each color?

4. Did the student express his/ her own ideas through the process?

43


FALL 2009

LESSON PLAN

Worksheet 1

•How do you feel about this print?

Use one word to describe your

feeling? (Harmonious, cheerful,

frightened, powerful, unpredictable)

_____________

•Did you know it was about a

disaster when you saw it? (Circle

your answer)

no

Yes No Yes and

Luis Cruz Azaceta, Ripple Storm, monot

hi

•Is there any clue in this work which

gives you the idea of misfortune?

(Color, shape, line, composition,

subject)

Bradlee Shanks, Big House,

print

•How do you feel about

these two prints? Circle

one or more words.

(Dreadful, changeful,

dynamic, natural)

_____________

•Compare these to the first

print. What are the

differences you see?

_____________

•Do you feel these two

prints more explicitly

convey a disaster

atmosphere? (Circle your

answer and explain)?

Yes No Yes and no

Bradlee Shanks, Swirl House,

print

44


FALL 2009

LESSON PLAN

WORKSHEET 2

Color Matters Each color has a different magic word. Match the

colors in Column #1 to the words in Column #2. You can match a color to

more than one word.

Column #1 Column # 2

Red

Organge

Yellow

Green

Gray

Purple

Blue

White

Black

Trust

Storm

Passion

Power

Joy

Light

Energy

Wisdom

Safety

Color with Magic words: The following color messages refer

to western definitions.The same color may mean something different to a

different culture and people. For example in Asian culture white often

symbolizes death while in western socity it symbolizes purity and

innocence. The teacher may provide further information about color

meanings within other cultures. Also, colors may symbolize different

meanings to different people.

Red: Color of fire and blood. Red often symbolizes war, power, danger,

passion, and love.

Orange: Orange combines yellow and red. It often symbolizes joy,

sunshine, and enthusiasm.

Yellow: Color of sunshine. It often symbolizes joy, happiness, intellect,

and energy.

45


FALL 2009

LESSON PLAN

Green: Color of nature. It often symbolizes growth, harmony, freshness,

and fertility.

Grey: Grey combines opposite colors and can be a natural and balanced

color.It can also symbolize a dark or depressed mood. Usually grey

is a color seen in storm clouds and some metals.

Purple: Color which combines blue and red. It often symbolizes power,

nobility, luxury and ambition.

Blue: Color of sky and sea. It often symbolizes trust, wisdom, loyalty,

intelligence, and faith.

White: Color of pefection. It often symbolizes light, goodness, innocence

and purity.

Black: Often the color of mystery, power, elegence, formality, and death.

Discussion Questions:

1. Do you think color choices decide the atmosphere of the artworks

discussed in worksheet #1? Describe the colors you see.

2. Can you determine what different colors mean to each of the

artists?

3. If you were the artist, which colors would you use to depict the

same topic?

46


Fall 2009

Lesson plan

Roger Shimomura and

the battle against

racial discrimination

Roger Shimomura, Kabuki Party, colored screen print, 1988

Session Activity: Compare and contrast ethnicities as demonstrated in Shimomura’s

prints. Questions about the messages Shimomura presents in his works will be provided

as well as images of Shimomura’s prints.

Grade Level: High School

Time Needed: About an hour

Objectives:

1. To have students recognize important underlying concepts apparent in many of

Roger Shimomura’s artworks, particularly messages about discrimination.

2. To have students appreciate their own ethnic backgrounds.

Materials:

Markers, colored pencils, pencils, and crayons

Construction paper

Collage Materials

Vocabulary:

1. Discrimination- Treatment or consideration based on class or category rather

than individual merit; partiality or prejudice

2. Tolerance- The capacity for or the practice of recognizing and respecting the

beliefs or practices of others

Activity Procedures:

1. Students will view a selection of Shimomura’s works: Kabuki Party; Fox and

Banzai; Classmates; West Seattle Shotgun.

2. Describe the racial discrimination Shimomura presents in his works and who is

being discriminated against.

47


Fall 2009

Lesson plan

3. Students should pay close attention to the art elements in Shimomura’s workscolor,

line, shape, texture, and value (lights and darks). What seems to be the

most prominent element in his works?

4. A. What is the purpose of Shimomura’s presentation of Asian subjects?

B. What is the controversy he hopes viewers will explore and discuss?

C. What emotions does Shimomura make you think of through his use of

materials, elements, and principles?

D. Describe the social/cultural context from which his work came.

5. Each student will receive collage materials in order to put together a piece of

work of his/her own that compares and contrasts his/her personal culture and

background with another’s heritage and background. In order to choose a

different culture to compare and contrast, each student will choose a partner and

discuss the different backgrounds.

6. After completing the assignment each student will be encouraged to present

his/her art work to the class.

7. Encourage a class discussion to promote acceptance of all cultural backgrounds.

Evaluation: Did the student…

1. Understand the meaning behind Shimomura’s prints?

2. Create an art piece that compares two different cultures?

3. Understand the meaning of tolerance of other people’s backgrounds?

Background information:

Roger Shimomura, Fox and

Banzai, acrylic on canvas,

2003

Roger Shimomura was born in Seattle's Central

District on 6/26/1939. He spent the first few years of his life

interned with his family at the Puyallup State Fairgrounds

while camps were being built by the U.S. These internment

camps were designed by President Roosevelt during World

War II to isolate Japanese Americans from other Americans

due to the war with Japan. The

purpose was to protect Americans

from any harm within the U.S.

borders. The practice of separating

Japanese Americans was

subsequently criticized and condemned. Soon he and his family

transferred to Camp Minidoka in southern Idaho.

Roger Shimomura, West

Seattle Shotgun, acrylic on

canvas, 2003

48


Fall 2009

Lesson plan

After the war ended, Shimomura’s family was permitted to return to Seattle,

where he developed his interest in art. He served two years as an artillery officer in

Korea, then moved to New York where he worked as a graphic designer. In 1969, he

received an M.F.A. in painting from Syracuse University. Shimomura's bold, illustrationlike

artwork deals with Asian stereotypes and prejudices, and often references his family

history. Shimomura wrote 35 performance pieces, and his paintings are in the

permanent collections of the National Museum of American Art, Nelson-Atkins Museum

of Art, and Microsoft.

Roger Shimomura, Classmate (Number 1), acrylic on canvas, 2003

49


Fall 2009

HELPFUL INFORMATION

51


Fall 2009

Glossary

Artist’s Proof

Baren

Bath

Bleeding

Burin

Calligraphy

Collagraph

Counterproof

Drypoint

Edition

Etching

Impression

Intaglio

Installation Art

One of a small set of prints set aside from the edition for the artist’s use.

Also known as an épreuve d’artiste.

Japanese tool used for applying pressure in the printing of woodcuts. It is

made of a flat spiral piece of wood or bamboo about 5 inches in diameter

and a backing disk.

The mixture of acid and water in which intaglio plates are etched.

Ink seepage or oozing around a printed Image, caused by excessive use of

ink, pressure or oil.

A steel cutting tool with a sharp beveled point, used in engraving metal

plates or carving stone. Also called graver.

A refined type of handwriting characterized by elegant, curved script. In

Japanese culture, calligraphy is a traditional method of writing, often done

with a brush and ink.

The Collagraph print is best described as a collage printmaking technique,

where the image is composed from a variety of textured materials glued to

a substrate and printed either in an intaglio or relief fashion.

Printed image identical to the image on the block or plate and made by

taking an impression of a wet proof.

The graphic process in which lines are scratched into the metal plates with

a sharp tool, rather than with acid.

In printmaking, all the copies of a print published at the same time or as

part of the same publishing event. An edition can include several different

versions or several exact copies of one image, and can be as small as two

prints or as large as hundreds of prints.

The graphic printmaking process which uses acids to create incised areas

on a metal plate.

The image printed from a stone, plate, woodblock, or any other matrix.

Printing from the grooves or crevices engraved, scraped or etched into the

plate.

The use of three-dimensional materials to create a work of art that

surrounds the viewer and creates its own environment in a gallery,

museum, or other public space.

52


Fall 2009

Glossary

Key Plate

Kimono and obi

Lithography

Matrix

Monoprint

Plate Mark

Proof

Rainbow Roll

Relief

Rubbing

Serigraph

Stipple Print

Washout

Woodcut

Zincography

The plate or block used to serve as a guide to register, or to line up, other

plates or blocks when printing each color layer of a color print.

In Japanese culture, the kimono is a long-sleeved, ankle-length robe worn

by Japanese women and tied with a belt over an obi sash. The kimono has

a tradition dating back more than 1,000 years and is usually decorated with

motifs such as flowers and birds.

The process of printing from drawings made with special crayons on stone

or on metal sheets, using the water-repellent properties of the crayons and

the greasy inks as a basic principle.

In printmaking, the physical object upon which a design has been formed

and which is then used to create a print, such as a zinc plate or limestone

block.

A method of printmaking which produces a work that cannot be exactly

reproduced. Monoprinting can sometimes produce similar images, but can

never produce multiples, or exact copies. Because of this inability to directly

copy an image, monoprinting is often called the most “painterly” printmaking

technique.

The impression left in the paper by the pressure of the plate edges.

A preliminary impression pulled for examination of various stages until final

state is reached.

Specialized technique in which a plate or stone is inked with strips of

several different colors at once. They are blended at the edges to produce

a rainbow like effect.

The raised surface which is the source of the image in relief process.

The process of pulling a print from a bas-relief sculpture. The paper is

placed against the clear sculpted surface and its back is rubbed with a flatedged

crayon or pencil. The image appears un-reversed on the paper.

The graphic process involving a stencil. The silkscreen process is referred

to as serigraphic printing.

To create a half-tone effect by engraving and etching little dots into the

plate.

In lithography, the process of removing the greasy drawing material from

the completed image on stone or plate.

Relief printing, the areas to appear in ink on the paper prints are those

which are left in relief on the surface, in contrast to the cut-away areas.

19 th -century term for lithography on zinc plates.

53


FALL 2009

IMAGE LIST:

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT

Lynne Allen, Moccasin

#2, 2000. Etching on

handmade paper, linen

thread, and handwork,

approx. 4 x 8 x 3”, in the

collection of the Victoria

& Albert Museum,

London.

Mark Hosford, The

Hidden Pieces from

Silhouette Series, 2008.

Screenprint.

Denise Bookwalter,

Luftschiff, 2008. Print.

Kabuya Bowens, The

Blackburn Suite:

Blackburn Wing Figures,

2007. Relief collagraph

and mixed media, 7’ x

31”.

Roger Shimomura,

Mistaken Identities:

For Tokio Ueyama,

2005. Color lithograph,

10.5 x 9”.

.

Tanja Softic,

Navigable Space,

2005. Etching,

mezzotint,

drypoint, 15 x

48”.

Tim Dooley, Mixed

Product, 2005. Mixed

media installation,

variable dimensions.

Cynthia Lollis,

collaboration

with Daniela

Deeg, Viel Cloük,

2007. Silkscreen

artists’ book.

54


FALL 2009

IMAGE LIST:

HISTORICAL PRINTS

Albrecht Dürer,

Rhinoceros, 1515.

Etching, approx. 8 ¼

x 11 5/8”.

Henri de Toulouse‐

Lautrec, May Milton,

1895. Color lithograph,

31.3 x 24.1”.

Hokusai, Great

Wave off

Kanagawa, 1830‐

32. Woodblock

print, approx. 10

1/8 x 14 15/16”.

Mary Cassatt,

The Bath, 1891.

Drypoint and

aquatint, 12 5/8

x 9 13/16”.

Francisco Goya, The

Sleep of Reason

Produces Monsters,

plate 43 from Los

Caprichos, 1797‐98.

Aquatint and etching,

7 1/16 x 4 ¾”.

Yoshida Hiroshi,

Night Scene After the

Rain, 1925.

Woodblock print, 16

x 10 ¾”.

Andy Warhol,

Turquoise

Marilyn, 1962.

Silkscreen, 82 x

57”.

Rembrandt,

Landscape, 1640.

Etching, 8 3/8 in. x

11”.

55


Fall 2009

Sources

Allen, Lynne. .

Bibliography:

Bookwalter, Denise. .

Dooley, Tim. Mixed Product. .

Heller, Jules. Printmaking Today, A Studio Handbook. 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart

and Winston, Inc., 1972.

Hosford, Mark. The Art of Mark Hosford. .

JapaneseKimono.com. “Japanese Kimono, Kimono Fabric, and Japanese Clothing.”

< http://www.japanesekimono.com/index.htm>.

Kent, Cyril, and Mary Cooper. Simple Printmaking: Relief and Collage Printing, Screen

Printing. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1966.

Monoprints.com. “What is a Monoprint?” .

Mulder-Slater, Andrea. "Printmaking 101." KinderArt. 16 Sept. 2008

.

Peterdi, Gabor. Printmaking Methods Old and New. 1st ed. New York: The Macmillan

Company.

Philadelphia Print Shop, The. “Dictionary of Printmaking Terms.”

< http://www.philaprintshop.com/diction.html#I>.

56


Fall 2009

Sources

Saff, Donald, and Deli Sacilotto. Printmaking : History and Process. New York: Holt,

Rinehart & Winston, 1978.

Shimomura, Roger. .

Zaidenberg, Arthur. Prints and How to Make Them: Graphic Arts for the Beginner. 1st

ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.

57


Fall 2009

Sources

Images:

http://www.liquidknowledge.info/HOKUSAI1.htm

http://www.art.com/asp/display_artist-asp/_/crid--23653/Albrecht_Drer.htm

http://www.masterworksfineart.com/inventory/toulouse

http://www.moma.org/images/collection/FullSizes/80503002.jpg

http://www.kaymariecoin.com/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=1202

http://internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/literature/press1.html

http://www.anubisappraisal.com/aboutus.html

http://www.davidrumsey.com/amico/amico4101609-38743.html

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Rembrandt_The_Three_Crosses_1653.jpg

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_29.107.31.jpg

http://www.peaceloveandhappiness.org/rembrandt-self-portrait.jpg

http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/e/images/etching_goya.sleepr.lg.jpg

http://www.wfu.edu/art/pc/images/pc-goya-volaverunt.jpg

http://www.cksinfo.com/clipart/people/famouspeople/painters/Goya-self-portrait.png

http://imagecache2.allposters.com/images/pic/AWI/NR833~Self-Portrait-in-Orange-Posters.jpg

http://academics.adelphi.edu/honcol/modconart/img/Warhol-campbellsoup.jpg

http://www.artquotes.net/masters/warhol_andy/turquoise-marilyn-62.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Durer_self_portarit_28.jpg

http://www.wfu.edu/art/pc/images/pc-durer-melencolia.jpg

http://www.chowdernation.com/images/Durer.jpg

http://michiao.wordpress.com/2008/08/17/%e6%ba%ab%e7%bf%92%e6%ba%ab%e7%98%8b

%e4%ba%86/

http://www.popartuk.com/art/katsushika-hokusai/mount-fuji-in-clear-weather-red-fuji-1837-

ap788-poster.asp

58


Fall 2009

Sources

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Hokusai_portrait.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/Meckenem.jpg

http://www.uh.edu/engines/durer1.gif

http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/4200/4255/printing-press_1.htm

http://www.unm.edu/~tamarind/editions/cole_img.html

http://www.millerblockgallery.com/artists/Imi_Hwangbo.shtml

http://www.lacma.org/art/InstallMatisse.aspx

Images are for educational uses only

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