Role of ICT in Integrated Plant Nutrient Management System for ...

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Role of ICT in Integrated Plant Nutrient Management System for ...

Role of ICT in Integrated Plant Nutrient

Management System for Balanced

Fertilization

Dr. D.S. Yadav

Director ( Marketing )

FAI, New Delhi

Fertilizers and Organic Farming

Organic Farming for 10000 years

Food grains Production - 50 mt in 1950-51

Bengal Famine -“ More Food Campaign” - Fertilizer

Balanced Diet for Healthy Growth and Development

Plants also Need Elements for Balanced Development

Fertilizers- Plant Food and not Poisonous Chemicals

In World, Use of fertilizers for about 150 years

In India, Use of fertilizers More than 100 years

Demand of Food, Fuel and Fiber for growing population

IPNMS Sustain Agricultural Production

Soil Fertility Status of Indian Soils

Nutrient Soil Fertility Status ( in per cent )

Nitrogen 63(L) 26(M) 11(H)

Phosphorus 42(L) 38(M) 20(H)

Potassium 13(L) 37(M) 50(H)

Sulphur 41 per cent samples found deficient in S

Zinc 49 per cent samples found deficient in Zn

Boron 33 per cent samples found deficient in B

Balance Sheet of Nutrients

Nutrient Removal

= 37 mt

Nutrient addition through fertilizers = 24.9 mt

Nutrient addition through FYM = 3.8 mt

Nutrient addition through BF = 1.0 mt

Nutrient addition through agril. Wastes = 2.0 mt

Nutrient addition through other sources = 1.0 mt

Mo

13 per cent samples found deficient in Mo

Total Addition

= 32.7 mt

Iron

12 per cent samples found deficient in Fe

Mining of Soils?? = 4.3 mt/year

1


Why Integration ?

Multiple Nutrient Deficiencies

Higher Productivity and Cropping Intensity in Irrigated Areas

Organic Sources Insufficient for Nutritional Needs of HYVs

Organic Sources with Fertilizers Became Necessary

Organic Sources- no. of Animals a Farmer Possess

50 per cent of Dung Used as Fuel

Alternative Source of Energy for Farmers

Green Manuring- Loose one Crop

Lack of Soil Moisture for its Decomposition

A Need of Integrating Organic Sources with Mineral Sources

FYM, Green Manure, Crop Residues, N-Fixing Bacteria, BGA

Organic Sources Supplement Plant Nutrients Need

Sustainable Agriculture

Successful management of

resources

Satisfy the changing human

needs

Maintain or enhance the quality

of environment

Conserve natural resources

Rice-Wheat Cropping System

IPNMS for Desired Yield

Balanced Fertilization

10 Tonnes of Food grains/ha in Ludhiana

Remove 500 to 700 kg Nutrients/ha/year

BF Supply not more than 15-30 kg N or P 2 O 5 per ha

Complimentary Sources of Plant Nutrient N / P

Reverse the ill Effect of Soil Mining of Nutrients

Promoting Tenets of Sustainable Agriculture

Response of Fertilizers Declining due to

Sub-optimal and Imbalance in Fertilizer Use

Inappropriate Methods and Time of Application

Lesser Use of Organic Manure

IPNMS Must for the Desired Results

2


The Key Objectives of IPNMS

To maintain or enhance soil productivity through

balanced use of fertilizers combined with

organic and biological sources of plant nutrients

To improve the stock of plant nutrients in the soil

Major Sources of Nutrients

Component Desirable effect Other effect

Fertilizers Concentrated source No Micronutrients

Organic manure

Green manure

Less nutrients but Improves

soil physical properties

Sources of N from the

atmosphere

Crop residues Source of K. Mulching has +

ve effect on soil properties

Immediate crop need not met

Crop competition

Immobilization of nutrients

More fertilizer needed.


To improve the efficiency of plant nutrients

Crop rotation

(other crop -

legume)

N fixed by legumes

Improves soil permeability

little N fixed available to the

succeeding crop

To improve physical conditions of soils

Rhizobium,

Azospirillum. and

BGA

Mycorrhiza and P

solubilisers

N fixers

P solubilizers

Small amount of N fixation

Small amount of P solubilized

IPNMS in Farmer’s Hand

All Sources of Plant Nutrients

Fertilizer

BF

FYM

Organic Wastes

Compost

Fertilizers

Biofertilizers

BGA

3


Organic Sources

Animal Dung Human Excreta, Recycling of Plant Resources and City

Wastes

Organic Sources Neither Nutrient Specific nor Concentrated Sources

For Nutritional Benefits, Organic Sources to be Decomposed

Microorganisms Engineer Their Break Down

Temperature and Moisture Conditions Influence the Decomposition

C: N ratio Decides the Time Lag for Nutrients to Become Plant Usable

Nutrient Supply from Organic Sources Remains low, Variable and

Uncertain

Second Largest Population ( About 110 crores)

Higher Number of Livestock (about 500 Millions)

Seventh Largest Geographical Area (329 Million ha)

A Vast Pool of Organic Manure for Nutrient Availability

Organic Manure Potential = 16.9 Million Tonnes of NPK

85 per cent Arises from Animal Dung, Crop Residues and Human Excreta

About 5.65 mt NPK Available for Agricultural Use

Chemical Composition of Organic

Sources

Organic

Sources

Primary nutrients (%)

N P K

FYM 1.0 0.5 0.9

Poultry 1.9 1.9 1.6

Human

Excreta

City

compost

Wheat

straw

1.6 0.5 0.5

1.5 0.5 1.0

0.6 0.1 1.6

Some projections on the availability of NPK (mt)

from some organic resources - 2005-2025

Resources 2005 2010 2025

Nutrient (theoretical potential) in MT

Human excreta ( N+P 2 O 5 +K 2 O) 2.00 2.24 2.60

Livestock dung ( N+P 2 O 5 +K 2 O) 6.64 7.00 7.54

Crop residues ( N+P 2 O 5 +K 2 O) 6.21 7.10 10.27

Farm Yard Manure

Spray Evenly

Avoid Heaps of Compost

Evaporation of N in Hot

Atmosphere

Nutrient (considered tappable) in MT

Human excreta ( N+P 2 O 5 +K 2 O) 1.60 1.80 2.10

Livestock dung ( N+P 2 O 5 +K 2 O) 2.00 2.10 2.26

Crop residues ( N+P 2 O 5 +K 2 O) 2.05 2.34 3.39

TOTAL 5.05 6.24 7.75

4


Method of

Preparing good quality

Compost

- Fill the pit with

Animal excreta and

Farm waste at

regular interval

Mix the Farm Yard Manure Well in Soil

- Prevent the pit with

direct Sun light

Bio Gas- Source of Compost and Energy

Bio Gas Slurry - a Good Manure

Vermi Compost

5


Animal Waste

Human Waste

Crop Wastes

COMPOST

Factory Waste

( Press mud )

Low Grade Minerals

(i.e. Rock phosphate)

Biomass of

uncultivated

Plants

MSW 40-50 million MT

Organic Manures 5-7 million MT

Can we harness fully ??

Recycling of Agricultural Wastes

Crop residues – 1/3rd residue available for recycling

Oil cakes from Oil extraction > Oil - 25 mt of oil seeds

Biomass of weeds or uncultivated plants (water hyacinth, etc.,)

Wastes from fruit / vegetable processing factories

Animal wastes – dung and urine generated from 500 million animal

Excreta of 110 crore population

Crop wastes due to post harvest losses

Fruit/Vegetable wastes after consumption of the main

Sugarcane trash from 350 mt and 5-6 mt of press mud

Recyclable Wastes

Bulky Makes Storage, Handling, Transport and Application

Difficult

Time Consuming, Inconvenient and Expensive

Possibilities of Preparing Compacted, Briquetted or Pelleted

Products

Incorporation of Nutrient-Rich Natural Minerals, Fertilizers and

Microbial Cultures

Human Waste - Pathogens can Pose Serious Health Hazards

Treat or Compost these wastes to Kill Pathogens

Sewage and Sludge may Build up Heavy Metals to Toxic Levels

Crop Residues with High C:N ratio Compete with Crop for N

Transport and Application of Biogas Slurry may not be Practical

Glass, Metal, Plastic, Wood, Cloth in Municipal and City Wastes

6


Biological Agents Capable of Fixing

Nitrogen

Symbiotic

Leguminous plants + Rhizobium

Blue-green algae and water fern (Azolla) in rice fields

Non-symbiotic

Blue-green algae : Nostoc, Anabaena, etc.

Bacteria : Aerobic - Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus,

Polymyxa, etc.

Anaerobic - Clostridium, Rhodosprillum,

Clorobium, etc.

Bio Fertiliser Cultures

Atmospheric Nitrogen Fixation in Soil

Legumes Fix Atmospheric N through Root Nodules

Legume Seeds Inoculated with Suitable Strains of Bacteria

7


Seeds and Bacterial Inoculant thoroughly Mixed

Inoculated seeds not to be dried and sown immediately

Green Manuring of Legumes Add N and Improve

Physical Properties of the Soil

Addition of BGA Culture in Rice Fields can

Contribute about 25 kg Nitrogen per ha for the Crop

8


Fertilizer Companies in BF

No. of Units Producing Bio-Fertilizers

GSFC

IFFCO

RCFL

CIL

Units Capacity Production

119 26,864 24,455

MT

BVFCL

FACT

KRIBHCO

MFL

NFL

SPIC

Suggestions for BF

BF Extremely Sensitive to Changes in Environment

Mutate very often and Degenerate with Frequent Renewals

Bacterial count as Specified by BIS Standard

Produce Region Specific BF

Develop Ideal and Easily available Carrier for Increasing Longevity

Stability of BF against Adverse Conditions

Symbiotic Fixation not Free Nitrogen

Plant has to Provide Energy in the form of Photosynthates

Whether a crop ‘Pays’ for Fixation yet to be Determined

Legumes require more P than Cereals

Proper Packing, Transportation and Storage

Intensive Promotional Activities Needed

Unlike Mineral Fertilizers, BF is not a Plant Food.

Living Organisms Requires Careful Management and Nutrients

Rhizobium not to be Applied where Population already Sufficient

Proper Survey of the Proposed Area

Share of Fertilizers and Natural Sources

in Total

Nutrient Consumption - China

Year

Relative Share (%)

Natural nutrient

Fertilizers

sources

1965 22 78

1975 33 67

1985 56 44

1995 68 32

2005 75 25

9


Some Fertilizer Equivalent of Organic Manures and

Bio-fertilizes

Component Input level Fertilizer equivalent of

input in terms on crop yield

Organic manure (FYM) per tonne 3.6 kg N +

P 2 O 5 +K 2 O(2:1:1)

Green manure (Sesbania) per tonne 4.4 kg N

Green manure (Sesbania) 45 days crop 50-60 kg N for HYV rice

Cowpea intercropped with castor Legume buried 30 kg fertilizer N on castor

Leucaenia lopping

after 6 weeks

88 kg N in Leucaenia-25 kg fertilizer N on sorghum

Rhizobium Inoculants 19-22 kg N

Azotobacter and Azospirillum Inoculants 20 kg N

Blue Green Algae 10 kg/ha 20-30 kg N

Azolla 6-12t/ha 3-4 kg/t

Sugarcane trash 5 t/ha 12 kg N/t

Rice straw + Water hyacinth 5 t/ha 20 kg N/t

India - A Fact About Organic Farming

Total Area Under Certified

Organic Farming

Wild Herb Collection

Rest Crops

Production of Organic Crops

Tea contribute around 24 %

Rice contribute around 24 %

Fruits & Vegetables 17 %

25.1 lakh ha

24.3 lakh ha

0.8 lakh ha

14,000 MTs

Certifying Agencies in India

Agri and Processed Food Export Development Authority

Tea Board

Spices Board

Coffee Board

Coconut Development Board

Market Size of Organic Food World Over

USA US $ 16.3 to 29.7 billion

EU

US $ 12 billion

Germany 30 %

UK 13 %

Italy 12 %

France 12 %

Directorate of Cashew & Cocoa

11 Accredited Certifying Agencies of Netherland, Switzerland,

Germany and Indocert in Kerala

Japan

China export

US $ 40 crores

US $ 14 crores

1000 Chinese companies &

farmers – Certified organic

10


Why-Why Diagram for limited penetration Organic Agriculture in India

Limited

Penetration

of Organic

Agriculture

in India

Low Levels of Market

Information about

organic produces

Conventional Agriinputs

considered

more effective than

Bio-inputs

Time lag & high

costs of conversion

of conventional to

organic farming

Limited positive

government

interventions & high

negative subsidies

Under developed

infrastructure &

marketing channels

for green outputs

Low levels of

networking among

farmers and other

stakeholders

No designated agency at Central,

State & Local levels which

reaches farmers with information

Low quality of bio-inputs

Non availability of bioinputs

Relatively long time

period needed for bio

inputs to be effective

Subsistence farming by

large number of small &

marginal farmers

High costs involved

certification & limited no.

of certifying agencies

Price premiums reach

more for Intermediaries

than products

No & limited Storage

facilities

No easy quality assurance

mechanisms

Lack of adequate

transportation facilities

No quality Monitoring Control

Systems in place

Existence of spurious & low

quality brands in market

Disincentive for traders given the low

penetration of bio-inputs market

Limited Shelf life of bio-inputs

Limited R & D efforts &

investments on Bio inputs

Subsidies to conventional inputs

disincentivizing bio-inputs

Limited financial outlays for bioinputs

by government

No strategic attention for greening

agriculture & No coordinated effort

at Centre & State level

Small farm holdings

Formal associations of traderes,

farmers & others are not paying

adequate attention

Mostly geographically dispersed

organic farmers; Small numbers

with diverse organic products

Some Facts

Stand-alone Use of Organic Farming Became Impractical

Fertilizers - Key Component of Soil Fertility Management

Rising Use of Fertilizers Overshadowed the Use of Organic Manures

One Source to Halt Soil Mining of Nutrients not Practical or viably

Economical

An IPNMS - Imperative Feature

Poorly Fed Plants Supply Poor Quality and Imbalanced Diet to Man

and Animals

Widespread Malnutrition and Diseases

Results in Higher Infant Mortality and Low Human Productivity

Solve the Problem by IPNMS Through ICT

Increasing the Capital of Nutrient through Proper

Management of Various Sources of Nutrients - ICT

IPNMS through ICT

Local and external plant nutrient sources accessible to

farmers

Conceptual Frame Work and Methodology for

development of IPNMS including recycling of nutrients

through various Sources including city compost,

human, animal, soil and crop system

Technical Advise

Input

Credit

Marketing Facility

Involvement of Farmers by participative approach

Resources available

11


ICT in IPNMS in Accessing Nutrient

Availability

ICT in Recommending Options of Different

Sources as per the Farmer’s Paying Capacity

Fertilisers

FYM

Bio Fertilizers

Farmers Capacity to Pay

Vermicompost

ICT

City Compost

Money in BF

ICT

Money in Fertilisers

Agril. Wastes

Rain Water /

Irrigation Water

Money in Organic Sources

ICT in Deciding the Output and

Nutrients Applied in the Soil

ICT in Deciding the Output

N

Nutrient

Status

Response

Ratio

Cost of

Inputs

Budget

Secondary Nutrients

ICT

P2O5

MODEL

Micro Nutrients

- Nutrient Contents in Soil

- Recommended Dose

K2O

- Gap

- Farmer Capacity to Pay

- Yield Level

Recommended

kg/ha of nutrients /

recommended

fertiliser doses

Yield Level

12


Use of ICT

IPNMS through ICT

Mineral Fertilisers

Agriculture Input Related

Alternate Fertilisers

Availability Consumption Pattern Bio- Fertilisers Organics Liquid Fertiliser

• Yield = f (Monetary + non monetary inputs)

• Simulation models

• Prescription equations

• Precision Farming

• Correlation

• Coefficient

World Market Supply Actual Forecast Demand Production Prices Practices New

Development

District

Classification

Based on

Consumption

Import Production Allocation

Country

wise

Capacities/

Prodn.

Target/

Actual/

Shortfalls/

Bottleneck

Road / Rail

(M.G./B.G.)

Country wise

Consumption

Country

wise

supply

/deficit

Share

Consumption

by Crops

Despatches Sales Stocks Technologi

es

Coop./Pvt/

Other Inst.

Agencies

Country

wise

Exports

/Imports

Consumption

per Hectare

Type, Capacity,

Latest

Development

Prices

Raw Material Prices

/Inter. product

Raw Inter Transp. Finished

Material Mediaries Cost Products

Ocean

Freight

Rates

FE Rates

Locational

Aspects

International

Agricultural

Situation

Agri. Ext. &

Promotional

Activities

Surplus /

Deficit

Areas

International

Consumption

Patterns

Nitrogen dynamics through ICT

He Sits over Here for IPNMS

Volatilisation Denitrification Crop removal

Organic manures

crop residues

Soil Organic

Matter

Ammonium

Chemical

fertilisers

Nitrate

Residues

recycled

Plant

uptake

This is Our Future

This is Our Future

Fixation

Leaching

13


Let us take it Forward through MOA

Motivate

Ability

Opportunity

Focus on Ability required for use of ICT

THANK YOU

14

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