Regulatory Tactics to Prevent Spread of Emerald Ash Borer

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Regulatory Tactics to Prevent Spread of Emerald Ash Borer

Regulatory Tactics to Prevent the

Spread of Emerald Ash Borer

(Agrilus planipennis)

Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA)

Arrest the Pest Hotline

651-201-6684 (Metro)

888-545-6684 (Greater Minnesota)


Regulation and Plant Pests

• Big Scope—

International

• Medium Scope—

National

• Our Scope—

Minnesota


Big Scope: International Focus

• Stopping spread of

invasive species starts

at the international level

• Recent heightened

concern & regulation

because

– people more mobile

– world trade of goods increased

• Plants are an important

component of world trade


International Plant Protection

Convention (IPPC)

1881 5 countries signed an agreement to

control the spread of grape phylloxera

1951 IPPC was formalized as part of the

Food and Agriculture Organization of the

United Nations

1989 IPPC was designated standard

setter for world trade in phytosanitary

(clean plant) measures


• Each country may be a

“contracting party” to the IPPC;

currently 177 countries are

signed on

• Requirement: Must implement

IPPC standards and processes

• Benefit: Participation in world

trade for plant products


“Contracting Party”

• United States, along with 176

other countries, is a contracting

parties to IPPC

• Each contracting party agrees to

designate a National Plant Protection

Organization (NPPO)

• In the U.S., the NPPO is the Animal and

Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ)


Other IPPC Requirements

• Issue certificates to certify

that plants being exported

are clean

• Conduct surveillance of

growing plants for the

occurrence, outbreak and

spread of new pests

• Issuance of phytosanitary

regulations


National Scope:

United States Department of

Agriculture

USDA Animal and Plant Inspection Service

(APHIS) Plant Protection and Quarantine

(PPQ)

• Plant Product Inspection

(phytosanitary regulation)

• Starts in exporting countries

• Continues at the U.S. border

• Is maintained across state lines

(interstate)


PPQ Regulatory Options at

National Level

• Emergency Action

Orders

• Control Orders

• Confiscation

• Quarantine


Minnesota Department of

Agriculture

• Issue certificates to certify

that plants being exported

are clean

• Conduct surveillance of

growing plants for the

occurrence, outbreak and

spread of new pests

• Issuance of phytosanitary

regulations, within the state

(intrastate)


Emerald Ash

Borer

Quarantine

Pest in

Minnesota

• Quarantines common in Florida & California

• First similar quarantine in Minnesota


Minnesota Quarantine

• Houston County

April 22, 2009: MDA enacted emergency quarantine

April 28, 2009: USDA APHIS PPQ enacted

parallel quarantine

• Ramsey & Hennepin Counties

May 15, 2009: MDA enacted emergency quarantine

June 9, 2009: USDA APHIS PPQ enacted

parallel quarantine

August 17, 2009: MDA enacted formal

quarantine for all three counties


How did EAB get here?

• Native to eastern Asia

• Suspected introduction into Michigan via

solid wood packing material (SWPM) such

as crating, pallets, etc. from China

Spread through U.S.

– Firewood #1 culprit

– Crates/pallets, green lumber, nursery stock, etc.

• MN infestation site

– Industrial park area

– Railway? Pallets? Firewood?


Ash Trees in MN: Environmentally

and Economically Important

• Highest volume of ash in

the country

• Estimated over 975

million forestland ash

• Much of urban forests

consist of ash

Ash was the primary

replacement after Dutch

elm disease took out

elms along city

boulevards


Regulatory

– Quarantine

– Compliance

Agreements

– Inspections

– Enforcement

– State Certified

Firewood

• Outreach

• Survey

Minnesota Actions to

Contain EAB


Purpose of a Quarantine

• Reduce or eliminate spread of pest

through human-assisted movement

• Restricts movement while facilitating

trade

• Can be complicated, try to keep it

simple

• Compliance Agreements are used to

bring a firm that handles a regulated

article into compliance


Regulated Articles

Emerald ash borer in any living stage of

development

Ash trees

Ash limbs and branches

Ash stumps and roots

Ash logs

Ash green lumber

Ash chips and mulch

• Firewood of any non-coniferous species


Quarantine Movement of

Regulated Articles

• May not move outside of a quarantined

county

• May move within a quarantined county

and any adjacent quarantined county

• May move from a non-quarantined county

into a quarantined county

– Once inside a quarantined county, the regulated

article then falls under the restrictions of the

quarantine


Life

Cycle

Immature

(under bark)

Adult

(free living)

J F M A M J J A S O N D


Free-living EAB or

“Flight Season”

Current

• USDA Flight season =

April 1 to September

30

• MDA Flight Season =

May 1 to August 31

Proposed

• USDA Flight Season

Zone = May 1 to

September 30

• MDA will likely adopt

J F M A M J J A S O N D

Immature

(under bark)

Adult

(free living)


Transit of Regulated Articles Through a

Quarantined County

USDA Flight Season = Apr 1 to Sept 30 or

MDA Flight Season = May1 to Aug 31

– Can be shipped in an enclosed container or

cover adequate to prevent the infestation of

regulated articles

• Allows for stoppage in a quarantined

county (hotel, restaurant, etc.)

– Can be shipped in an uncovered container

• NO STOPS except for traffic and re-fuel

Non-flight Season, Oct 1 – Mar 31

– Not regulated


Compliance Agreements

• An actual document signed by firm and the MDA

• Outlines a set standard of treatment for regulated

articles leaving the quarantine

– Examples: Chipping/mulching, debarking, heat

treatment, composting, etc.

• Self-certification that regulated articles meet

treatment standards

• Periodic inspections by MDA officials

• Monetary penalties and revocation of CA

possible for violations


Compliance Agreements

Ash Chips

and Mulch

• Firewood

• Transport

• Receiving

Facility


Ash Chips and Mulch

Not transporting out of quarantine?

– No regulations; can work with regulated

articles in the quarantine

Transporting out of quarantine?

Need CA!

– Produce mulch chips that comply with the

• Mulch and Chip Sampling Protocol or

• Composting Protocol


Firewood

• Firewood of all hardwood species require

treatment if offered for sale

• Treatments include heat treatment, kilndrying,

and debarking

• Debarking means removing bark and ½

inch of wane

• Heat Treatment ≠ Kiln Drying!


Heat Treatment ≠ Kiln Drying

Heat Treatment

• Can be used on any

size wood

• Current standard for

EAB is that the center

of wood must reach

71.1° C for 75 minutes

is

Kiln Drying

• Can only be used on wood

that has a maximum

thickness of 3 inches

• Various temps and time

depending on percent

moisture needed


Minnesota State Certified

• Certified for Heat

Treatment only

• May be from inside

or outside the

quarantine

• NOT the same as

DNR Approved

Firewood


Transport and Receiving Facility

During Non-Flight season, regulated articles

can be transported out of the quarantine

IF

1.Transporter has Compliance Agreement

2.Receiving Facility has Compliance

Agreement

3.Receiving Facility will conduct an

approved treatment of regulated articles

before flight season begins


Outreach for

Regulated Clientele

• Presentations to regulated

clientele

• Electronic newsletter “EAB

Regulatory Review”

Ash identification class for

brush waste sites

• Mailings to inform of upcoming

deadlines, other changes


Outreach for General Public

• Public meetings

– Often held at city offices

• Pamphlets, brochures, ID cards

• Newspaper and billboard ads

• Word of mouth

– Through organizations such as the Minnesota

Shade Tree Advisory Committee, the

Minnesota Nursery and Landscape

Association, Master Gardeners, etc.


Contact Us

"Arrest the Pest" Hotline

651-201-6684 - Metro Area

or

1-888-545-6684 - Greater Minnesota

Arrest.The.Pest@state.mn.us

Your local ash tree thanks you!

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