Relays & Switching Modules - Digikey

Relays & Switching Modules - Digikey

Relays & Switching Modules

for the Automotive Market

Tyco Electronics Ltd. is a leading global provider of engineered electronic

components, network solutions and wireless systems, with customers in more

than 150 countries. We design, manufacture and market products for customers

in industries from automotive, appliances and aerospace and defense to

telecommunications, computers and consumer electronics. With over 8,000

engineers and worldwide manufacturing, sales and customer service capabilities,

Tyco Electronics’ commitment is our customers’ advantage.




Automotive technology and integrated systems continue to develop

rapidly with electric and electronic systems in today’s vehicles playing

an increasingly important role for traffic safety and traveling comfort.

Automotive Relays and Switching Modules (AR & SM) of Tyco

Electronics’ Global Automotive Division offer a wide range of the most

important components for such systems and is the world’s no. 1 player

in this industry sector. It is the intent of this brochure, to bring closer

to you our total competencies in development, production and related

technologies as well as our unique application support thus ensuring

the competitive edge for mutual business growth on a worldwide




Tyco Electronics’s relay activities have a rich history of competencies in relay

technology gained over the past three decades thanks to continuous research

and development. Indeed, the increased comfort requirements and multi

media equipment in today’s cars, lead to increased space constraints on printed

circuit boards. During the past 10 years development efforts have successfully

concentrated on miniaturization of automotive relays.

Evolution of relay size and performance




The structure of relays with traditional design and manufacturing concepts is

characterized by metal parts inserted into a plastic carrier or the relay base.

This concept allows larger tolerances but, unfortunately, due to this assembly

process can result in undesired particle contamination. As a result, additional

processes are necessary during manufacturing to ensure that particles are

removed. Overmolding is the technology used to further improve the quality

and reliability of relays.

One of the most recent developments of Tyco Electronics, the Nano Relay, has

been designed using overmolding technology to produce the relay motor

consisting of coil, frame and core. This design concept ensures highest precision

in the assembly and reduces the risk of particle contamination to an absolute

minimum. It also allows for most accurate mechanical parameters and adjustment

free processes. In addition, the overmolding of the relay motor improves the

heat dissipation of the Nano Relay and maximizes the relay performance.

Compared to its predecessor, the well known

DMR, the Nano Relay requires 50 % less area on

the printed circuit board. The Nano Relay only

measures L x H x W (in mm) 15.4 x 14.0 x 10.2

and as its name states, is the tiniest PCB twin

relay in the class of relays suitable for motor

reverse applications


magnetic system


Our global automotive research centers are setting the technological

landscape by developing new technologies, products and production

processes. The increasingly fast growing number of functions in

present and future cars require varieties of powerful and versatile

system components. We compare existing standards with alternative

possibilities in which costs, functionality, dependability and serial

production are the basics of our procedures.




Conventional (monostable) electromechanical relays need a permanent

coil power supply to remain in an operating mode. The heat generated

by the coil has to be dissipated in addition to the management of

the load path power loss.

Latching (bistable) relays provide another smart alternative to meet the

miniaturization targets in higher ambient temperature environments,

using magnetic flux of a permanent magnet to keep the armature in

operating mode without keeping the coil energized. In comparison to

monostable relays, bistable relays, such as the Micro K latching,

BDS-A, MRP2, feature three major advantages:

Comparison: Bistable relays

• Relay downscaling without sacrificing the performance

• Higher ambient temperatures at given continuous current

• Increased continuous current capability at given ambient temperature

Bistable relays are especially suited

for active power management e.g.

quiescent current elimination, power

outlet disconnection in case of critical

battery voltage, load disconnection

during transportation or long time

parking. Furthermore, they are ideal

for high temperature applications,

power supply (clamp) loads as well

as a possible replacement of plug-in


Comparison: Limiting continuous current of Micro power relay K,

Power relay K, Micro power relay K latching over ambient


Comparison: Monostable relays vs. bistable

(magnetically latched) relay




As the worldwide leader in relay technology, Tyco Electronics has developed

a broad range of High Current and Application Specific Switching Solutions.

Tyco Electronics’ Star Point Relay (SPR) is specifically designed for electric

power assisted steering systems (EPAS) in the automobile, where it is used to

reliably switch off the EPAS-motor in case of a system failure. It handles

continuous currents of up to 60 A (peak 120 A) at 125 °C. With suitable heat

dissipation even higher values can be achieved.

A further high current device is our Battery Disconnect Switch A (BDS-A)

suitable for extremely high current loads. It is designed to be easily adapted to

various battery and harness system requirements and may additionally be

combined with electronics. It has a wide range of applications, ranging from the

disconnection of starter, generator, fuel pump and various loads in case of vehicle

accident to prevent fire, battery explosion and discharge. Other applications are

battery disconnection in case of short circuit, over current or reverse polarity

jump-start. Also seasonal shut down, service disconnection and transport

deactivation as well as energy management functions are typical applications.

Application specific switching solutions are smart products designed for very

specific needs. The Power Module Relay F represents the basic module relay

available with a continuous current of 40 A and 70 A. It is a modular unit

based on the Power Relay F to be customized with one or more relays with an

optional electronic circuitry on a PCB or leadframe. In combination with a

leadframe this is a clever alternative for various smart switching applications.

In addition application specific modules covering specific application fields

including Wiper, Cooling Fan and Power Management Modules have been


High Current Solutions: BDS-A and SPR

Examples of Application Specific Modules




Future success of products relative to quality and in particular efficiency,

performance and endurance starts with professional design. As the leader in

relay development the name Tyco Electronics also stands for expertise in the

wide field of product design ranging from Computer Aided Design (CAD),

electronic relay measurement and simulation via analysis to mechanical

sample processing.

State-of-the-art computer assisted development software allows for design

and relay simulation in one step.

Directly linked CAD models are used to simulate electromagnetic actuator

designs, nonlinear structural analysis of springs, thermal analysis of relays with

load currents and ambient conditions. Six sigma tools are utilized to check

design for relay robustness thereby minimizing quality rejections and field

failure costs. Tough design also consciously considers the uncertainties or

noise factors a relay may be exposed to. Electronic design is based on

simulation of electronic circuit behavior under normal and worst case

conditions to determine the most reliable design.

Example of magnetic system calculation

Expertise in CAD and electronic relay



The Finite Elements Method (FEM) is used in product design but also more

and more for the analysis of relay applications. The FE simulations cover

electromagnetic, thermal, mechanical and multiphysics analyses (e.g. electrothermo-mechanical,

electro-magnetic-mechanical). In the product design the

relay is virtually dimensioned to a stage where the computation results for the

electromagnetic, mechanical and the thermal relay behavior can be confirmed

by first samples. Due to parameter separation and the analysis of their

influence the need for prototyping is reduced and the development time thus

shortened. The application analysis supports the customer in the topology of

the relay environment (e.g. box dimensioning, printed circuit board layout,

relay positioning, vibration and shock behavior).

New design technology advancements along with material advancements

have allowed Tyco Electronics to develop size reduced products at higher

performance. The introduction of the Tyco Electronics Micro ISO and Micro

280 High Current plug-in relay products allow customers to decrease system

size by using these products in higher current applications traditionally being

controlled by larger Mini size package relays.

Tyco Electronics has extensive assembly experience, especially in laser,

resistance and other welding operations, bonding and embedding as well as

joining and staking processes. Process validation, tests and time consuming

verification operations are realized with modern PC surface based optical

measurement equipment. Since relays are electromechanical devices

designed to switch a few milliamps up to several kiloamps, the electrical and

mechanical characterization is most important. Tyco Electronics uses various

high precision force displacement systems to measure mechanical relay

parameters. To guarantee the relay life time a special test procedure to check

the compatibility of all materials used has been developed. Among others,

test methods such as ICP, FTIR, REM/EDX or light micrographs are used.

Complete range of electromechanical devices designed to switch a few milliamps up to several kiloamps



All tests are performed in fully equipped state-of-the-art test labs. The core of

the endurance test labs is an electrical endurance test unit, designed and

built-up in-house.

The electrical endurance test unit monitors each switching cycle of the tested

relay and measures important relay parameters such as energizing voltage,

contact resistance and insulation resistance during the test run. The relays are

tested either with original loads from our customers or simulated loads. Our

simulated loads are μP-controlled resistor-decades, representing nearly every

current curve. To simulate inductive loads, variable coils are added to the load

circuit. The relays can be tested at different ambient temperatures.

Some test units have the option of different ambient degrees of humidity.

In addition to the electrical endurance test units the test labs also include

equipment for a number of other test types, including vibration (sine and

random), mechanical and thermal shock as well as climatic tests. If required

the different test environments can be combined.

In addition to the endurance test labs we also run development, electronic,

chemical, material and special high-current labs. These labs, located in Berlin,

Germany and Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA, meet the ISO/TS 16949


Today the main competencies in production are not only in sophisticated

highly automated assembly lines and production processes but also in line

design itself. The competences, furthermore comprise molding, high speed

stamping, plating, automation, tooling, logistics and last but not least

engineering skills.

Tyco Electronics’ European relay production plant in Évora, Portugal has

gained extensive production know how ranging from raw material processing

to complete relay assembly under one roof for more than 35 years. In the last

4 years the production has increased from annually 100 Mio relays to up to

250 Mio automotive relays. Almost every relay series is produced in Évora, the

main production plant for automotive relays.

Endurance test unit

with temperature


Endurance test unit

with integrated

climatic chamber

Vibration and

temperature shock





• Overmolding technologies for wires and lead frames to avoid assembly

processes which could create particle contamination

• Pick and place handling directly from the mold to the packaging tube to

eliminate environmental pollution


• Integrated riveting during the stamping process for maximum repeatability

of the contact shape and best conditioned contact surface

• Reel to reel production to minimize influence of transport handling between

fabrication and assembly line


• Completely automated assembly lines with ‘On Line’ process


• Laser welding for highest precision

• Arc welding for a safe magnetic wire connection

• Automated ‘In Line’ test for sealed relays

• Laser triangulation measurement to guarantee the mechanical


High automated assembly



Fully equipped laboratory with:

• X-Ray analysis

• Contact Fritting Analysis

• Particle counting

• Armature magnetic response detection

• Microscopic Analysis and Photography

• Universal Relay Test Equipment

• Electronic Force Displacement Test


• Mechanical Endurance Test

• Melting point test for material



Tyco Electronics’ relay manufacturing operations enjoy extensive production

know how running fully automated production lines supported by in-house


Line design

Line design prefabrication



Relays play a major role in automotive electrical systems. During the last decade car

manufacturers faced a strongly increased demand for new switching functions.

More and more options such as electric windows and power seats have become

market standard in the automotive world. In addition to the migration of applications

in the field of convenience from high to lower class cars, reliability and safety

requirements have created new relay application areas. Protection of low, medium

and high power systems requires an understanding of system failures and their

detection, as well as safe disconnection from the power system. Relays are very

often the safety device-interface between the load and the onboard car diagnostic

systems. The comprehension and handling of possible system failures in complex

hard- and software systems requires expertise. Our Technical Application Engineers

provide a unique service guaranteeing best advice with respect to the particularities

of electromechanical devices and in finding optimum solutions for traditional and

innovative applications. This special support covers all technical aspects from the

analysis of customer specifications, support in appropriate relay selection to on site

vehicle load measurements and technical training. This service is virtually the

interface between you, our customer, and Tyco Electronics’ Product Engineering

and Marketing. A further strength of the technical relay support is the global

presence. Each region has a relay technical team, supported by the global product

marketing team. This strategy offers a dedicated technical support in respect to

regional particularities as well as a global view on product placements. Furthermore

the global product marketing responsibility allows synergies with other in-house

technologies such as Fuse and Relay Boxes, Mechatronics and Sensors thus

offering all customers a powerful range of components and services.

Tyco Electronics offers relays for every traditional application in cars and also

continuously develops relays for new application fields in cooperation with

the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), Tier1 as well as with second tier

suppliers or system suppliers.
















Vehicle lighting


Electric power

assisted steering


Door module

ABS module

Seat adjustment



















Tyco Electronics Online

The Tyco Electronics website is an innovative and

interactive source for application information,

product updates and technical solutions.

Our step-by-step software makes our website

intuitive and user-friendly to better serve you !

Please contact us at :

Internet Homepage

Electronic Internet Catalog

Product Information Center


You can rely on Tyco Electronics PIC Team to

provide you support for answers to your

general information or technical questions in

an efficient and effective manner.

To reach our PIC staff, please contact your

local Tyco Electronics organization.

Product and Machine Literature

Tyco Electronics offers a variety of product specific catalogs, brochures

and high impact flyers to help better serve you !

For more information on literature for Tyco Electronics’

Global Automotive Division, please contact your local Tyco Electronics

Organization or go to





Argentina – Buenos Aires

Phone: +54-11-4733-2200

Fax: +54-11-4733-2211

Brasil – São Paulo

Phone: +55-11-2103-6105

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Phone: +905-475-6222

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Product Information Center:

Phone: +905-470-4425

Fax: +905-474-5525

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Phone: +57-1-231-9398

Fax: +57-1-660-0206

Mexico – Mexico City

Phone: +52-55-1106-0800


Fax: +52-55-1106-0901

For Latin/South American

Countries not shown

Phone: +54-11-4733-2015

Fax: +54-11-4733-2083

United States

Harrisburg, PA

Phone: +1-717-564-0100

Fax: +1-717-986-7575

Product Information Center:

Phone: +1-800-522-6752

Fax: +1-717-986-7575

Troy, MI

Phone: +1-248-273-3359

Fax: +1-248-273-3322


Australia – Sydney

Phone: +61-2-9554-2600

Fax: +61-2-9502-2556

Product Information Center:

Phone: +61-2-9840-8200

Fax: +61-2-9634-6188

India – Bangalore

Phone: +91-80-285-40800

Fax: +91-80-285-40820

Indonesia – Jakarta

Phone: +65-6482-0311

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Phone: +81-44-844-8111

Fax: +81-44-812-3207

Product Information Center:

Phone: +81-44-844-8013

Fax: +81-44-812-3200

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Phone: +82-2-3415-4500

Fax: +82-2-3486-3810

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Phone: +60-3-7805-3055

Fax: +60-3-7805-3066

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Phone: +64-9-634-4580

Fax: +64-9-634-4586

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Phone: +632-848-0171

Fax: +632-867-8661

People’s Republic of China

Hong Kong

Phone: +852-2735-1628

Fax: +852-2735-0243


Phone: +86-21-2407-1588

Fax: +86-21-2407-1599

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Phone: +65-6482-0311

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Phone: +886-2-8768-2788

Fax: +886-2-8768-2268

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Phone: +66-2-955-0500

Fax: +66-2-955-0505

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Phone: +84-8-930-5546

Fax: +84-8-930-3443

Europe/Middle East/Africa

Austria – Vienna

Phone: +43-1-905-60-0

Fax: +43-1-905-60-1333

Product Information Center:

Phone: +43-1-905-60-1249

Fax: +43-1-905-60-1251

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Phone: +32-16-352-300

Fax: +32-16-352-352

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Phone: +359-2-971-2152

Fax: +359-2-971-2153

Czech Republic and Slovakia

Czech Republic – Kurim

Phone: +420-541-162-111

Fax: +420-541-162-223

Product Information Center:

Phone: +420-541-162-113

Fax: +420-541-162-132

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Phone: +45-43-48-04-00

Fax: +45-43-44-14-14

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Phone: +202-419-2334

Fax: +202-417-7647

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Phone: +372-5138-274

Fax: +372-7400-779

Finland – Helsinki

Phone: +358-95-12-34-20

Fax: +358-95-12-34-250

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Phone: +33-1-3420-8888

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Product Information Center:

Phone: +33-1-3420-8686

Fax: +33-1-3420-8623

France Export Divisions –

Cergy-Pontoise Cedex

Phone: +33-1-3420-8866

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Phone: +49-6251-133-0

Fax: +49-6251-133-1600

Product Information Center:

Phone: +49-6251-133-1999

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Phone: +30-210-9370-396/397

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Phone: +36-1-289-1000

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Product Information Center:

Phone: +36-1-289-1016

Fax: +36-1-289-1017

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Phone: +353-1-866-5612

Fax: +353-1-866-5714

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Phone: +39-011-4012-111

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Product Information Center:

Phone: +39-011-4012-428

Fax: +39-011-40-287-428

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Lithuania – Vilnius

Phone: +370-5-213-1402

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Product Information Center:

Phone: +370-5-211-3016

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Phone: +31-73-6246-246

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Product Information Center:

Phone: +31-73-6246-999

Fax: +31-73-6246-998

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Phone: +47-66-77-88-50

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Phone: +48-22-4576-700

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Phone: +48-22-4576-704

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Phone: +7-495-790-7902

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Product Information Center:

Phone: +7-495-790-7902-404

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Phone: +7-812-718-8192

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Phone: +386-1561-3270

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Phone: +27-41-503-4500

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Spain – Barcelona

Phone: +34-93-291-0330

Fax: +34-93-201-7879

Sweden – Upplands Väsby

Phone: +46-8-50-72-50-00

Fax: +46-8-50-72-50-01

Switzerland – Steinach

Phone: +41-71-447-0447

Fax: +41-71-447-0444

Turkey – Istanbul

Phone: +90-212-281-8181-83


Fax: +90-212-281-8184

Ukraine – Kiev

Phone: +380-44-206-2265

Fax: +380-44-206-2264

Product Information Center:

Phone: +380-44-206-2265

Fax: +380-44-206-2264

United Kingdom –

Stanmore, Middlesex

Phone: +44-8706-080208

Fax: +44-208-954-6234

Product Information Center:

Freephone (UK only):


Phone: +44-8706-080208

Fax: +44-208-420-8095


Tyco Electronics AMP GmbH

AMPèrestr. 12-14

64625 Bensheim / Germany

Phone: +49-(0)6251-133-0

Fax: +49-(0)6251-133-1600

TE Logo and Tyco Electronics

are trademarks

Tyco Electronics AMP GmbH certified

acc. ISO 14001 and ISO/TS 16949:2002

© 2007 Tyco Electronics Ltd.

1308085-2 Rev. 12-2007 3.5M ST

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