MATRIX: CONTEMPORARY PRINTMAKING
OCTOBER 9 - NOVEMBER 22, 2009
Table of Contents
Letter to Educators……………………………………………………………………. 2
Sunshine State Standards…………………………………………………………… 3
Part 1: Obtaining a General Knowledge of Printmaking
Printmaking Timeline……………………………………………..…… 6
Different Types of Printmaking and How They Work…………..….. 7
Different Uses for Printmaking throughout History…………………. 9
Works from these artists will not be in the exhibition; they are examples of great printmakers
Rembrandt Van Rijn …………………………………………….……13
Part 2: The Museum of Fine Arts Exhibit Information
Part 3: Lesson Plans
Part 4: Helpful Information
How Technology Has Changed Printmaking……………….…..… 20
How Museums Have Embraced Modern Printmaking…..………. 22
Artists’ Biographies………………………………………………….. 23
Pop Art Food……………………………………….…………………. 30
Relief Printing with Styrofoam ………………………...……………. 33
I’m a Little Culturist and Printmaker..……………………...……….. 38
Color, Color Magic Power………………………………………….....42
Roger Shimomura and the Battle Against Racial Discrimination...47
Image List…………………………………………………….…………..………… 54
LETTER TO EDUCATORS
Dear Leon County Educators,
The Florida State University Museum of Fine Arts would like to invite you
to attend our upcoming exhibit. The exhibit will be held in the Fall of 2009, and it
will highlight the print collection that the Museum of Fine Arts possesses. It will
also include prints from outside artists.
This packet will focus on the different types of prints, different uses of
prints, and it will also explore the differences between printmaking throughout
history and today. During the exhibit the museum will be offering guided tours and
events to help educators teach their students about the museum and the exhibit.
For tours and group information, contact Viki Thompson Wylder at (850) 644-
In this packet you will find a wealth of information to help you prepare your
students for a trip to the museum, or simply just spend a day teaching them about
printmaking. The packet includes informational articles, artist biographies, lesson
plans, a glossary of terms, and a list of prints being included in the exhibit. All
images included in this packet are for educational use only.
This packet is in accordance with Florida’s Sunshine State Standards, and
we hope it will be helpful to you in your classroom.
Museum Education Program
Florida State University Museum of Fine Arts
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
The student uses two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, techniques, tools, and
processes to depict works of art from personal experiences, observation, or imagination.
The student understands that works of art can communicate an idea and elicit a variety
of responses through the use of selected media, techniques, and processes.
The student knows that specific works of art belong to particular cultures, times, and
The student knows the effects and functions of using various organizational elements
and principles of design when creating works of art.
The student understands what makes different art media, techniques, and processes
effective or ineffective in communicating various ideas.
The student develops and justifies criteria for the evaluation of visual works of art using
The student creates two-dimensional and three-dimensional works of art that reflect
competency and craftsmanship.
The student knows how the qualities and characteristics of art media, techniques, and
processes can be used to enhance communication of experiences and ideas.
The student understands and uses information from historical and cultural themes,
trends, styles, periods of art, and artists.
The student uses two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, techniques, tools, and
processes to communicate an idea or concept based on research, environment,
personal experience, observation, or imagination.
The student knows how the elements of art and the principles of design can be used and
solves specific visual art problems at a proficient level.
The student understands critical and aesthetic statements in terms of historical reference
while researching works of art.
The student uses knowledge and experience to tell about experiences or to write for
familiar occasions, audiences, and purposes.
The student listens for a variety of informational purposes, including curiosity, pleasure,
getting directions, performing tasks, solving problems, and following rules.
The student recognizes that use of more than one medium increases the power to
influence how one thinks and feels.
The student prepares for writing by recording thoughts, focusing on a central idea,
grouping related ideas, and identifying the purpose for writing.
The student writes notes, comments, and observations that reflect comprehension of
content and experiences from a variety of media.
The student understands that word choices can shape reactions, perception, and beliefs.
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
The student understands how idiomatic expressions have an impact on communication
and reflect culture, by using them correctly in both oral and written form.
The student understands selected economic, political, and social events that have
shaped the target culture and its relationship with the United States across time.
The student selects and uses appropriate prewriting strategies, such as brainstorming,
graphic organizers, and outlines.
The student organizes information using appropriate systems.
The student understands specific ways in which language has shaped the reactions,
perceptions, and beliefs of the local, national, and global communities.
The student compares everyday life in different places and times and understands that
people, places, and things change over time.
The student understands that history tells the story of people and events of other times
The student understands the significance and historical contributions of historical figures
during this period (e.g., the journeys of famous explorers).
The student understands how individuals, ideas, decisions, and events can influence
The student uses a variety of methods and sources to understand history (such as
interpreting diaries, letters, newspapers; and reading maps and graphs) and knows the
difference between primary and secondary sources.
The student understands various aspects of family life, structures, and roles in different
cultures and in many eras (e.g., pastoral and agrarian families of early civilizations,
families of ancient times, and medieval families).
The student understands how patterns, chronology, sequencing (including cause and
effect), and the identification of historical periods are influenced by frames of reference.
The student knows the relative value of primary and secondary sources and uses this
information to draw conclusions from historical sources such as data in charts, tables,
The student understands the impact of significant people and ideas on the development
of values and traditions in the United States.
The student understands how ideas and beliefs, decisions, and chance events have
been used in the process of writing and interpreting history.
The student identifies and understands themes in history that cross scientific, economic,
and cultural boundaries.
The student understands how social, cultural, economic, and environmental factors
contribute to the dynamic nature of regions.
OBTAINING A GENERAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT PRINTMAKING
Old-Style Screw Printing Press
105 AD Paper is invented in China.
1380 The earliest known woodcut in
Europe is made: The Bois Protat.
plates, making the
produces the first
A silversmith carving into a
metal surface to create a
1497 The Apocalypse is published by
German artist Albrecht Durer.
The printing press
1513 Possibly the first
etching is produced by Swiss artist Urs
creates the etching
The Three Crosses.
1839 An early photographic process
called daguerreotype in invented by
Louis Jacques Mande Dauguerre.
1852 William Henry Fox Talbot patents
an early version of the photographic
1880-90 Four-color process printing is
1896 Aluminum and zinc begin to
replace limestone in the lithographic
1906 Offset lithography is invented in
America. In this process the image is
transferred from a plate, to a rubber
blanket, and then a printing surface.
Andy Warhol with Brillo
1796-98 Francisco Goya produces the
series of prints Los Caprichos.
Francisco Goya, Los
Different Types of Printmaking
and How They Work
There are many variations in the way prints are produced. Many involve complex,
nocuous, and expensive chemicals. There are also common ways prints can be produced with
everyday materials, such as wood block or even fruit.
The four main categories of printmaking are: relief printing, intaglio, planography, and
stenciling or serigraphy. These four main types have both complex and simple ways in which
they can be accomplished. Each of these categories may have differing methods, but they all
have one main goal, producing multiple copies from one master image.
This is the oldest type of printmaking,
and includes the invention of movable type. A
very simple, modern example of a relief print
would be the image produced when using a
rubber stamp. Typically throughout history relief
printmaking is produced with a woodcut, but
today anything where the image is raised from
the surface will produce a relief image. In
Japanese woodcuts, multiple blocks would be
produced, allowing for each block to add a
different color to the image. Woodblocks
have been produced by artists such as
Vincent Van Gogh, and many Japanese
printmakers including Hokusai.
To create a woodblock without
having expensive equipment, or toxic
chemicals, a soft piece of wood can be used.
The wood around the image is removed
leaving only the raised edges that are
desired to create the image. Relief images
can also be produced using various fruits and
vegetables. By cutting them open to reveal the
different textures inside, and applying ink, the
varying heights of the fruit’s flesh and seeds
will produce different images. Relief prints can
also be made with
Styrofoam as a
The Great Wave off
Kanagawa woodcut print,
Pronounced in-TAL-yo, this type of
process is also known as etching. These prints
are made using the opposite of relief, by
scratching the image into the plate, typically
made of metal or Plexiglas. This can be done
with a sharp object, or as with etching, with
acids. Ink is then forced into the removed lines,
and the rest of the surface is wiped clean. The
plate is then forced through a press, or held
tightly together with a sheet of paper. The force
then transfers the ink onto the paper creating a
This form of printmaking was used by
famous artists such as Albrecht Durer and
Pablo Picasso. Such printmaking today is used
mainly in the creation of currency.
Creating an Intaglio print can be more
difficult than a relief. The process can be
adapted but there is still the need for sharp
tools and a fairly rough, nonporous surface
plate. Etching can be simulated be using a
softer material like Styrofoam, and incising
into it with a pencil, or similar object. Ink
can then be applied onto the surface the
same as with metal or Plexiglas plates.
When transferring the image to paper,
less pressure is applied, to compensate
for the fragile nature of the Styrofoam.
Also known as lithography,
printing during this process is transferred
from a flat surface onto another flat surface.
Lithography began with an interest in
controlling chemical printing from stone. Now
lithograph prints can be produced from stone
plates, and from various types of metal plates.
Different Types of Printmaking
and How They Work
The process of creating a lithograph
involves using oil crayons, water, acid and ink.
An image is created on the stone or metal plate
using the oily crayon. Then water is applied to
the plate. The water is repelled from the oil and
when ink is added to the plate, the oil based ink
is repelled from the areas that are wet from the
water, allowing only the drawn lines to soak up
ink and produce a print. In more
advanced forms of lithography
acid is used to prevent the ink
from moving to other parts of the
plate, by creating a stronger
barrier then water.
When attempting to create
a lithograph with color, the
process is very similar to that of
color wood block prints, or relief
printing. Multiple plates are
produced, each one
for a color intended
to be added to the
print. They are
layered onto the
This form of
for a large amount
of prints to be
pulled, making it the
choice for modern
artists, like Eugene
Delacroix, Henri de
and Edouard Manet.
Henri de Toulouse-
Producing a lithograph without much
expensive equipment is difficult. It is possible
however to demonstrate the basic principles of
lithography with ease. The main principle is the
basic chemistry of oil and water. Using a sturdy
piece of metal, an image can be produced with
an oil crayon; a Crayola crayon will do the trick.
Once the image is drawn, the metal can be
held at an angle, and water poured from the
top down. This will show how the water is
repelled from the waxy image. Using this
method to create a print may take more steps,
but it is possible with the correct ink and
Most well known as stenciling, this
method is the most used among students and
non-artists. Stencils can be made from paper,
plastic, fabric, metal, or almost any material.
The design is
removed from the
material, and then
ink is rolled over the
opening to make a
Campbell’s Soup Cans
silk screening on
This method of printmaking has
existed for many years. Stencils are
used in the fine
arts but also in the commercial arts.
Stenciling has also developed into an
art form that is utilitarian, proving to be
an asset in anything from decorating
walls, to creating unique designs for
T-shirts, known as silk screens.
Andy Warhol is known for having
used stencils and silk screens to complete
his famous representations of Campbell’s
soup cans. Many famous artists used
stencils to help them plan their works, for
example Michelangelo, who used a
stencil to outline his plans for the Sistine
Chapel in Rome. Although these examples
don’t result in prints in the technical sense of
the word, they do assist the artist in making
multiple copies of one image, which is the
essence of the idea of printmaking.
Creating stencil prints is one of the
easiest forms of printmaking to do without a
large amount of equipment. Simply begin with a
material that will block the ink, and not allow it
to permeate onto the print except in the desired
places. This can include cardboard or poster
board, and non-cotton fabrics. Then remove
the image from the material to create the
stencil. At this point the medium in which the
print can be created is very open. Paint, ink, or
a simple pencil can be used.
Different uses for Printmaking
Before there was photography,
computers, the internet or television, our
only means of mass communication was
through printmaking. Prints have a long and
diverse history, beginning long before the
Before Printmaking was Art
In ancient times, as in Ancient
Egypt, Ancient Rome, Babylonia, and
Ancient China, different types of stamps
were made to produce official seals. These
could be considered the first relief prints,
although they were not made to be admired
as art. With the invention of block book
printing, mass produced text came about,
and made communication easier.
The Printing Press
With the invention of the printing
press and movable type in the 1400s,
printing books became quicker and more
efficient than ever before. With the printing
press, books became more affordable and
the literacy rate in Europe grew. With the
invention of the printing press, a canonized
set of books could be produced, which
included the Bible, but
the printing press also
production of money
money to be produced.
The printing press
gave scientists a way
to share their
freely, and helped
spread their ideas.
16 th century printing press
With the invention of the printing
press, it was only a short time until the mass
production of newspapers began. With a
rotary printing press, the plate is curved
around a cylinder, to allow printing on a
continuous sheet of paper. The basic
process is still lithography, but with
adaptations to allow for quicker, more
efficient printing. This type of printing may
not specifically qualify as art, but the mass
communication of news and events brought
communities together. Newspapers are now
a staple in our society, and they are printed
in largely the same manner that they have
been for hundreds of years.
would not consider
money as art, but when
considering that money
is made using the
intaglio process, they
might reconsider. The
process of creating the
designing the money
each country is complex, Uncut sheet of $1
US bills and includes many artists
and designers. The United States currently
produces money with a high-speed press,
similar to that which creates newspapers.
This use of printmaking is an example of the
exact reason why printmaking was invented
and perfected, mass production and
accessibility to the masses.
Printmaking as Art
Printmaking as an art form has been
around almost as long as printmaking for
other purposes. It is in human nature to
create art, and when given a new medium
with which to work, people have always
embraced it. Printmaking for art’s sake is
commonly believed to have begun in the
Far East. Woodcuts appeared as early as
100 A.D. after paper was invented.
Printmaking arrived in Europe in the 1400s
and took the artists there by storm. Artists in
northern Europe became very adept at
creating prints, and carried this tradition
throughout the continent. Many prints were
produced to create awareness regarding a
specific event, or to make an artist’s work
more accessible to the public. Any number
of images were produced including religious
Different uses for Printmaking
images, political images, scientific drawings,
or even humorous images, which we might
consider cartoons today.
Art with a Statement
Disasters of War:
It Always Happens
to make the
clear. An artist could make a statement
about the current rulers, or war, or the
division between the upper class and lower
class. And producing these images as prints
allowed artists to spread their views quickly.
Francisco Goya completed a series of prints
in which he protested the war going on in
Spain during his time. Honore Daumier
completed prints in which he made
comments about the political unrest in
France during his time. Rembrandt made
prints to represent his religious views. The
ease with which prints could be mass
produced allowed for the free flow of their
political ideas into the public consciousness.
Printmaking in the Far East has
been a long-standing
tradition. Printmaking in
Japan took on a unique
style of its own, and is one
of the most recognizable
styles in art.
Night Scene After the Rain
Japan began largely the
same way printmaking
began in Europe, as a
means to reproduce
religious ones. The technique used was
woodblock printing, which continued into the
modern era. Artists such as Hokusai and
Hiroshi designed multiple blocks, to create
prints with color. As the centuries
progressed, the artists became more skilled,
and were able to include intricate color
Japanese prints had a strong
influence on European prints in the 1800s
and 1900s. When Japan began to increase
trade with Europe in the later nineteenth
century, the style began to show up in
western prints and in the works of the
Impressionists. This was actually mostly
accidental, as Japan was not exporting the
prints specifically, but rather using the prints
to wrap the delicate
porcelain they were
exporting, much in the
way we use old
newspaper to wrap
dishes today. This
coincidence created one
of the strongest
influences of outside art
on the Impressionists,
including Manet, Monet,
Cassatt, and Renoir.
Printmaking today takes on many
forms and covers a wide variety of
purposes. With the advancement of
digital images, traditional printmaking
has become almost strictly an art
form, rather than a form for mass
communication. Many modern fine
artists use printmaking to develop
works. Screen-printing, which only
developed recently, is widely used as
a commercial printmaking process
today. Technology has advanced
enough that printmaking can still be
used, but the process can require
little or no human involvement, as is
the case with printed newspapers,
and printing money.
A SELECT HISTORY OF PRINTMAKING
The Artist and His Wife, Self-Portrait
This Artist Biographies section provides examples of famous printmakers throughout history.
These artists represent different types of printmaking, different styles, and different uses of
prints overtime. Exposing students to these artists gives them a foundation in printmaking.
The images shown here, and the artists discussed, will not be in the exhibit at the Museum of
Fine Arts. Rather, they provide a background for the exhibit on display which will include more
contemporary works, as well as selections from the permanent collection.
Albrecht Durer, St. Jerome in
His Study, 1514, etching
Albrecht Durer was one of the most influential
printmakers of his time. His father was a goldsmith, as well as
his godfather, but his godfather left to become a printer and
publisher the year Durer was born, 1471. His godfather became
one of the most successful publishers in Germany and owned
twenty-four printing presses. This probably had an influence on
Durer, sparking his interest in printmaking.
At age fifteen Durer became an apprentice to a local
artist in Nuremburg, Michael Wolgemut. He had a large studio
which produced many woodblock books. This is the studio
where Durer learned how to make woodblock and dry point
In 1494, at age 23, Durer got married to Agnes Frey, a
daughter of an important brass worker. They had no children
throughout their marriage.
Albrecht Durer, Self-portrait at
28, 1500, oil on panel
In 1494 Durer took his first trip to Venice, Italy to study
more advanced artists. He stayed for a year and went back to
Nuremburg to open his own workshop. Over the next five years
his style began to merge Italian influences with underlying
Northern forms. The first few years at his workshop he
produced mostly woodblocks of religious subjects. He also
trained himself in the difficult task of using the burin to make
engravings. He also became fascinated with proportion. He
actually studied it intensely for the rest of his life. His etching of
Adam and Eve shows his attention to proportion.
In 1505 he returned to Italy to work on painting. By this
time his etchings had gained a tremendous amount of
popularity and were being copied by other artists. In 1507 he
returned to Germany. By this time he was well established and had good relations with
most major artists like Raphael and Titian.
From 1513 to 1514 Durer created his three greatest
achievements in printmaking; Knight, Death, and the Devil,
St. Jerome in His Study, and Melencolia. After that he did
work for Emperor Maximilian.
In his later years, Durer wanted to create a unique
print as a means to celebrate his achievements. Durer made
The Triumphal Arch; to this day this work is still the largest
woodblock print. He used 192 woodblocks to make it.
Around 1520 Durer became a follower of Martin Luther. After
this his work seemed to focus more on religious subjects. He
was still a man of curiosity and wrote four books on human
nature. Sadly the books were published a few months after
his death in 1528. Even today Durer is respected as one of
the greatest printmakers.
Albrecht Durer, Melencolia,
Rembrandt, Self-portrait in Cap
with Eyes Wide Open, 1630,
Rembrandt, The Three Crosses, 1653,
dry point and burin
Rembrandt was born in Leiden, the Netherlands in
1606. He was the ninth child of a well-to-do family. He
was always interested in painting and as a young boy
had an apprenticeship with Jacob van Swanenburgh, a
local history painter, with whom he spent three years.
Around 1624 he opened his own studio in Leiden with a
colleague and friend, Jan Lievens. He produced small
detailed paintings with religious themes. In 1627 he
started to accept students.
Eventually, he wanted a bigger city with more to
offer so he moved to Amsterdam in 1631. Here he
practiced professional portraiture and stayed with an art
dealer who introduced his cousin, Saskia van Uylenburg,
to the artist. Rembrandt married her in 1634. During this
period he made much larger paintings and they were very dramatic and full of
movement. He still painted biblical stories but also some
In the late 1630s Rembrandt started to make fewer
paintings and more etchings of landscapes. His work seemed
to be less eccentric, most likely because he was in mourning
for three of his children who died in the late 30s. His wife
followed in 1641. His works of her on her death bed are some
of his most personal and moving.
In the late 1640s Rembrandt started a relationship with
his maid, Hendrickje Stoffels. With her he had a little girl but
they never married.
Rembrandt had always been a frivolous man with his
money. He bought up artwork and eventually he went
bankrupt in 1656. He was forced to sell all his possessions
including his printing press. After he was forced to sell his
printing press he never did printmaking again. To help in the
hard times Hendrickje and their only surviving child, Titus,
started an art dealing business and Rembrandt became an
employee. For the rest of Rembrandt’s life he had a steady
flow of commissions but he never regained his financial
He outlived both Hendrickje and his son and was left
important in Dutch history.
Rembrandt, Landscape, 1640, etching
with his baby daughter. Rembrandt died a few months after
Titus in 1669. He left behind one of the biggest collections
of artwork, including around 400 etchings and over 600
paintings. Still to this day he is considered one of the
greatest European painters and printmakers and the most
Franciso Goya, Self Portrait,
1792-93, brush and gray
wash on paper
Francisco Goya, Disasters of War:
Gloomy Presentiments of Things to
Come, 1810, aquatint and etching
Known as “the last of the old masters, and the first of
the modern artists,” Goya inspired many artists with his
determination and talent. He was born in Fuendetodos, Spain
in 1746 to a family that displayed his mother’s crest. His father,
on the other hand, was a guilder.
At fourteen Goya secured an apprenticeship with Jose
Lujan. Later he moved to Madrid where he studied with Mengs,
a German artist whose work was a pre-curser to neoclassicism.
As his art developed he started to enter
competitions. In 1763 and 1766 he submitted his art to the
Royal Academy of Fine Arts but was rejected. He then traveled
to Rome where he entered a painting competition and won a
prize for his work.
Goya then returned home and started studying with
Francisco Bayeu y Subias, a neo-classical painter who focused on religious subjects.
During this time Goya’s paintings started to develop and he gained his own style. He was
bold with his paintbrush and liked to make bold marks. In 1774 he married Josefa, Bayeu’s
sister. He was made a court painter to Charles the Third in 1786 and stayed in that position
for quite some years.
In 1792 his life took at turn for the worse. After a high fever Goya
was left deaf. He did not let that stop him; in fact he succeeded even
more. In 1799 he was made the first court painter to Charles the Fifth.
On his own time Goya started to make a series of aquatint
etchings about the French Revolution and the philosophy behind it. The
aquatints contain disturbing content. Captions let the viewer know what
they are about. An example of such a caption reads, “The sleep of reason
produces monsters.” The series was published in 1799 under the name
In 1800-1814 the French invaded Spain in the Peninsular War.
This war sparked inspiration for Goya. He painted The Third of May 1808
and another aquatint etching series named Disasters of War. This series
was very brutal and was not published until 1863 due to the controversial
His wife died in 1812. Goya moved in with his
housekeeper in 1814, with whom he is
thought to have born a child. Toward the
last years of his life he wanted to be
isolated so he moved to a house in
Francisco Goya, Los Caprichos:
The Sleep of Reason Produces
Monsters, 1796-98, aquatint and
Manzanares. The house was named “Quinta del Sordo,”
The House of the Deaf. This is where he made his Black
Paintings, a series of portraits that portray shocking themes.
He made 14 of them and painted directly on the walls with oils. Goya left Spain in 1824 and
moved to Bordeaux and settled in Paris where he died in
1828 at the age of 82.
Hokusai, Self-portrait as an
Old Man, 1839, woodblock
Hokusai was born in 1760 into an artisan family in Japan.
He was born with the name Tokitaro. His name was changed
many times throughout his life because it was common in Japan
for an artist to change his name. However, his changed
more than usual.
At twelve years old he was sent by his father to work at a
book shop. This is where his interest with printmaking started. At
fourteen he became an apprentice to a wood-carver, where he
worked till he was eighteen. This was good practice for him for
carving his future woodblocks. He was then accepted into the
studio of Katsukawa Shunsho, an artist of ukiyo-e, a style of
woodblock prints and paintings. After a year his first name
changed to Shunro. Under this name he published his first series
of prints in 1779.
Shunsho died in 1793 and
Hokusai began to explore other
styles of art such as European
styles. Soon he was expelled from
his school, for unknown reasons. He said that his
embarrassment inspired him to work harder. He then
became more focused on landscapes. He became
associated with the Tawaraya School and adopted the
name Tawaraya Sori.
In 1798, after producing a large amount of brush
paintings, he gave his name to a pupil. For the first time
he was a free artist, not affiliated with any school. He
adopted the name Hokusai Tomisa.
Hokusai, Mount Fuji in Clear Weather, 1837,
By 1800 he changed his name to the one that he is now known by, Katsushika
Hokusai. He then published two collections of landscapes and began to attract students.
Over the next decade he became increasingly popular. In 1807 he paired with a novelist
to produce images for books. They had artistic differences and had to stop working
together. However, the publisher kept Hokusai on the project because he felt images
were more important than words.
In 1811, at age 51, he changed his name yet again to Taito and created the
Hokusai Manga. The Manga were art manuals that were very popular at the time. He
published 12 volumes. In 1820 he changed his name to Listu; this name marked the
start of the period in which he secured his fame in Japan. During this period he
produced the famous 36 Views of Mount Fuji, which included the Great Wave of
Hokusai, The Great Wave of Kanagawa, 1832,
Then in 1834 tragedy hit. A fire burned down Hokusai’s studio. He was old at this
time and younger artists were starting to over-shadow him but he never stopped making
He died in 1849 and on his death bed he said that he just wanted five more years
so he could produce a few more pieces. After his death his fame grew throughout the
world and he is still thought of as one of the greatest Japanese artists.
Andy Warhol, Self-portrait, 1966,
Andrew Warhol was born in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania in 1928. He was the third child of
working class parents, who were immigrants from
Slovakia. He was raised as a strict Catholic. In
third grade he suffered from the disease called St.
Vitus dance, a complication of scarlet fever. This
resulted in long-term effects to his skin coloration
and he became a hypochondriac. He was bedridden
for a lot of his childhood. To occupy time in
bed he collected old pictures of movie stars and put
them up around his bed. He also drew and listened
to the radio. He says that this period of his life was
important to the development of his personality.
From a young age he showed talent in art.
When he was old enough he studied commercial art at the School of Fine Arts at
Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh. In 1949 he moved to New York
City and began a successful career in magazine illustration and advertising. In
1950 he gained fame, something he
always craved, from his shoe ads that
were created by using a loose inkblotting
style. RCA hired him to make
record covers and promotional
material. In 1962 he held his first
exhibit, which included the Marilyn
Diptych, 100 Soup Cans, 100 Coke
Bottles, and 100 Dollar Bills.
During the 60s Andy founded
“the factory,” a studio that became a
hang-out for artists of all kinds. Once
Andy started working in the factory he
began to use silk-screening. With his
process he was able to produce his
artwork “en masse.” Warhol liked the
idea of silk-screening because he
was making art work using images of
mass produced products and he was
then mass-producing his art work. He
said that he wanted to be a machine.
Warhol became quickly known for his
brightly colored pop art. Some critics
were turned off by his glorification of
Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup, 1968, silk screen-printing
market goods but it was
clear that there had been a
change in the art world and
he had sparked it.
He started to make
films as well. He cast his
friends, who were artists
and socialites, and would
film in “the factory.” In 1968
Valerie Solanas, a radical
feminist who had been in
one of the Warhol films,
came to the studio to pick
up a script but was denied
entry. In a fit of anger she
came back and shot
Warhol, as well as an art
critic, and a curator.
The 70s were a
Andy Warhol, Turquoise Marilyn, 1962, silk screen-printing
calmer time for Warhol. He
was well-established and
some of his patrons were
well-known movie stars and musicians. In 1975 he wrote a book, Philosophy of
Andy Warhol, where he discussed the nature of art.
During the 80s Andy started to get back into the limelight, mainly because
of his friendships with new upcoming artists such as Jean-Michel Basquiat.
However, critics were starting to turn on Warhol, saying that he was a “business
artist.” The majority of his art was of celebrities. People thought he had become
very superficial but Warhol had always been fascinated with celebrities and
people of the elite.
In 1987, after gallbladder surgery, Warhol suffered from a heart attack and
died. It was a tragedy in the art world and many gathered at his funeral. His ideas
were bold and different and helped to change the art world. He took chances and
become an icon of the 60s and 70s.
THE MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:
MATRIX: CONTEMPORARY PRINTMAKING
How Technology has changed Printmaking
When we consider the vastly
different uses of prints throughout history, it
is difficult to see where prints might fit into
our modern society. In the years before
computers and the internet, prints were
made as a way of advertising an artist’s
skills, or a way to send back images from a
new land. During the time of newspapers,
the printing press led the mass production
of images and text allowing more of the
public to gain access to the news and
current events in their societies.
With the internet today, there is
literally almost no need for any printed
newspapers. Many companies are
switching to online publications in order to
be more eco-friendly. With laser printers
and Xerox machines, the idea of
painstakingly creating a lithograph or
etching seems humorous. Today
printmaking is used solely as an art form.
This has allowed modern printmakers to
create exceptionally beautiful and creative
prints, which push the boundaries of
Many modern printmakers create
their prints by incorporating the new tools
and technologies available, even those
used in everyday household chores. The
artist Willie Cole is a prime example of this.
He makes lithographs that are based on the
patterns left by an iron when it is face down
for too long.
By incorporating the iron into his
prints Cole merges a modern technology
with the antique technique of printmaking.
Modern printmakers also incorporate
unique subject matter reflecting the new
freedom they feel with prints viewed purely
as art. The artist Mark Hosford (biography
on page 27) composes wildly imaginative
and colorful images. In his prints Hosford
draws fictional creatures with multiple arms
and distorted bodies. His figures seem to
float defying the laws of physics. Hosford
said these images came from his overactive
imagination as a child.
Weight of Worm
With the rapid
advancement of the digital contribution to
the art world, many artists have begun to
play with the idea of the perfection achieved
by such media. Imi Hwangbo creates prints
by hand to mimic
digital precision. She
that display an exact
prints in the tradition
of the old masters,
as if simply using a
computer is not an
Echo Keeper 1
How Technology has changed Printmaking
Hwangbo exemplifies another trend
present in printmaking. With the new ease
with which prints can be produced, many
artists instead focus more attention on the
way a print can be hung in a museum.
Artists conceive works that defy the
confines of a traditional four-sided frame.
Hwangbo’s works achieve threedimensionality
in their finished state. By
layering print after print the artist builds up a
texture to give the work a presence in
The artist Tim Dooley (biography on
page 24) resists the confines of a twodimensional
sheet of paper. Dooley creates
large installation pieces in which the prints
become almost interactive. Dooley includes
mixed media, which allows the viewer full
awareness of the intricate process and form
We can see through these many
examples that printmaking today is
drastically different from the printmaking of
the past. Our need for prints has changed
through the advancement of technology, so
the methods and reasons we create prints
has followed suit. The technology that
changed printmaking is not a bad thing, but
rather another adjustment that
contemporary artists have embraced in
That Joke Isn't Funny Anymore
Modern printmakers also create
works that reference the heritage of
printmaking, but they add modern touches.
Anita Jung is known for works that visually
cite old masters’ paintings yet she
incorporates elements of home décor
through patterning. By combining new and
old Jung celebrates the roots of
contemporary art while embracing modern
How Museums Have Embraced Modern Printmaking
With the new freedom experienced
by modern printmakers, it should come as
no surprise that artists are trying new and
unexplored forms that defy the conventions
of most typical museum exhibitions. But
museums are adapting and learning to
embrace the new forms. Museums now
recognize the artistic value of prints.
In recent years the number of print
exhibitions in the United States increased
exponentially. The Los Angeles County
Museum of Art offered five exhibitions on
prints just since 2007. They focused on
traditional Japanese prints while mounting
exhibits displaying prints by artists better
known for their other media, including
Picasso and Matisse.
to the new and expanded techniques and
dimensions of printmaking. The exhibit
Matrix at the Museum of Fine Arts at Florida
State University will display some of the
new techniques currently in practice.
Matrix will include artists whose
prints take on a variety of forms. The artist
Lynne Allen (biography on page 23) creates
three-dimensional works out of prints. Her
work draws on her Native American
heritage, and her paper sculptures
commonly take the shape of artifacts of that
culture. Her work displays the way prints
can be transformed into something entirely
different than their original form and intent.
Le Cauchemar de l'Eléphant Blanc
(LACMA exhibition Matisse on Paper)
In 2001 the Museum of Modern Art in
New York held an exhibit titled What is a Print?
This exhibition examined the ever changing
medium of printmaking in relation to its past
and future. The Mary Brogan Museum of Art
and Science in Tallahassee recently
presented an exhibition that dealt with the
relationship between printing money and
fine art. Titled CURRENCY: Art As
Money/Money As Art, the exhibit showed
the influence that money as a print form
exerts on the printmaking of contemporary
Matrix will include artists who
developed alternatives to paper as the
foundation on which they print. The artist
Cynthia Lollis prints on unique materials.
Cynthia Lollis created a detailed map of the
earth, and printed it on the inside of broken
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:
Lynne Allen is well known
both for her traditional as well as
her three-dimensional prints. Her
inspiration comes from the history
of the women in her family as
members of the Standing Rock
Indian Reservation in South
Dakota. When the matriarchs in
her family were sent to
government boarding schools as
part of a plan to “educate the
Indian,” they became outsiders in
both the Native American and
white worlds. Lynne Allen’s work
reflects her “foot-in-both-worlds”
existence. Although Native
American, she appears to the
outside world as a white woman. A
central theme of her prints and
three-dimensional objects is the
misunderstanding between Native
and white Americans.
In Moccasin #2, Lynne Allen showcases the one-of-a-kind quality of her work;
layered etchings on handmade paper have been sewn together to form threedimensional
moccasins. The moccasin is an iconic image of Native American culture.
The use of such a recognizable image to convey a message is characteristic of her
work; Allen often features moccasins, knife sheaths, and stamp bags constructed of
original 19 th century land documents or
etchings on handmade paper.
Lynne Allen is the Director of
the School for Visual Arts at Boston
University as well as a professor of art.
Her work has been exhibited both
nationally and internationally and is a
part of the permanent collection of
museums throughout the world. With
over 100 exhibitions featuring her work
in the United States alone, Allen has
been recognized both through awards
and exhibitions as one of the
outstanding artists of her field.
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:
Tim Dooley is known for
his printmaking as well as his
Mixed Product installations.
These installations are based
on and center around printed
panels. Dooley considers
these Mixed Product panels as
the core of his work. The
panels begin as traditional
collages which Dooley then
augments further using his
computer. The collage
imagery concentrates on the
space between oppositional
human emotions within a
society, feelings such as fear
and hope or alienation and
intimacy. Dooley is constantly
making new panels and feels
that Mixed Product will never
truly be finished as its
evolution coincides with his
evolution as an artist.
like the one pictured here,
employ brightly colored prints,
wires, and other media which twist and coil among each other, disguising what are often
sinister messages about the unpredictable and sometimes dangerous aspects of
modern technology and its place in society.
Tim Dooley is an Associate Professor of Printmaking at the University of
Northern Iowa. He has participated
in multiple group, solo, and juried
exhibitions in locations throughout
the United States.
Mixed Product (detail)
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:
The other prints in the series
follow the same gray, white, and yellow
color scheme and, like the example
shown here, they resemble blueprints
that have been carefully arranged and
layered to detail Bookwalter’s
explorations into the changing
properties of German aviation.
Denise Bookwalter is an
Assistant Professor and Area Head of
Printmaking at Florida State University.
Generally, Denise Bookwalter’s
various print series result from research
and investigations into the history of
technology. They explore the changing
perspectives of the human view of
technological development. As an
expansion of a dialogue between the
historical and the contemporary,
Bookwalter’s prints often use 3-D
modeling software as well as other
technologies. Bookwalter translates her
prints using traditional and
experimental techniques, creating “a
dialogue between the virtual and the
actual … science and art.”
In Luftschiff (left), one of a series
of prints of the same title, Denise
Bookwalter demonstrates her interest
in the structure and history of
technology, specifically the
development of aviation. This print
details the luftschiff, German for
airship. Bookwalter shows the luftschiff
from multiple views via a process that
utilizes three-dimensional modeling
software to translate the modeling into
a two-dimensional print.
Pieces and Parts (detail)
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:
The Blackburn Suite: Blackburn Wing Figures
interest in printmaking first
began while she was doing
graduate work for her MFA at
Pratt Institute in Brooklyn,
NY. Her early inspiration was
found in the work of German
artist Kathe Kollwitz and
American artist Elizabeth
Catlett, whose prints and
sculptures dealt with social
and political issues in relation
to the human condition. After
her graduate research
proposal to work with
Elizabeth Catlett was
accepted at Pratt Institute,
and Bowens was given a full
scholarship opportunity, she
was next introduced to
Robert Blackburn for an
independent study at The
Bowens’ experience at
The Printmaking Workshop
with Blackburn heavily
influenced her work as a
printmaker. She learned to
work as a professional printer
for different artists, galleries,
and museums, getting the
opportunity to meet people
from all over the world. While
working with Blackburn, Bowens visited the facilities of the Tyler School of Art in
Philadelphia and transferred there, later traveling to Rome, Italy to work with Nona
Kabuya Bowens’ work is inspired by the visual critique of the African-American
experience in the United States, and explores ideas of memory, human relations, and
the questionable nature of truth. Her current work takes an interdisciplinary approach to
printmaking, concentrating on the unique and monoprint concepts of the printmaking
process rather than several images published in an edition. Her most recent creative
endeavor is Rituals and Masked Identities, a large group of prints consisting of several
Kabuya Bowens is an Assistant Professor of Art at Florida State University.
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:
The Hidden Pieces from Silhouette Series
2002 – 2008
Mark Hosford is a musician,
animator, and artist whose prints
and drawings are inspired by the
vivid dreams he had as a child as
well as the type of “fantastic
imagery and sociological
investigations” found in the prints
of Los Caprichos by Francisco
Goya. Hosford first became
interested in printmaking because
the method for creating an image
is indirect, and the process
afforded him the ability to produce
When working on a print,
many steps are taken before the
actual outcome is known. Hosford
describes this relationship as
“collaborating” with the medium
instead of “commanding” it. He
also likens this process to a math
problem, his favorite subject in
school, where the artist has to go
through many steps in solving a
problem in order to be rewarded
with an answer.
His recent prints come from different moments in life, some specifically drawn
from Hosford’s own past, and some based on ambiguous scenarios from his
observations of society. The subjects of these range from the first contemplation of loss,
such as the death of a loved one, to issues such as gender and religion. His figures
often appear in silhouette so as to give a more general representation of these
In The Hidden Pieces, Hosford includes slightly grotesque features that often
inhabit his works. The strange pile of monsters partially hidden behind the screen is
exactly the type of nightmarish image frequently seen in Hosford’s art. The prevalent
use of pink to dominate both the entire picture plane and the screen behind the figure
suggests a traditional characterization of the female gender. He renders the figure in
silhouette; she strokes her own hair and looks down. She symbolizes contemplation or
possibly melancholy. While the exact subject matter is intentionally ambiguous, the
contrast between the young girl and the horrific monsters evokes the strong emotions of
a vivid dream, or perhaps a nightmare.
Mark Hosford is an Assistant Professor of Art at Vanderbilt University in
Nashville, Tennessee, and holds both a Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees in
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT:
Roger Shimomura’s paintings and
prints address issues associated with
Asian-American culture, often inspired by
the diary kept by his immigrant
grandmother. Shimomura is a third
generation Japanese-American interned
with his family after the Japanese bombed
Pearl Harbor in 1942. His paintings, prints,
and theater pieces focus not only on racial
issues and stereotyping of Asian-
Americans but also on life in an internment
camp. For Tokio Ueyama (right) shows a
typical scene inside a Japanese internment
camp, combining the colors and graphic
elements of American Pop Art, like that of
Andy Warhol, with a stereotypical portrayal
of an Asian woman writing calligraphically
while dressed in a traditional kimono and
obi. The juxtaposition of these elements
evokes Shimomura’s dual interest. He
portrays the ill treatment of an entire
population as well as the ethnic confusion
of many Japanese Americans when faced
with the conflicting cultures of modern
America and their Japanese heritage.
Formerly a professor at universities
in Kansas and Minnesota, Roger
Shimomura retired from teaching in 2004,
and his personal papers and letters are
being collected by the Archives of American
Art, Smithsonian Institute, in Washington
D.C. Shimomura has had over 125 solo
exhibitions of his paintings and prints. He
has presented several pieces of
experimental theater in New York,
Minneapolis, and Washington D.C.
Mistaken Identities: For Tokio Ueyama
Mistaken Identities: For Seattle P.I.
LEARNING ABOUT PRINTMAKING
Mechanical Creation of a Perspective Image
Pop Art Food
Session Activity: Students will look at Andy Warhol’s Soup Can print and discuss why they
think he created this work. They can also see that art can be found everywhere, even if it is a
soup can. After they discuss the work, students will draw their favorite foods and write short
poems on the drawings about the food. After they have finished they will share their pictures
and poems with the class.
Level: 1-5 th grade
Time: 45 minutes
Key Concept: 1. Students will learn about Andy Warhol and pop art.
2. Students will see that art can be found anywhere.
3. Students will get to create their own pop art images of their favorite foods and
Image of Andy Warhol’s Soup Can
Vocabulary: Pop art, printmaking, screen-printing
1. Students will learn about the pop art movement. They will learn about Andy Warhol and
his life and what he did for the art world.
a. Pop art is an art movement that began in the U.S. in the 1950s and reached
its peak of activity in the 1960s, chose as its subject matter the anonymous,
everyday, standardized, and banal iconography in American life, such as
comic strips, billboards, commercial products, and celebrity images, and dealt
with them typically in such forms as outsize commercially smooth paintings,
mechanically reproduced silkscreens, large-scale facsimiles, and soft
b. Andy Warhol was born in Pittsburg in 1928. He was always fascinated by
celebrities and socialites. He was sick a lot as a young kid and would spend
hours in his bed drawing or looking at magazine clippings. Once he was old
enough he went to an art school for commercial arts. He then gained an
interest in advertising. He did ads for shoes which gave him much success
and was then hired to do record covers by a large record company. Once he
had gained fame he started doing his own work in his own studio which
became known as “the factory.” This became a hang- out to many socialites
and other artists. Everyone wanted to be in with Warhol. His art work was
original and eye catching. He made simple images using icons and objects
that were in everyday life but he found a way for people to appreciate them
as art. He made the process of silkscreening famous and continues to be the
face of pop art.
2. Students will view Andy Warhol’s Soup Can and discuss why they think he made it.
a. Why do you think he wanted to make a picture of a soup can?
b. What do you think the message was that he was trying to show people?
-Maybe that art is everywhere, even in your kitchen.
- Maybe soup is Warhol’s favorite food.
3. Students will then get pieces of paper and draw their own favorite foods.
4. Students will write short poems on their pictures about their favorite foods.
a. Students can use the template attached to aid them in writing the poems.
b. Students can make their poems into concrete poems by making the words
different shape such as the shape of the food they are writing
Summary: Students will then share their pictures and read their short poems out loud to the
1. Through discussion students showed an understanding of pop art.
2. Through discussion students showed learning about Andy Warhol and his contribution to
the art world.
3. Students made their own pop art images of their favorite foods.
4. Students wrote poems about their favorite foods.
Extension: Students can use their drawings as preparation for printmaking. Stencils could
be cut to replicate the idea of silk-screening and Warhol’s method. Styrofoam prints could be
made by following the directions in the next lesson plan.
Example of Concrete Poetry
My Favorite Food
Name of Food:
Two Adjectives Describing the Food:
(Give color, shape, or texture words)
A Phrase to Describe the Taste of the Food:
Author: Morgan Jones
Relief Printing with Styrofoam
Printing Everyday Subjects like Durer and Hokusai
Students will create relief prints, using inexpensive and readily available materials. This process
will show them how prints can be made, but will also give them a better understanding of how
more professional prints are produced using more advanced materials. They will explore prints
made by famous artists from various times. By looking at these older prints students can relate
their lives to the past. Printmaking for children develops manual skill, coordination, visual
projection and discipline.
1 st -8 th grade
Acrylic paint or ink
Styrofoam trays (clean ones used for meat packages are ideal)
Pencils or pens
Cookie sheet, or similar object, to hold paint
Paint rollers or paint brushes
Heavy weight paper
Images of prints
Worksheet for evaluation
1. Students will learn about historical printmakers, and the images they produced.
2. Students will relate things in their lives to the things they see in the prints.
3. Students will explore the process with which relief printing is made.
4. Students will demonstrate their creativity.
5. Students will develop an understanding of how one print may vary from another from the
same plate depending on paint applied and pressure used.
1. Teachers will show images of prints made by Durer and Hokusai, provided at the end of
the lesson plan.
2. Teachers will provide information about these artists and their historical significance;
information is provided on these artists and their significance throughout the packet.
3. Students will answer a series of questions designed to get them thinking and talking
about the prints they have seen.
4. Students will sketch images that relate to the themes of the prints they are shown, for
the Hokusai, students should be encouraged to draw a landscape they are familiar with,
and for the Durer, students should be encouraged to draw another animal.
5. Students will produce prints based on these sketches.
6. Teachers will cut the Styrofoam trays so that there are flat surfaces with which to work.
7. Students will use pencils or pens, or for older students carpenters nails, to cut out the
lines in their prints, remembering that the images will appear in reverse.
8. Students will use rollers or paint brushes to apply paint to their Styrofoam trays, or plates
to be technical.
9. Students will then lay the plates down on a table and place sheets of paper over the
plates, patting gently, to prevent bleeding, to transfer the paint.
10. Optional Steps: Students may place pieces of felt over their plates and gently roll over
them with rolling pins. This most closely simulates the action of using a printing press.
This step may also just be demonstrated by the teacher.
11. Students will allow their papers or piece of felt, to dry, and may repeat the process to
create an edition of prints.
12. Students will then answer questions relating to the images they created in comparison to
the sample images by Durer and Hokusai.
Through hands-on creation, students will learn the process of creating relief prints, using
comparable materials to those of the professionals. By creating these relief prints, students will
be more aware of the time it takes to produce the plates and also the multiple images that can
be produced using this method. Through the production of prints, students will show a
relationship between historical knowledge and imagery and their own lives.
Images for Lesson Plan
The Great Wave off Kanagawa
woodcut print, 1823-29
etching print, 1515
Worksheet prior to Printmaking:
Hokusai’s The Great Wave
Name everything in this print that is similar to something you have seen before?
Hokusai lived in Japan, an island country surrounded by ocean. Where do you think
Hokusai saw a huge wave like this? What was the weather like when he saw this?
Hokusai also wanted people to look at Mt. Fuji, an important mountain in Japan. What is
the reason Hokusai placed it behind the water?
Hokusai made many pictures of Mt. Fuji. When you look at this print, do you think
Hokusai though the ocean was more important or Mt. Fuji was more important to Japan?
Florida is a peninsula, a state surrounded by ocean on three sides. Hokusai’s Great
Wave shows his experience of Japanese terrain and weather. What picture of Florida
would you create to show your experiences of Florida Terrain and weather? Do you think
the land or the ocean is more important in Florida? If you were sitting in a boat off the
coast of Florida and you could draw a picture, what would it include? What would you
want to show about the ocean? What would you show on the land?
Where have you seen this animal before? Your house, the zoo, in the wild?
Albrecht Durer lived in Germany (in Europe) in the 1400’s. He was creating
pictures of animals that live in Africa. Where do you think Durer saw this animal?
Were there zoos 500 years ago? Where else might Durer seen a rhinoceros?
Why would Durer draw this animal as opposed to another type of animal? How
would you decide which animal to draw? Would you consider your own
fascination with an animal’s appearance? Would you consider the rarity of an
animal? That an animal is threatened with extinction? That an animal holds an
important place in a local ecosystem? Something else?
Worksheet to complete after Printmaking:
How is your print the same as the Durer or Hokusai print?
How is your print different than the Durer or Hokusai? Why do you think there are
In what ways do we use prints today? In what ways were they used in the past?
How has technology changed our use of prints? Where can you see prints
I’m a Little Culturist and Printmaker
Students will create prints which characterize their own ethnic cultural traditions
using as inspiration the print works, Deer Skin Bottom Bag, Knife Sheath, and
Moccasin #2 by Lynne Allen. The United States is a melting pot; every American comes
from a different cultural and historic background. Many families still keep some of their
conventions throughout generations. In this activity, students will have the opportunity to
reflect on their own cultures, and design representative prints to express the shared
values and perspectives of their families.
Level: 5-7 grades
Time needed: two hours
1. Help students to recognize their own cultural backgrounds which play an
important role in shaping people’s identity and confidence.
2. Students will become aware that cultural diversity is one of the important
features of their environment and will discover family histories of people around
3. Students will create cultural symbols from their own perspectives.
Materials: Newspapers, magazines, website images, collage materials, paper, glue,
scissors and copy machine.
1. Culture: the way of life, particularly general customs and beliefs of a group of
people at a specific time.
2. Tradition: a belief, principle or way of acting which people in a particular society
or group have continued to follow for a long time, or all of these in a particular
society or group.
3. Sheath: a cover into which a knife or sword fits so that the blade cannot cut
someone when it is not used.
4. Moccasin: a shoe which the wearer's foot slides into and which is made from
soft leather with stitches around the top at the front.
5. Vellum: a material used in the past for writing on or for covering a book, made
from the skins of young animals, especially cows or sheep.
1. Introduce the print works by Lynne Allen.
a. Show the images of Deer Skin Bottom Bag, Knife Sheath, and Moccasin
Lynne Allen, Deer Skin Bottom Bag,
etching on 19th-century handwritten
land document on vellum, handwork,
Lynne Allen, Knife Sheath, etching on 19th-century
antique handwritten land document on vellum, handwork,
porcupine quills, wire, rusted bottle caps,
Lynne Allen, Moccasin #2, etching on handmade paper, linen
b. Demonstrate the inspiration of the three works through the artist’s
“All the matriarchs in my family have been members of the Standing
Rock Indian Reservation in South Dakota. All were sent away to
government boarding schools, to realign their cultural heritage. All became
outsiders in both the native and the white world. Everybody comes to their
own cultural truths, and mine is that I am the product of the government’s
plan to educate the Indian. I can trace my Native heritage back six
generations to Ita ta Win (Wind Woman), born in the 1830’s. If you meet
me you don’t believe I have native blood. This fact, how we view each
other, plays a big part in my image making. Everyone always
misunderstands everyone else. My work is about the difference between
what is true about the unknown and what is imagined. … I combine
personal experiences with fiction, and as a visual artist I incorporate the
passions that drive me personally… .“
Because her family background mixed two distinctive civilizations, Lynne
uses her artworks to discuss the ways people view one another and the
misunderstanding that may cause in the process. She wants people to
realize the difference between truth and imagination when looking at the
culture and traditions of someone else. She therefore uses the art pieces
to describe real stories from her cultural perspective.
C. Discuss the idea of culture with students.
What is culture? What is tradition?
Do you know anything about your cultural background? Is your
family Italian, Asian, African-American? Does your family celebrate
that background in some way? Explain.
Does your family have its own traditions? Describe a tradition of
your family. Do you enjoy this family tradition or not? Explain.
Think about a symbol that represents your culture or your family.
2. Pass the papers and materials around and have students use the
newspaper and magazine pages to find images to symbolize their cultures
3. Students will start to collage and create their own cultural icons.
4. Students will use the copy machine to print out their cultural symbols.
5. Have students share and explain their cultural symbols.
By making their own cultural symbols and sharing them, students will learn what
constitutes culture and tradition and will understand the diversified culture in the
Have students follow Lynne Allen’s process by using their prints (Xeroxed copies)
to make three dimensional objects which also represent their families or ethnic
Color, Color, Magic Power
Students will concentrate on three printmaking artworks by two artists: Ripple Storm
by Luis Cruz Azeceta; Big House and Swirl House by Bradlee Shanks. The subjects in
these prints all describe the extremely powerful threat of nature, one that could bring
serious disaster. However, there are differences between the two artists’ color options
as well as their approaches to presenting their perspectives. Therefore, in this session
students will discover the mysterious force of color and learn a basic message about the
way every color expresses special emotion and evokes a distinct atmosphere.
Level: Grades 3– 6
Time needed: one and half hours.
1. Students will observe the opposing descriptions of disaster presented by the
2. Students will learn that color is a capital component in the construction of an
3. Students will compare and contrast different artworks by color.
4. Students will study the basic definition and potential expression of each color.
5. Students will use their own words to describe and interpret the three artworks.
Image of Ripple Storm by Luis Cruz Azeceta, Big House and Swirl House by Bradlee
1. The teacher will show the images of three printmaking works, Ripple Storm by
Luis Cruz Azeceta and Big House and Swirl House by Bradlee Shanks. The
students will be given information about the artists and the artworks.
a. Luis Cruz Azeceta is a full-time artist who owns a studio in New Orleans.
Hurricanes have repeatedly threatened his city. Luis gives the following art
statement for Ripple Storm:
“In New Orleans, where I now live, water … caused displacement post-
Katrina. [The] etching, … relate[s] to that experience.”
b. Bradlee Shanks is now an associate Professor at the University of South
Florida in Tampa. His art statement follows:
“My pictures are meant to serve as a trigger, a point of departure for knowing
something I otherwise would not know. … Currently I am creating screen
prints using the landscape of a remote Florida island as my muse.”
Bradlee uses his works as a door to the unknown world. He uses his
artwork as an exploration of ideas and sees the process as an adventure of
2. The teacher will use the worksheet to discuss several questions about the prints.
a. The students will give written answers to worksheet #1. A class discussion
b. The teacher begins the discussion.
Ask the students, “What is the distinction among these three print works?
What elements make each look so different?
c. Do you think color choice decides the atmosphere of the artworks?
d. Which print better matches your idea of disaster? If you were the artist,
which colors would you use to depict the same topic?”
3. The teacher will give some basic meanings associated with color to the
students. Use worksheet #2, Color Matters to start a simple activity with color.
Use the worksheet to find out possible messages associated with each color.
Next give the students the information about the artist and their artworks as well
as information about color in the second section, the Color with Magic Words
section. Stress that color may mean different emotions and messages to different
1. Did the student understand and participate in the activities?
2. Did the student discover differences, including color differences,
among the three prints?
3. Did the student learn the possible meaning of each color?
4. Did the student express his/ her own ideas through the process?
•How do you feel about this print?
Use one word to describe your
feeling? (Harmonious, cheerful,
frightened, powerful, unpredictable)
•Did you know it was about a
disaster when you saw it? (Circle
Yes No Yes and
Luis Cruz Azaceta, Ripple Storm, monot
•Is there any clue in this work which
gives you the idea of misfortune?
(Color, shape, line, composition,
Bradlee Shanks, Big House,
•How do you feel about
these two prints? Circle
one or more words.
•Compare these to the first
print. What are the
differences you see?
•Do you feel these two
prints more explicitly
convey a disaster
atmosphere? (Circle your
answer and explain)?
Yes No Yes and no
Bradlee Shanks, Swirl House,
Color Matters Each color has a different magic word. Match the
colors in Column #1 to the words in Column #2. You can match a color to
more than one word.
Column #1 Column # 2
Color with Magic words: The following color messages refer
to western definitions.The same color may mean something different to a
different culture and people. For example in Asian culture white often
symbolizes death while in western socity it symbolizes purity and
innocence. The teacher may provide further information about color
meanings within other cultures. Also, colors may symbolize different
meanings to different people.
Red: Color of fire and blood. Red often symbolizes war, power, danger,
passion, and love.
Orange: Orange combines yellow and red. It often symbolizes joy,
sunshine, and enthusiasm.
Yellow: Color of sunshine. It often symbolizes joy, happiness, intellect,
Green: Color of nature. It often symbolizes growth, harmony, freshness,
Grey: Grey combines opposite colors and can be a natural and balanced
color.It can also symbolize a dark or depressed mood. Usually grey
is a color seen in storm clouds and some metals.
Purple: Color which combines blue and red. It often symbolizes power,
nobility, luxury and ambition.
Blue: Color of sky and sea. It often symbolizes trust, wisdom, loyalty,
intelligence, and faith.
White: Color of pefection. It often symbolizes light, goodness, innocence
Black: Often the color of mystery, power, elegence, formality, and death.
1. Do you think color choices decide the atmosphere of the artworks
discussed in worksheet #1? Describe the colors you see.
2. Can you determine what different colors mean to each of the
3. If you were the artist, which colors would you use to depict the
Roger Shimomura and
the battle against
Roger Shimomura, Kabuki Party, colored screen print, 1988
Session Activity: Compare and contrast ethnicities as demonstrated in Shimomura’s
prints. Questions about the messages Shimomura presents in his works will be provided
as well as images of Shimomura’s prints.
Grade Level: High School
Time Needed: About an hour
1. To have students recognize important underlying concepts apparent in many of
Roger Shimomura’s artworks, particularly messages about discrimination.
2. To have students appreciate their own ethnic backgrounds.
Markers, colored pencils, pencils, and crayons
1. Discrimination- Treatment or consideration based on class or category rather
than individual merit; partiality or prejudice
2. Tolerance- The capacity for or the practice of recognizing and respecting the
beliefs or practices of others
1. Students will view a selection of Shimomura’s works: Kabuki Party; Fox and
Banzai; Classmates; West Seattle Shotgun.
2. Describe the racial discrimination Shimomura presents in his works and who is
being discriminated against.
3. Students should pay close attention to the art elements in Shimomura’s workscolor,
line, shape, texture, and value (lights and darks). What seems to be the
most prominent element in his works?
4. A. What is the purpose of Shimomura’s presentation of Asian subjects?
B. What is the controversy he hopes viewers will explore and discuss?
C. What emotions does Shimomura make you think of through his use of
materials, elements, and principles?
D. Describe the social/cultural context from which his work came.
5. Each student will receive collage materials in order to put together a piece of
work of his/her own that compares and contrasts his/her personal culture and
background with another’s heritage and background. In order to choose a
different culture to compare and contrast, each student will choose a partner and
discuss the different backgrounds.
6. After completing the assignment each student will be encouraged to present
his/her art work to the class.
7. Encourage a class discussion to promote acceptance of all cultural backgrounds.
Evaluation: Did the student…
1. Understand the meaning behind Shimomura’s prints?
2. Create an art piece that compares two different cultures?
3. Understand the meaning of tolerance of other people’s backgrounds?
Roger Shimomura, Fox and
Banzai, acrylic on canvas,
Roger Shimomura was born in Seattle's Central
District on 6/26/1939. He spent the first few years of his life
interned with his family at the Puyallup State Fairgrounds
while camps were being built by the U.S. These internment
camps were designed by President Roosevelt during World
War II to isolate Japanese Americans from other Americans
due to the war with Japan. The
purpose was to protect Americans
from any harm within the U.S.
borders. The practice of separating
Japanese Americans was
subsequently criticized and condemned. Soon he and his family
transferred to Camp Minidoka in southern Idaho.
Roger Shimomura, West
Seattle Shotgun, acrylic on
After the war ended, Shimomura’s family was permitted to return to Seattle,
where he developed his interest in art. He served two years as an artillery officer in
Korea, then moved to New York where he worked as a graphic designer. In 1969, he
received an M.F.A. in painting from Syracuse University. Shimomura's bold, illustrationlike
artwork deals with Asian stereotypes and prejudices, and often references his family
history. Shimomura wrote 35 performance pieces, and his paintings are in the
permanent collections of the National Museum of American Art, Nelson-Atkins Museum
of Art, and Microsoft.
Roger Shimomura, Classmate (Number 1), acrylic on canvas, 2003
One of a small set of prints set aside from the edition for the artist’s use.
Also known as an épreuve d’artiste.
Japanese tool used for applying pressure in the printing of woodcuts. It is
made of a flat spiral piece of wood or bamboo about 5 inches in diameter
and a backing disk.
The mixture of acid and water in which intaglio plates are etched.
Ink seepage or oozing around a printed Image, caused by excessive use of
ink, pressure or oil.
A steel cutting tool with a sharp beveled point, used in engraving metal
plates or carving stone. Also called graver.
A refined type of handwriting characterized by elegant, curved script. In
Japanese culture, calligraphy is a traditional method of writing, often done
with a brush and ink.
The Collagraph print is best described as a collage printmaking technique,
where the image is composed from a variety of textured materials glued to
a substrate and printed either in an intaglio or relief fashion.
Printed image identical to the image on the block or plate and made by
taking an impression of a wet proof.
The graphic process in which lines are scratched into the metal plates with
a sharp tool, rather than with acid.
In printmaking, all the copies of a print published at the same time or as
part of the same publishing event. An edition can include several different
versions or several exact copies of one image, and can be as small as two
prints or as large as hundreds of prints.
The graphic printmaking process which uses acids to create incised areas
on a metal plate.
The image printed from a stone, plate, woodblock, or any other matrix.
Printing from the grooves or crevices engraved, scraped or etched into the
The use of three-dimensional materials to create a work of art that
surrounds the viewer and creates its own environment in a gallery,
museum, or other public space.
Kimono and obi
The plate or block used to serve as a guide to register, or to line up, other
plates or blocks when printing each color layer of a color print.
In Japanese culture, the kimono is a long-sleeved, ankle-length robe worn
by Japanese women and tied with a belt over an obi sash. The kimono has
a tradition dating back more than 1,000 years and is usually decorated with
motifs such as flowers and birds.
The process of printing from drawings made with special crayons on stone
or on metal sheets, using the water-repellent properties of the crayons and
the greasy inks as a basic principle.
In printmaking, the physical object upon which a design has been formed
and which is then used to create a print, such as a zinc plate or limestone
A method of printmaking which produces a work that cannot be exactly
reproduced. Monoprinting can sometimes produce similar images, but can
never produce multiples, or exact copies. Because of this inability to directly
copy an image, monoprinting is often called the most “painterly” printmaking
The impression left in the paper by the pressure of the plate edges.
A preliminary impression pulled for examination of various stages until final
state is reached.
Specialized technique in which a plate or stone is inked with strips of
several different colors at once. They are blended at the edges to produce
a rainbow like effect.
The raised surface which is the source of the image in relief process.
The process of pulling a print from a bas-relief sculpture. The paper is
placed against the clear sculpted surface and its back is rubbed with a flatedged
crayon or pencil. The image appears un-reversed on the paper.
The graphic process involving a stencil. The silkscreen process is referred
to as serigraphic printing.
To create a half-tone effect by engraving and etching little dots into the
In lithography, the process of removing the greasy drawing material from
the completed image on stone or plate.
Relief printing, the areas to appear in ink on the paper prints are those
which are left in relief on the surface, in contrast to the cut-away areas.
19 th -century term for lithography on zinc plates.
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS EXHIBIT
Lynne Allen, Moccasin
#2, 2000. Etching on
handmade paper, linen
thread, and handwork,
approx. 4 x 8 x 3”, in the
collection of the Victoria
& Albert Museum,
Mark Hosford, The
Hidden Pieces from
Silhouette Series, 2008.
Luftschiff, 2008. Print.
Kabuya Bowens, The
Blackburn Wing Figures,
2007. Relief collagraph
and mixed media, 7’ x
For Tokio Ueyama,
2005. Color lithograph,
10.5 x 9”.
drypoint, 15 x
Tim Dooley, Mixed
Product, 2005. Mixed
Deeg, Viel Cloük,
Etching, approx. 8 ¼
x 11 5/8”.
Henri de Toulouse‐
Lautrec, May Milton,
1895. Color lithograph,
31.3 x 24.1”.
print, approx. 10
1/8 x 14 15/16”.
The Bath, 1891.
aquatint, 12 5/8
x 9 13/16”.
Francisco Goya, The
Sleep of Reason
plate 43 from Los
Aquatint and etching,
7 1/16 x 4 ¾”.
Night Scene After the
Woodblock print, 16
x 10 ¾”.
Silkscreen, 82 x
Etching, 8 3/8 in. x
Allen, Lynne. .
Bookwalter, Denise. .
Dooley, Tim. Mixed Product. .
Heller, Jules. Printmaking Today, A Studio Handbook. 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, Inc., 1972.
Hosford, Mark. The Art of Mark Hosford. .
JapaneseKimono.com. “Japanese Kimono, Kimono Fabric, and Japanese Clothing.”
Kent, Cyril, and Mary Cooper. Simple Printmaking: Relief and Collage Printing, Screen
Printing. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1966.
Monoprints.com. “What is a Monoprint?” .
Mulder-Slater, Andrea. "Printmaking 101." KinderArt. 16 Sept. 2008
Peterdi, Gabor. Printmaking Methods Old and New. 1st ed. New York: The Macmillan
Philadelphia Print Shop, The. “Dictionary of Printmaking Terms.”
Saff, Donald, and Deli Sacilotto. Printmaking : History and Process. New York: Holt,
Rinehart & Winston, 1978.
Shimomura, Roger. .
Zaidenberg, Arthur. Prints and How to Make Them: Graphic Arts for the Beginner. 1st
ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.
Images are for educational uses only