OI Catalog - Olson Instruments, Inc.

olsoninstruments.com

OI Catalog - Olson Instruments, Inc.

CIVIL STRUCTURE a n d

INFRASTRUCTURE EQUIPMENT f o r :

» Nondestructive Evaluation

Olson Instruments, Inc.

» Seismic Geophysic

» Structural Health Monitoring

Equipment for Imaging

the Civil Infrastructure

www.OlsonInstruments.com


Headquartered in Wheat Ridge, Colorado USA,

Olson Instruments, Inc. is an industry leader in the

manufacturing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)

Instrumentation widely used in the construction field.

We design and engineer NDE systems that are first used by our sister

company, Olson Engineering, Inc. (www.OlsonEngineering.com) before

selling field-proven instruments worldwide that provide the quality,

ruggedness and performance demanded by industry standards.

Furthermore, since our systems are assembled in-house, the purchaser

can be assured that we have the bench strength to provide assistance for

years to come. If you call in for Tech Support, more often than not you

will be speaking with an engineer who has actually designed and used

the equipment and/or written the software! With Olson’s broad knowledge and experience, we provide personalized

service for all of your NDE instrumentation needs.

Since 1993, Olson Instruments, Inc. has been an established manufacturer of sensors and data collection systems.

Our products are designed to address the requirements of the civil engineering industry for condition assessment.

This focus has resulted in NDE, Geophysical and Laboratory test systems that are recognized world-wide for their

durability, versatility, and superior quality. In addition to optional add-on NDE test method systems for ultrasonic,

sonic, seismic, vibration, structural health monitoring as well as custom systems, we develop and manufacture

five main product platforms:

1The Freedom DATA PC, the ultimate in a professional, field ruggedized NDE and Seismic

Geophysical Testing Platform with over a dozen optional add-on test method capabilities.

2The NDE 360, a versatile, robust, ruggedized handheld NDE Platform. Includes up to

a dozen optional add-on NDE and simple Seismic Geophysical test/software system

options in one platform, making it a complete suite for nondestructive evaluation

of civil structures at a very affordable price.

3The CTG’s Impact Echo based Concrete Thickness/Flaw Gauge Product Line

Verify concrete thickness and even detect internal flaws in one easy step without the

need to drill, core or excavate. Requires no special knowledge or training to obtain

thickness measurements.

4The Freedom DAS PC for structural health monitoring, general purpose testing

and data acquisition on up to 32 channels with easily switchable, flexible support

of strain, potentiometer, accelerometer, thermocouple and other sensors for

performance monitoring and load testing.

5The Resonance Tester (RT-1) for determination of elastic moduli of concrete specimens

and rock cores. A lab instrument with just 3 simple components that provides accurate

results in less than a minute — simple to use, simple to learn!

We do not outsource any tech support questions and should you require software

and/or hardware support, we welcome your questions and comments.


Concrete Thickness/

Flaw Gauges

[page 6]

www.OlsonInstruments.com | www.OlsonEngineering.com

[page 26]

Olson Instruments, Inc.

Table of Contents

Nondestructive Testing Platforms »

Freedom Data PC ............................................................................................................................... 4

NDE 360...............................................................................................................................................................5

Concrete Thickness Gauges (CTG)........................................................................6

Freedom DAS PC (Data Acquisition System)........................................ 8

Lab Testing »

Resonance Tester (RT-1).........................................................................................................9

DETECT VOIDS

Custom Systems ».......................................................................................................................... 10

Add-On Nondestructive Testing Systems »

Foundation Depth & Integrity Systems

1. Crosshole Sonic Logging....................................................................................................................12

2. Tomographic Imaging Software................................................................................................... 14

3. Parallel Seismic.......................................................................................................................................... 18

4. Sonic Echo/Impulse Response.....................................................................................................20

5. Ultraseismic (Developed by Olson)..........................................................................................22

Structural, Pavement, & Tunnel Systems

6. Impact Echo.................................................................................................................................................24

7. Impact Echo Scanner...........................................................................................................................26

8. Slab Impulse Response......................................................................................................................28

9. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-S (Structural)...................................................30

10. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity/Sonic Pulse Velocity............................................................ 32

1 1. Multiple Impact Surface Waves .................................................................................................34

Geophysical Seismic Systems

1 2. Crosshole/Downhole Seismic.....................................................................................................36

1 3. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-G (Geophysical)............................................38

14. Seismic Refraction/Reflection...................................................................................................40

Lab Testing

1 5. Resonance Testing [NDE 360 and Freedom Data PC Platforms]....................9

[page 30]

Olson Instruments, Inc.

12401 W. 49th Avenue

Wheat Ridge, CO USA 80033-1927

Toll Free: 1.888.423.1214

Ph: 303.423.1212

Fax: 303.423.6071

email: info@OlsonInstruments.com

www.OlsonInstruments.com | www.OlsonEngineering.com


nondestructive testing platforms

Freedom NDE 360 Data » One PC » Platform - Multiple NDE Tests

The Freedom Data PC represents the ultimate professional, versatile, battery powered NDT Platform, as it can be

utilized for evaluation of structures/infrastructure and geophysical seismic engineering surveys. A custom module

can be added to this platform for the purposes of Structural Health Monitoring, General Purpose Testing, and Data

Acquisition for up to 16 Channels.

The Freedom DATA PC multiple system platform provides

the user with unmatched flexibility for stress-wave based

NDT condition evaluation of concrete, masonry, asphalt, wood

and other construction materials, as well as seismic testing of

soil and rock. This platform provides complete data processing

capability for all test methods.

By simply changing out the custom instrument modules, the user

can quickly switch between tests using any of the available test

method options listed below, while using similar software for data

acquisition and analysis.

Special Option! ...Internal 8B Modules for easy-to-switch

signal conditioning for Structural Health Monitoring. Supports:

Strain ■ Temperature ■ Pressure ■ Potentiometer ■ VIBRATION

What Test Method Systems Are Available?

Foundation Depth & Integrity Test Systems »

1. Crosshole Sonic Logging

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

14" XGA diagonal color backlit screen (1366 x 768)

for sunlight/night viewing

Windows XP or Windows 7 based low power 1.6 GHz Atom

processor 1 GB DRAM

2 - Plug-In multi-channel data/source modules

Minimum 160 GB hard drive

~ 6-8 hour run time internal rechargeable lithium ion batteries

Shock mounted, weather resistant, field ruggedized design

Weathertight mouse and keyboard

1 - 10/100/1000 MB LAN, USB 2.0 (3), RS-232 Serial &

External SVGA Ports

1 - External XGA (1024 x 768) port for external monitor

National Instruments 16 channel 1.25 MHz, 16 bit PCI data

acquisition card standard, optional cards available

Universal 110/220 VAC, 50/60 Hz power supply/charger

External 12 volt automotive cigarette lighter adapter

Weight: 23 lbs (10.5 kg)

Dimensions: 18.5" x 14" x 6" (47 x 36 x 15 cm)

2. Tomographic Imaging Software

3. Sonic Echo/Impulse Response

4. Parallel Seismic

5. Ultraseismic

Structural, Pavement, & Tunnel Test Systems »

6. Impact Echo

7. Impact Echo Scanning

8. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves - S

9. Multiple Impact Surface Waves (call for details)

10. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

1 1. Tomographic Velocity Imaging Software

12. Slab Impulse Response

13. Structural Health Monitoring/Custom Systems

Geophysical Test Systems »

14. Crosshole/Downhole Seismic

15. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves - G

16. Seismic Refraction/Reflection

Lab Test Systems »

17. Resonance Testing

1 Year Warranty on All Equipment

If you already own an add-on system, please let

Olson know as many of the components are common

to other test methods.

4


nondestructive testing platforms

NDE 360 »

Simply put, the NDE 360 is the most versatile and expandable handheld touch screen NDT Platform for Quality

Assurance/Quality Control. Add on NDT System(s) as you need them without having to return the unit.

The NDE 360 multiple system platform is a compact,

lightweight, but robust battery powered handheld system

offering mobility and simplicity for use in the field by one

person. Test data is stored on the compact flash and can be

analyzed on-site. The NDE 360 includes several add-on NDT

test/software system options, making it a complete suite for

nondestructive testing and evaluation of civil structures at an

attractive price. This platform accommodates complete data

processing capability for most test methods. The available test

methods shown below can be added to the NDE 360 without

returning the equipment, except when 8MB memory is required

for the Impact Echo Scanner and MISW systems.

The NDE 360 is field tested and proven through frequent use by

our sister company, Olson Engineering. Optional training for both

hardware and software is available. Check out our website often

as we are continually adding test capabilities to our platforms.

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

High impact ABS plastic case and membrane keypad with

simple to use Test - Accept - Reject and numeric key buttons

LCD with 1/4 VGA, backlit color touch screen, 4.5" x 3.25"

(11.4 x 8.5 cm) with QWERTY touchscreen keyboard for

5 character file names

512 KB standard memory - 8 MB optional memory

14.4V, 4.5Ah NiMH internal rechargeable battery

(lasts ~ 8 hours), optional spare battery and charger

Signal Inputs: Up to 4 channels with 16 bit analog/digital

converters

2 removable compact flash cards (1 backup card)

Shock mounted, weather resistant, field ruggedized design

128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048 data points per channel

record length

Gains: x1, x10, x100, x1000 in four steps per channel

Overall Dimensions: 7.5" x 7.5" x 3" (19 x 19 x 7.6 cm)

Weight: 4.1 lbs. (1.86 kg)

What Test Method Systems Are Available?

» Foundation Depth & Integrity Test Systems

1. Sonic Echo/Impulse Response

2. Parallel Seismic

3. Ultraseismic

» Structural, Pavement, & Tunnel Test Systems

4. Impact Echo

5. Impact Echo Scanner*

6. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves - S

7. Multiple Impact Surface Waves* (call for details)

8. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

9. Tomographic Velocity Imaging Software

10. Slab Impulse Response

» Geophysical Test Systems

1 1. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves - G

» Lab Test Systems

12. Resonance Testing

Custom Systems Available!

*Requires 8 MB Memory Option

If you already own an add-on system, please let

Olson know as many of the components are common

to other test methods.

5


nondestructive testing platforms

Concrete NDE 360 Thickness » One Platform Gauges -(CTG) Multiple » Standard NDE Tests Models

The CTG line of instruments are handheld, battery powered, nondestructive systems for measuring

the thickness and integrity of concrete slabs, pavements, tunnel linings, walls and other

plate-like structures using the Impact Echo (IE) principle.

Concrete Thickness/Flaw Gauges are

dedicated platforms designed to test concrete

thickness in straightforward situations that involve

simple structures like slabs, pipes, or walls. All models

include a telescoping pole for overhead or flatwork.

Perform over 60 CTG tests in an hour on-site, without the

need to core, drill, or excavate! Save time and money using

Olson’s CTG Thickness/Flaw Gauges — see our Impact

Echo section (see page 24) for more information about the

methodology. To receive a brochure on the CTG product

line, email info@OlsonInstruments.com, or call 303.423.1212.

Standard Model

Impact Echo Test Head

CTG-1TF (Thickness/Flaw Model)

Specifications

»» Standard Thickness Range: 3.2" to 6 ft (81 mm to 1.8 m -

Normal solenoid mode to thick hammer mode

CTG Test Gauge

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

Ruggedized, handheld test head with integrated displacement

transducer and solenoid impactor

No coupling agents required for use of test head on concrete

Works on cured, hardened concrete in air or on grade

Works through thin, bonded paint and most types of bonded

tile – checks tile bonding too

Easy to read transflective LCD display for outdoors and

switchable backlight for indoors

Switch between English (inches) or Metric

(centimeters) units with the click of a button

Easy velocity calibration at known thickness location,

or use Olson’s default parameters

Download test time/date and results into your PC through

serial port (serial cable and serial/USB cable)

Thickness data table can be imported into popular

spreadsheet programs

Outputs thickness summary tables and data for postprocessing

on a Windows PC using WinIE software

»»Accuracy:

± 2% at high resolution when IE velocity is

calibrated on a known thickness

»»Report Capability:

Numerical thickness summary table

downloadable to spreadsheet

Raw data downloadable to PC/Notebook for flaw

analyses using Olson’s Windows based WinIE software

and thickness summary table

»»Power:

Internal rechargeable NiMH battery pack

(~ 6-7 hrs of operation per charge), external battery

charger (AC power unit, overnight charging), can use

10 - AA size alkaline batteries or run on the AC power unit

»» Learning Curve: Less than 10 minutes for thickness

measurements!

»»Frequency Resolution: 44.5 Hz (high) or 89 Hz (low)

»»Number of Samples Acquired Per Test:

256 (normal) or 512 (high resolution with zero padding)

»»Processing Time for 1 Test: ~ 3 seconds

»»Sampling Rates: 45,600 samples/s (normal), 14,400

samples/s (thick), and 116,000 samples/s (super thin)

»»Maximum Signal Frequency: 22,800 Hz (normal),

7,200 Hz (thick), and 58,000 Hz (super thin)

»» Weight: 4.4 lbs (2.0 kg) combined for test head and gauge

»»Cable Length for Test Head: 6 ft (1.8 m)

6


Concrete Thickness Gauges (CTG) » Enhanced Models

nondestructive testing platforms

For the standard model, CTG-1TF, the options

of Super Thin [ST] for testing thin members, Surface Wave [SW]

for obtaining velocity across a known distance, or both Super Thin

and Surface Wave [ST-SW] can be added as indicated in the

table below.

CTG-1TF-SW

CTG Models with Enhanced Features

CTG-1TF-ST

[Super Thin]

Components Thickness Range Report Capability

»» Test Gauge

»» Impact Echo Test Head

with High Frequency

Impactor for testing thin

members

»» Telescoping Pole

»» 1.5" to 6 ft

(38 mm to 1.8 m)

in Super Thin to

Normal Solenoid

Impactor Modes

to Thick Hammer

Mode

Numerical Thickness

Summary Table,

downloadable to spreadsheet

WinIE analysis software

displays phase, velocity, or

modulus data vs. frequency

or wavelength of a single

test.

CTG-1TF-SW

[Surface Wave Velocity]

Components Thickness Range Report Capability

»» Test Gauge

»» Impact Echo Test Head

»» Telescoping Pole

»» SW Detachable Arm

with second transducer

for obtaining velocity

across a fixed distance

of 8" (203 mm)

»» 3.2" to 6 ft

(81 mm to 1.8 m)

in Normal Solenoid

Impactor mode

to Thick Hammer

Mode

Numerical Thickness

Summary Table,

downloadable to spreadsheet

WinIE & WinSW analysis

software displays phase,

velocity, or modulus data vs.

frequency or wavelength of a

single test.

CTG-1TF-ST-SW

[Super Thin + Surface Wave Velocity]

Components Thickness Range Report Capability

»» Test Gauge

»» Impact Echo Test Head

with High Frequency

Impactor for testing thin

members

»» Telescoping Pole

»» SW Detachable Arm

with second transducer

for obtaining velocity

across a known distance

»» 1.5" to 6 ft

(38 mm to 1.8 m)

in Super Thin to

Normal Solenoid

Impactor Modes

to Thick Hammer

Mode

Numerical Thickness

Summary Table,

downloadable to spreadsheet

WinIE & WinSW analysis

software displays phase,

velocity, or modulus data vs.

frequency or wavelength of a

single test.

7


nondestructive testing platforms

Freedom NDE 360 DAS » (Data One Platform Acquisition - Multiple System) NDE » Tests

The Freedom DAS is Olson’s data acquisition system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM).

The Freedom DAS PC is a field ruggedized and battery

powered multiple system platform for structural health

monitoring and other industries.

Applications for this platform include modal testing/vibration

monitoring for structures and machinery, acoustic measurements,

monitoring temperature changes, strain gages (¼ to full bridge),

and recording potentiometer/LVDT displacements. In essence,

the Freedom DAS PC can be used to measure/monitor any

voltage or change in resistance that can be recorded. This

platform has the unique capability of combining data collection

and analyses (both in the field and in the office) into a single

transportable battery operated unit.

Internal Dataforth 8B Modules

for easy-to-switch signal conditioning to

support measurement of strain, temperature,

pressure, potentiometer, etc. National

Instruments Labview software based data

acquisition for up to 32 channels.

Features:

■■ 14" XGA diagonal color backlit screen (1366 x 768)

for sunlight/night viewing

■■ Windows XP or Windows 7 based low power 1.6 GHz Atom

processor 1 GB DRAM

■■ 32 slots for Dataforth 8B signal conditioning modules in

removable module bay, 16 slot option for Dataforth SCM5B

modules

■■ Minimum 160 GB hard drive

■■ ~ 6-8 hour run time internal rechargeable lithium ion batteries

■■ Shock mounted, weather resistant, field ruggedized design

■■ Weathertight mouse and keyboard

■■ 1 - 10/100/1000 MB LAN, USB 2.0 (3), RS-232 Serial &

External SVGA Ports

■■ 1 - External XGA (1024 x 768) port for external monitor

■■ National Instruments 16 channel 1.25 MHz, 16 bit PCI data

acquisition card standard, optional cards available

■■ Universal 110/220 VAC, 50/60 Hz power supply/charger

■■ External 12 volt automotive cigarette lighter adapter

■■ Weight: 23 lbs (10.5 kg)

■■ Dimensions: 18.5" x 14" x 6" (47 x 36 x 15 cm)

8B Modules For:

»»Analog Voltage (V)

»»Analog Current (I)

»»Linearized 2, 3 or 4 Wire RTD

»»Linearized Thermocouple

»»Potentiometer

»»Strain Gauge (¼ or full)

»»Frequency

»»True RMS Voltage

(16 Channel Option for Dataforth SCM5B Modules)

Concrete Strain Gauges

and other sensors available

»»2 - Wire

Custom Systems Available - Give Olson a call at

303.423.1212 or email info@OlsonInstruments.com

8


nondestructive testing platforms

Resonance Tester RT-1 » ASTM C215 | ASTM C666

Fast digital laboratory testing equipment - get results in seconds! Tests concrete, masonry, stone & rock, carbon &

granite, ceramics and other specimens.

Consisting of three simple components, Olson’s digitally

based handheld Resonance Tester (RT-1) is a dedicated

platform that is faster, simpler, easier and more economical

than older analog vibrator technology — get accurate

test results in seconds! Meets ASTM C215 Standard for

Resonance Testing of Concrete for Dynamic Properties and

Freeze-Thaw Durability Testing (ASTM C666). The dynamic

Young’s modulus (E), shear modulus (G) and Poisson’s ratio

(y) of concrete, rock, asphalt, masonry, carbon and other

cylinder, beam and core-shaped specimens can be obtained in

seconds. The complete system includes a sample spreadsheet

for all moduli calculations for longitudinal, flexural and

torsional tests as shown below.

shown: accelerometer

Get Accurate Test Results in Seconds!

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

Acquires 1024 samples per test with a sampling rate

of 52,000 samples/second

Quick & Easy Set Up! — uses sponge rubber mat in place

of metal test frame (per ASTM C215)

Color screen for frequency spectra display

High frequency test option for small rock cores

Learning curve: less than 10 minutes

Includes software for damping calculation

Download data to your PC via serial port (serial cable and

serial/USB cable)

Unit will store up to 100 tests for download to optional

WinRT analysis software

AC (100-240 VAC) or rechargeable battery power

~ 6 hour life internal rechargeable batteries, can operate

while recharging

Testing a Rock Core

Download test results directly to your

PC. Enter data into the yellow columns

of the sample file and the results are

automatically calculated (shown in green

columns of sample file).

Resonance testing is

available as an add-on

for the Freedom Data PC

and the NDE 360

9


nondestructive testing platforms

Custom NDE 360 Systems » One » Platform - Multiple NDE Tests

Olson Instruments has developed custom systems for numerous industries in our effort to provide solutions for

unusual testing situations and a broad variety of applications. These types of systems were built for oil and gas

exploration, seismic investigations, mine and mine safety applications, nuclear facility inspections, structural

integrity evaluations, and testing at water and wastewater treatment plants.

Our unique capability to cater to your needs stems from years

of experience in not only building the equipment, but in using

the equipment in our sister company, Olson Engineering. Both

Olson Instruments and Olson Engineering retain a diverse

engineering staff ready to take on your toughest issues and

cater to all of your NDT and geophysical needs. Please contact

our corporate office for further information pertaining to these

types of systems.

Impact Echo Pipe Scanner

Olson’s Custom Systems have been used for:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■ ■

■■

■■

Rapid integrity testing of pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipes

Sonic logging of shallow boreholes

Seismic reflection and refraction surveys

Modal vibration monitoring for industrial buildings

and bridges

Concrete drill/core guidance systems (see photo at left)

A variety of grout integrity investigations including

pre- and post-tensioned ducts in pre-cast beams

Rapid thickness/integrity scanning of bridge decks

(see photo below)

Bridge Deck Scanner (BDS)

Researched and developed by Olson Engineering, Inc. under NCHRP IDEAS Grant

10


Add-On Nondestructive Test Method Systems Section »

nondestructive testing Add-on systems

Freedom Data PC

Available System Add-Ons

page

PLATFORMS

» Resonance Testing.......................................................................................................................................................................9

» Crosshole Sonic Logging....................................................................................................................................12

» Tomographic Velocity Imaging Software............................................................14

» Parallel Seismic...............................................................................................................................................................................18

» Sonic Echo/Impulse Response..........................................................................................................20

» Ultraseismic...............................................................................................................................................................................................22

» Impact Echo...............................................................................................................................................................................................24

» Impact Echo Scanner.....................................................................................................................................................26

» Slab Impulse Response............................................................................................................................................28

» Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-S.......................................................................30

» Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity/Sonic Pulse Velocity.............................32

» Multiple Impact Surface Waves.......................................................................................................34

» Crosshole/Downhole Seismic...............................................................................................................36

» Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-G......................................................................38

» Seismic Refraction/Reflection..........................................................................................................40

NDE 360

Available System Add-Ons

page

» Resonance Testing.......................................................................................................................................................................9

» Tomographic Velocity Imaging Software............................................................14

» Parallel Seismic...............................................................................................................................................................................18

» Sonic Echo/Impulse Response..........................................................................................................20

» Ultraseismic...............................................................................................................................................................................................22

» Impact Echo...............................................................................................................................................................................................24

» Impact Echo Scanner.....................................................................................................................................................26

» Slab Impulse Response............................................................................................................................................28

» Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-S.......................................................................30

» Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity/Sonic Pulse Velocity.............................32

» Multiple Impact Surface Waves.......................................................................................................34

» Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-G......................................................................38

Concrete Thickness Gauges

Available System Add-Ons

page

» Super Thin Option..........................................................................................................................................................................7

» Surface Wave Option.............................................................................................................................................................7

» Super Thin and Surface Wave Option.................................................................................7

Olson Instruments, Inc.

11


Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Crosshole Sonic Logging » ASTM D6760-08 | ACI 228.2R

Crosshole Sonic Logging is the most accurate and reliable technique for assessing the integrity of deep foundation

elements constructed on-site from concrete or grout.

The Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) system is designed for

Quality Assurance (QA) testing of newly placed critical drilled

shaft foundations and auger cast piles, but can also be applied

to slurry walls, mat foundations, and mass concrete pours. Using

water-filled access tubes, CSL testing provides assurance that

the foundation concrete is sound with no defects such as soil

intrusions, necking, sand lenses, voids, etc. Where defects exist,

the extent, nature, depth, and approximate lateral location of

the defects can be determined with the CSL method and further

refined with Tomographic Imaging Software, which is sold by

Olson Instruments (see page 14).

A variation of the CSL method, called Single-Hole Sonic Logging

(SSL) can also be used on smaller diameter drilled mini-piles and

auger cast piles. The Single-Hole Sonic Logging method is used in

cases where only a single access tube can be placed in a deep

foundation, and tests the concrete quality in the region around

the single access tube (see graphic on next page).

Features

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

One or two logs per pull (CSL-1 or CSL-2)

System design allows for fast and accurate field measurements

Hydrophones (42 KHz) are interchangeable as both source and

receiver

Tests up to 20 ft (6.5m) through concrete

Real-time waveform and log results display while testing

Alternate CSL log display formats available at a key stroke

Sensitive enough to detect small defects

Software allows for Automatic Log and optional Report Generation

in Microsoft Word

Capable of identifying multiple defects in a single shaft

Meets ASTM and RILEM standards

Plastic Test Block to check system operation

Tomographic Imaging Software option available

» Applicable On:

Drilled Shafts (Bored Piles)

Slurry Walls and Diaphragm Walls

Mat Foundations and Seal Footings

Mass Concrete Pours

Pressure Injected Footings

Auger Cast Concrete Piles

Water Saturated Media

Cemented Radioactive Wastes

» Test For:

Cracks

Voids

Soil/Water Intrusions

Uncured or Weak Concrete

Necking

Sand Lenses

Model

CSL-1 Model

CSL-2 Model

Option

Tomo-1 Software

Advantages

Single Log System

Double Log System for large shafts and walls

Advantages

Allows the user to perform and display tomographic inversions

of CSL data, giving 2-D or 3-D velocity images of anomalies

Freedom Data PC Required,

Sold Separately

fdi-12


Crosshole Sonic Logging » ASTM D6760-02 | ACI 228.2R

Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Method

The CSL method is typically performed in access tubes

(steel or PVC) of 1.5 inch I.D. (35 mm) or greater which are

tied to the rebar cage and cast into the shaft at the time of

construction. The test can also be performed using

coreholes, if available.

Data Collection

The user friendly CSL software is written and tested at

Olson Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do

not outsource any tech support questions and, should

you require software support, we welcome your questions

and comments.

Available Models

The Crosshole Sonic Logging system is available

in two different models which can be run from the

Freedom Data PC Platform:

1. Crosshole Sonic Logging - 1 (CSL-1)

2. Crosshole Sonic Logging - 2 (CSL-2)

The CSL-1 Model is the base model and is most

frequently used for quality assurance of newly placed

drilled shafts. Includes two hydrophones for testing

one tube pair per log pull.

The CSL-2 Model includes three hydrophones for

faster data acquisition by testing two tube pairs per

log pull. This feature provides a significant advantage

to users who are testing a great number of shafts,

large diameter shafts involving numerous test tubes,

and slurry/diaphragm walls.

Data Example » 1

Major Defect

Example CSL Result - Anomalies

The image to the left shows a CSL

log with two defects: a major defect

at about 23 ft and a more minor

defect at about 30 ft. The ultrasonic

signals (time vs. voltage) illustrate

the differences between the sound,

major defect and minor defect

results. The defect at approximately

23 ft is considered to be more

severe because the signal is completely

lost between the transmitter

and receiver.

Data Example » 2

CSL Result – Arrival Time and Energy vs. Waterfall Plot

Alternate Log Display Formats

The plot on the right is sometimes called a Z-banded plot or waterfall plot. This plot is another way of

showing the CSL results. It is basically a waveform stack plot, but instead of plotting the whole waveform,

it plots all the positive values. If the amplitude is positive, it plots a straight line. If the amplitude is

negative, there is no line.

fdi-13


Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Tomographic NDE 360 » Imaging One Platform Software - Multiple for CSL, NDE UPV, Tests and CS/DS »

Tomographic velocity images are powerful analysis tools used to characterize the size, shape, extent, and severity of

potential defects and anomalies.

SECOND ANGLE

POSITION OF

RECEIVER

FIRST ANGLE

POSITION OF

RECEIVER

Test Path

Water Filled Access Tubes

Test Path

SOURCE

CROSSHOLE TOMOGRAPHY

Tomographic Imaging Software (TOMO) is most commonly

used in conjunction with the Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL),

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV), and Crosshole Seismic/Downhole

Seismic (CS/DS) methods. This type of testing/processing is often

deployed to illuminate the extent, location, and severity of a defect

found with previous testing. This methodology can, however, be

used in instances when the user requires a 2-D/3-D velocity image

of the medium in question (e.g. soil body velocity structures).

» Applicable On:

Concrete Drilled Shafts

Slurry Walls and Diaphragm Walls

Mat Foundations

Dams

Bridge Substructure

Structures

Cemented Radioactive Wastes

Soil/Rock, Wood, Masonry

» Test For:

Cracks

Honeycomb

Voids

Uncured or Weak Concrete

Soil/Water Intrusions

Soil/Rock Moduli

Soil/Rock Velocity Profiles

Data Example » 1

Features

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

Inversion program can perform travel time/velocity

and attenuation tomography

Anisotropy can be specified for each point of the grid

allowing for more accurate models

Ray paths can be both straight and curved allowing

for more accurate models

Processing tools capable of identifying multiple defects

Software packages easily interface with each other

providing the user with a valuable visual tool

Accurately characterizes the size, location and severity

of defects

2-D/3-D analysis and display software is completely

customizable to meet the user’s graphical needs

Display software can create a variety of images,

including movies for visualization aids

PS results showing good quality data

3D Velocity Tomogram of Drilled Shaft

Software Used With CSL,

UPV, and CS/DS Systems,

Sold Separately

fdi-14


Tomographic Imaging Software for CSL, UPV, and CS/DS »

Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

TOMO-1 Option

Available for the following systems:

Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL)

+ Tomographic Velocity Imaging

Advantages

Crosshole Tomography (CT) testing and analysis is used to generate

velocity images of anomalies between tested tube pairs in order

to better judge the extent and severity of defects. With the CSL-2-

Tomo software, the CT method uses data from multiple CSL logs at

different source-receiver height offsets to generate 2-D image slices

of the material between a pair of access tubes in a shaft. When data is

collected between multiple access tubes, the data sets can be combined

to create a 3-D image model of the interior of the shaft concrete,

delineating defects as shown on the previous page.

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV)

or Sonic Pulse Velocity (SPV)

+ Tomographic Velocity Imaging

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) Tomograms are generally used to map out

the location, extent, and severity of defects in structural members. This

method takes advantage of the multiple crossing test paths generated

by combining direct, semi-direct, and indirect UPV testing. This data,

once picked for First Arrival Time (FAT), is used to generate 2-D or 3-D

velocity images. This data and model can often be a valuable resource

when repairs are needed on structural members because it provides

the information necessary to isolate the problem. Sonic Pulse Velocity

(SPV) data is used to provide velocity images of massive dams, bridge

substructures, etc.

Crosshole Seismic/

Downhole Seismic (CS/DS)

+ Tomographic Velocity Imaging

The tomographic velocity images created from data acquired during

Crosshole Seismic/Downhole Seismic (CS/DS) tests are generally used to

look at the material properties of soil/rock. More specifically, this

technique is ultimately useful to image the lateral/vertical changes in

material properties for a more complete site characterization. This

method uses compressional or shear wave arrival time data collected at

different source-receiver height offsets to generate a 2-D image slice

between boreholes. When more than two boreholes are available, then

the testing can be conducted such that a 3-D image model of the material

between multiple test tube pairs can be generated.

fdi-15


Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Tomographic NDE 360 » Imaging One Platform Software - Multiple for CSL, NDE UPV, Tests and CS/DS »

Vertical Tomograms from Crosshole Tomography (CT) Data

Perimeter Tomograms

Distance below top of shaft (ft)

Distance between tubes (ft)

Drilled Shaft Defects

CT TOMOGRAM - Drilled Shaft

Thin-Arch Concrete Dam

Tomography 2-D Test Results

Tomogram Velocity Scale in kfps (thousands of ft/sec)

As seen in the figure at right, low

velocity zones at downstream face

(left side) correspond to degraded

concrete from freeze-thaw cracking

damage on downstream face.

As seen in the above figure, the anomaly (represented

by the cooler colors) is primarily contained

between the depths of 2.5 ft and 4 ft in the

proximity of Tube 1, assuming that Tube 1 was the

source tube.

TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING SOFTWARE

fdi-16


Tomographic Imaging Software for CSL, UPV, and CS/DS »

Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Method

Data Example » 1

The tomographic imaging software is used in conjunction

with the CSL, UPV/SPV, and CS/DS methods/systems. Please

refer to the method sections for these systems in this catalog.

Image at left shows a 3-D visualization where

the higher velocity sections of a drilled shaft

have been removed leaving only the lower

velocity areas for easy viewing of defects.

Data Collection

The user-friendly CSL software, used for CT testing, is written

and tested at Olson Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado.

Olson Instruments has extensive experience with tomography

data analysis software. We do not outsource any tech support

questions and, should you require software support, we

welcome your questions and comments.

Available Imaging Software

The Tomographic Imaging Software is an add-on option

to either of the Olson Instruments, Inc. CSL systems,

the UPV system, and/or the CS/DS system. In the

instance that this add-on is purchased for either of the

CSL systems, the CSL software package includes the

Tomo option. The CSL software has a tomography data

collection and export function that provides automated

user prompting for test execution as well as direct

output to the GEOTOM® inversion program.

In the instance that this add-on is purchased for

either the UPV or CS/DS systems, which includes the

GEOTOM® inversion program, the GEOTOM® software

can perform either first arrival time tomography or

attenuation tomography, use both straight and bending

rays, and allows for the specification of anisotropy at

any defined grid point. The Slicer Dicer® visualization

package allows the user to create both 2-D and

3-D images as well as animations from the output

generated through the GEOTOM® inversion.

Slicer Dicer® 3-D visualization of

defect in a drilled shaft

Data Example » 2

Sample 2: GeoTomCG® 2-D Slice

Image above displays several 2-D horizontal slices

of data. Note that red colors indicate areas of low

velocity and therefore low strength.

These images were created

using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

(UPV) data taken on a column

that had visible exterior

damage after the forms were

removed. The tomographic

images were generated to

determine the extent (e.g.

depth) of the spalling seen at

the surface. The three images

are cross-sectional slices to

show the interior conditions

of the damaged corner. As

can be seen, the defect was

primarily confined to the

surface of the volume.

Slicer Dicer® 3-D visualization data results from column shown

This example illustrates the

primary utility of structural

tomography images when

defects are encountered.

The images allowed for the

problem to be isolated and

locally repaired instead of

the entire concrete member

being removed and replaced,

which would have cost a

considerably larger amount of

time and money.

Crosshole Seismic/Downhole Seismic Testing

For more information on the capabilities of CSL,

UPV, and CS/DS systems available to use with

TOMO - 1, please refer to the individual sections

in this catalog.

fdi-17


Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Parallel NDE 360 Seismic » One » Platform ACI 228.2R - Multiple NDE Tests

When access to the top of the foundation is limited, the Parallel Seismic test is more accurate and more versatile than

other nondestructive surface techniques for determination of unknown foundation depths.

Parallel Seismic (PS) systems are designed to determine

the length and integrity of foundations when the top is not

accessible or when the pile is too long and slender to test with

echo techniques, or below a buried pile cap. Ultimately, Parallel

Seismic testing provides information concerning the length

and compressional velocity of foundations and can be used on

concrete, wood, masonry, and steel foundations. This method

also provides information about the soil below the foundation

bottom. It should be noted that this test method requires the

installation of a water-filled or grouted cased borehole.

Features

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

System design allows for fast and accurate field measurements

- depth accuracy can be determined within 5% or better

More economic and versatile than other equipment/techniques

used for determination of unknown foundation depths

Method and system allows for testing of piles without excavation

System is compact, durable, and easily transported,

allowing for multiple tests per day

IX Foundation, a seismic analysis and display program

allows the full range of data to be viewed at one time,

improving the ability to identify the foundation bottom

Test piles that are partially/totally submerged

Determine the tip depths of foundations with complex

geometries such as piles under pile caps

» Applicable On:

Abutment Piers

Deep Foundations

Sheet Piles and Footings

» Test For:

Foundation Type

Foundation Integrity

Length Determination

Scour Evaluation

Model

PS-1 Model

PS-1G Model

Advantages

Hydrophone in water-filled, ungrouted cased borehole

Hydrophone and triaxial geophone for grouted, cased borings

and downhole seismic velocity measurements of soil and rock

Freedom Data PC or

NDE 360 Required,

Sold Separately

fdi-18


Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Parallel Seismic » ACI 228.2R

Method

The PS method is typically performed in a cased borehole

of 2 inch I.D. (50 mm) or greater which is placed in the

proximity of the foundation in question. The test can also

be performed using a Cone Penetration Test Rig in soft

soil environments with a special small diameter hydrophone

for 1 inch I.D. (25 mm) casing.

Data Collection

The user friendly PS software is written and tested at

Olson Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do

not outsource any tech support questions and, should

you require software support, we welcome your

questions and comments. It should be noted that PS

data is usually displayed and analyzed in a program

called IXFoundation® created by Interpex Limited.

Available Models

The Parallel Seismic system is available in two

different models which can be run from Olson’s

Freedom Data PC or NDE 360 Platforms:

1. Parallel Seismic - 1 (PS-1)

2. Parallel Seismic - 1G (PS-1G)

The PS-1 Model is the base model and is most frequently

used for shorter piles, with a 3 lb instrumented

hammer as the source and a hydrophone receiver.

As a general rule, the longer the pile, the larger the

required hammer.

The PS-1G Model includes a hydrophone and a

triaxial geophone which can be used for PS and

downhole seismic testing. This system can be used to

test a wider distribution of pile lengths with a heavier

sledge hammer used as the source.

The PS-1 + SE/IR-1 + US-1 Models combine

Parallel Seismic (PS) with Sonic Echo/Impulse

Response (SE/IR) and Ultraseismic (US) for

complete foundation testing at a reduced price

because the systems share many common components.

Data Example » 1

PS results showing good quality data

PS data is acquired and processed

in Olson Instruments SHM

software package. This image

illustrates good quality data

as the signal to noise ratio is

high and a clear compressional

wave arrival is evident. These

data are later imported into

IXFoundation and displayed as

stacked data (see example 2).

Data Example » 2

The clear break is seen because the

velocity of the concrete is much higher

than the velocity of the surrounding

soil. When the wave must travel

through more soil below the pile tip,

the wave arrives at the transducer

later in time. This generates a

difference in first wave arrival times that

occurs at the tip of the pile indicating its

depth at 50.3 ft in the PS data example

from IX Foundation®.

PS results showing an example of a clear break in stacked data

fdi-19


Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Sonic NDE 360 Echo/Impulse » One Platform Response - Multiple » ASTM NDE D5882-07 Tests | ACI 228.2R

Sonic Echo/Impulse Response is used for low strain integrity testing of piles and determination of deep foundation length.

The Sonic Echo/Impulse Response (SE/IR) system is

designed to determine the length and integrity of foundations

when the top or part of the upper side of the foundation is

accessible. This system and its associated methodology can be

used on both new and existing foundations and is performed

by impacting the foundation and recording echoes from a

defect or the foundation bottom with a nearby receiver(s). It

should be noted that this method works best for columnar

type foundations such as piles and drilled shafts, but has also

been used successfully on mat foundations, abutment walls,

and similar structures. This technique is applicable on concrete,

wood, and round steel pipe foundations.

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

System design allows for fast and accurate field measurements

Real-time waveform display while testing

System is compact, durable, and easily transported allowing

for multiple tests per day

Accurate within 5% in determining foundation depth

Automatic/manual selection of echo events in SE/IR records

with WinSE/IR software and echo depth prediction based on

user input velocity (English or Metric units)

Ability to perform tests with both accelerometer and

geophone transducers simultaneously in SE or IR tests for

better data quality than if used individually

Integrate and average acceleration and velocity response data

to velocity in SE tests for enhanced identification of echoes

Exponentially amplify SE data with time to enhance

weak echoes with 16 bit A/D sampling

Digital filtering of SE data with lowpass, highpass and

bandpass options to enhance identification of echo events

and minimize background noise

IR mobility transfer function display (velocity/force versus

frequency) of IR results to identify resonant peaks indicative

of echo depths and average mobility

IR flexibility transfer function display (displacement/force

versus frequency) of IR results to identify pile head stiffness

at low frequencies and indicate defects

The Sonic Echo (SE) method is

normally conducted in conjunction

with the Impulse Response (IR)

method together as the SE/IR

method. Olson does, however,

provide a system that exclusively

uses the SE methodology without

the IR analyses. This system,

along with its associated software,

uses only the time domain

information in the data for the

interpretation of reflections. The IR option provides the user with

the ability to transform the data from the time domain into the

frequency domain. The software then automatically calculates the

transfer and coherence functions, which may be useful for data

quality analyses as well as providing further information about

reflections within the structure.

» Applicable On:

Auger Cast Concrete Piles

Bridge Abutments

Driven Concrete Piles

Drilled Shafts (Bored Piles)

Wall Piers

Wood Piles

» Test For:

Cracks

Deep Foundation Depths

Diameter Changes (bulb or neck)

Soil Intrusions

Uncured or Weak Concrete

Voids

Freedom Data PC or

NDE 360 Required,

Sold Separately

Model

SE-1 Model

SE/IR-1 Model

Advantages

Process data in time domain

Process data in both time domain and frequency domain

fdi-20


Sonic Echo/Impulse Response » ASTM D5882-07 | ACI 228.2R

Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Method

The SE/IR method is typically performed by mounting a

receiver on the top of the foundation and then striking the

top with a hammer. If the top of the foundation is not

accessible, then the receiver and the strike are located as

close to the top as possible. A similar setup is also used

when the structure in question is a wall.

Data Collection

The user-friendly SE/IR software is written and tested at Olson

Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do not outsource

any tech support questions and, should you require software

support, we welcome your questions and comments.

Available Models

The Sonic Echo/Impulse Response system is available

in two different models which can be run from Olson’s

Freedom Data PC or NDE 360 Platforms:

1. Sonic Echo - 1 (SE-1)

2. Sonic Echo/Impulse Response - 1 (SE/IR-1)

The SE-1 Model is the base model. This system

includes an accelerometer and a hammer with interchangeable

plastic to rubber tips for one channel of

data acquisition and processing in time domain only.

The SE/IR-1 Model includes a geophone, an

accelerometer, and an instrumented impulse hammer

for three channels of data acquisition and processing

in both the time domain and the frequency domain.

The SE/IR-1 + PS-1 + US-1 Model combines Sonic

Echo/Impulse Response (SE/IR) with Parallel

Seismic (PS) and Ultraseismic (US) for complete

foundation testing at a reduced price because the

systems share many common components.

Data Example » 1

Results showing good quality accelerometer (SE) data

This is an example of good

quality accelerometer data

(SE) as evidenced by multiple

reflections. The multiple echoes

are apparent in the bottom plot

from a defect. The first of the

multiple echoes is marked by a

vertical cursor that corresponds

to the depth of a severe necking

defect at ~ 12 ft (3.6 m) below

the shaft top.

Data Example » 2

Results showing good quality Impulse Response (IR) data

processed from the above SE data, Example #1

This is an example of good quality

impulse response (IR) data as

evidenced by high coherence

(middle plot) over the peaks seen

in the lower plot. These peaks are

displayed in the frequency domain

rather than the time domain as in

SE data. Multiple peaks are clear

and easy to identify, allowing for

more accurate shaft length or

the ~ 12 ft (3.6 m) defect depth

calculations in this case.

fdi-21


Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Ultraseismic NDE 360 » » One Platform - Multiple NDE Tests

Developed by Olson Engineering, Inc., Ultraseismic (US) investigations are performed to evaluate the integrity and

determine the length of shallow and deep foundations on complex substructures.

The Ultraseimic (US) system is designed to determine the

length and integrity of foundations when the upper portion of

the structure is accessible but the top is not or when other

tests have led to inconclusive results. US investigations can

be performed on drilled shafts and driven or auger-cast piles.

The investigation can be performed on shallow wall-shaped

substructures, such as an abutment or a wall pier of a bridge,

provided at least five to six feet of the side of the structural

element is exposed for mounting instrumentation. The method

is particularly useful in testing abutments and wall piers of

bridges because of the relatively large exposed areas available

for mounting instrumentation.

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

System design allows for fast and accurate field measurements

— depth accuracy can be determined within 5% or better

Real-time waveform display while testing

System is compact, durable, and easily transported allowing

for multiple tests per day

IX Foundation, a seismic analysis and display program, allows

the full range of data to be viewed at one time, improving

the ability to identify the foundation bottom

Method is particularly useful in testing abutments and wall

piers of bridges because of the relatively large exposed

areas available for mounting instrumentation

Method and system allows for testing of piles without

full excavation

The use of many receiver locations results in a high level

of confidence in interpretation

The Ultraseismic method represents a more sophisticated

approach to the Sonic Echo/Impulse Response (SE/IR) method

(for compressional waves) and the Short Kernel (SKM) method

(for flexural bending waves). The US method was internally

developed by Olson Engineering as a response to difficulties

encountered with the SE/IR and SKM (bending wave) methods

when many reflecting boundaries are present. The US investigation

method can be performed on concrete, masonry, stone, and

wood foundations.

» Applicable On:

Drilled Shafts (Bored Piles)

Auger Cast Concrete Piles

Driven Concrete Piles

Bridge Abutments

Wall Piers

» Test For:

Cracks

Depth

Soil Intrusions

Voids

Model

US-1 Model

US-1 + SE/IR + PS Model

Advantages

Depth determination of complex substructures

and foundations

Versatile suite of length and integrity

determination systems

Freedom Data PC or

NDE 360 Required,

Sold Separately

fdi-22


Foundation Depth & Integrity SystemS

Ultraseismic »

Data Example » 1

Method

The US method is typically performed by mounting a

receiver on the upper portion of a foundation or wall and

then striking the substructure with an instrumented hammer.

The US method requires at least 3 to 6 ft (1 to 1.8 m) of the

foundation be exposed for receiver attachments. The general

rule is that the larger the exposed area, the better the definition

of the reflected events.

Data Collection

The user friendly US software is written and tested at

Olson Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do

not outsource any tech support questions and, should

you require software support, we welcome your

questions and comments. It should be noted that US

data is usually displayed and analyzed in a program

called IXFoundation® created by Interpex Limited.

14 ft

6.5 ft Footing Top

Footing Bottom

To illustrate the concept of the

Ultraseismic investigation, an

example from a Ultraseismic

investigation on a concrete bridge

column and footing foundation

is shown. Using IX Foundation®,

all the data from the multiple

receiver positions can be

presented in one plot.

Vertical hits on the beam

generate flexural waves

traveling down and up the

column/footing substructure to

the accelerometers used in the

Ultraseismic test.

Note:

Flexural Wave Velocity = 5,800 ft/s

Plot showing several clear breaks, as

depicted by the solid black lines.

Available Models

The Ultraseismic systems can be run from Olson’s

Freedom Data PC or NDE 360 Platforms:

1. Ultraseismic - 1 (US-1)

2. Ultraseismic + Sonic Echo/Impulse Response

+ Parallel Seismic System (US-1 + SE/IR-1 + PS-1)

The US-1 Model is the base model. This system

includes an accelerometer and an instrumented

hammer for 2 channels of data acquisition.

The US-1 + SE/IR-1 + PS-1 Model combines

Ultraseismic (US) with Sonic Echo/Impulse

Response (SE/IR) and Parallel Seismic (PS)

for complete foundation testing at a reduced

price because the systems share many common

components.

Triaxial Accelerometer

For more information on the individual capabilities

of each method and system included in the

US + SE/IR + PS system, please refer to the

individual sections in this catalog.

fdi-23


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Impact NDE 360 Echo » » One ASTM Platform C1383-04 - Multiple NDE Tests

Impact Echo (IE) investigations are performed to assess the condition or thickness of slabs, beams, columns, walls,

pavements, runways, tunnels, and dams.

Impact Echo (IE) systems are designed to determine the

condition and thickness of concrete, wood, stone, and masonry

structural members when voids, honeycomb, and/or cracks are

suspected. IE investigations can also be performed to predict the

strength of early age concrete if the member thickness is known.

Lastly, the IE method will provide information on the depth of

a flaw or defect, in addition to mapping its lateral location and

extent. An advantage of the IE method over the Ultrasonic Pulse

Velocity (UPV) method is that only one side of the structure needs

to be accessible for testing.

Other systems based on the Impact Echo principle include Olson

Instruments’ handheld Concrete Thickness Gauge (CTG),

see page 6 and the Impact Echo Scanner (IES), page 26.

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

Economic solution for users who already own either a

Freedom Data PC or NDE 360

Thickness accuracy ± 2% at high resolution when calibrated

on a known thickness

Save selected test time/date and spectral thickness results

for later review

English or Metric units can be used

No coupling agents required for use of test head on concrete

Easy velocity calibration at known thickness location

Works on cured, hardened concrete in air or on grade

Works through paint and most types of bonded tile—

checks tile bonding too

System is compact, durable, and easily transported allowing

for multiple tests per day

Real-time waveform display while testing

Software allows for more sophisticated processing

Store more data with these systems than with CTG models

Can be expanded to use Impact Echo Scanning technology

Freedom Data PC or

NDE 360 Required,

Sold Separately

Delaminations due to:

Corroded wire strands

located with Impact Echo

Confirmed defect using Impact Echo

from inside of concrete pipe

» Applicable On:

Beams

Bridge Decks

Columns

Dams

Pavements

Pipes

Post-Tensioned Ducts

Runways

Slabs

Tunnels

Walls

» Test For:

Cracks

Delaminations

Honeycomb

Thickness

Voids

spt-24


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Impact Echo » ASTM C1383-04

Impact Echo

Test Head

Receiver

Source

Void

Reflection from slab/void interface

Data Example » 1

Method

In conventional IE investigations, the hammer or

impactor is used to generate compressional waves that

reflect back from the bottom of the tested member or

from a discontinuity. The response of the system is then

measured by the receiver placed next to the impact

point. Only one relatively smooth and clean surface

needs to be accessible for receiver placement and

hammer or solenoid impact.

Data Collection

The user friendly IE software is written and tested at

Olson Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do

not outsource any tech support questions and, should

you require software support, we welcome your

questions and comments.

Available Models

The Impact Echo system is available in eight different

models which can be run from Olson’s Freedom Data PC

or NDE 360 Platforms:

1. Impact Echo-1 (IE-1)

2. Impact Echo-1 + Super Thin (IE-1-ST)

3. Impact Echo-1 + Surface Wave (IE-1-SW)

4. Impact Echo-1 + Super Thin + Surface Wave

(IE-1-ST-SW)

5. Impact Echo-2 (IE-2)

6. Impact Echo-2 + Super Thin (IE-2-ST)

7. Impact Echo-2 + Surface Wave (IE-2-SW)

8. Impact Echo-2 + Super Thin + Surface Wave

(IE-2-ST-SW)

Model

IE-1 Model

IE-1-ST Model

IE-1-SW Model

IE-1-ST-SW Model

IE-2 Model

IE-2-ST Model

IE-2-SW Model

IE-2-ST-SW Model

IE - Concrete Location

Advantages

Will store more data than CTG systems. Tests concrete between

3.2" to 6 ft (81 mm to 1.8 m). Includes impactor solenoid and

displacement transducer

Allows user to test concrete down to 1.5" (38 mm)

Allows user to perform Surface Wave (SW) tests with 8" arm (203 mm)

(see CTG-SW section, page 7 for more details)

Allows user to test concrete down to 1.5" (38 mm) and perform

Surface Wave (SW) tests

In addition to impactor solenoid and displacement transducer,

includes accelerometer and small impulse hammer

Allows user to test concrete down to 1.5" (38 mm)

Allows user to perform Surface Wave (SW) tests

Performing the IE

method at a sound

concrete location gives

results similar to the

figure shown. A single,

sharp, clear peak

representing a known

thickness is indicative

of sound concrete. The

slab investigated was

10 inches thick and the

bottom echo results in

a peak at 10 inches.

Allows user to test concrete down to 1.5" (38 mm) and perform

Surface Wave (SW) tests

spt-25


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Impact NDE 360 Echo » Scanner One Platform » ASTM - Multiple C1383-04 NDE (Patented Tests Technology by Olson)

Impact Echo Scanner (IES) investigations are performed on large structural members with smooth concrete such

as slabs, walls, bridge decks, beams, pipes, etc. where shallow voids, honeycomb, cracking or delaminations are of

primary concern.

The Impact Echo Scanning (IES) system is designed for large

area investigations of shallow voids, debonding/delamination,

cracking or honeycomb often found between an overlay on a

bridge deck or surrounding dense rebar mats. IES is commonly

used in locating post-tensioning (PT) cables used in reinforcing

various structures and determining duct grout condition. The

scanning technology allows tracing of the PT cables through

slabs and beams. An advantage of the IES method is that only

one side of the structure needs to be accessible for testing.

The IES Method is based on the Olson Engineering patented

technology of a rolling transducer and automated impactor for

near-continuous Impact Echo based thickness and flaw scanning

of structural concrete and pavements. Performed at slow walking

speeds, test results are obtained every inch (25 mm) in a line

and multiple lines can be combined for 2-D to 3-D displays of

concrete thickness and locations of internal void, honeycomb,

cracking, delamination, etc. The scanning method is capable of

determining bottom echo thicknesses up to ~ 40 inches (1 m).

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

Thickness accuracy ± 2% at high resolution when

calibrated on a known thickness

Thousands of tests can be performed per hour when

“imaging” of internal concrete conditions is required

System is compact, durable, and easily transported

allowing for multiple tests per day

Real-time waveform display while testing

Software allows for more sophisticated processing

English or Metric units can be used

No coupling agents required for use of test head on concrete

Works on cured, hardened concrete in air or on grade

Works through paint and most types of bonded tile—

checks tile bonding too

Easy velocity calibration at known thickness

Thickness maps are easily constructed from data

» Applicable On:

Beams

Bridge Decks

Columns

Dams

Pavements

Pipes

Post-Tensioned Ducts

Runways

Slabs

Tunnels

Walls

» Test For:

Cracks

Honeycomb

Voids

Delaminations

Thickness

Model

IES Model

IES-M Model

Advantages

Allows for rapid Impact Echo testing of large areas

Add a built-in microphone to collect acoustic

information for shallow delamination detection,

while collecting IES data

spt-26


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Impact Echo Scanner » ASTM C1383-04 (Patented Technology by Olson)

Data Example » 1

Method

In IES investigations, an impactor is used to generate

compressional waves that reflect back from the bottom of

the tested member or from a discontinuity as sensed by a

rolling displacement transducer. The response of the

system is then measured by the receiver placed next to

the impact point. Only one relatively smooth and clean

surface needs to be accessible for rolling receiver coupling

and solenoid impacting. Water can be applied to the

surface to improve coupling of the receiver.

Data Collection

The user-friendly IES software is written and tested at

Olson Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do

not outsource any tech support questions and, should you

require software support, we welcome your questions

and comments.

Available Models

The Impact Echo Scanning system is available in two

different models which can be run from Olson’s

Freedom Data PC or NDE 360 Platforms:

1. Impact Echo Scanner (IES)

2. Impact Echo Scanner with Microphone (IES-M)

The results from IES tests using the portable rolling IE Scanner system are imaged in the above

Tomogram. In the IES testing, the clearest indication of the presence of grouting defects is the

apparent increase in the thickness due to a reduction in the IES resonant frequency as a result of

the decrease in stiffness associated with a defect.

Data Example » 2

The IES Model is the base model and can be

operated from either the Freedom Data PC or the NDE

360. There are minor differences between operating

this system with the Freedom Data PC vs. the NDE

360. The Freedom Data PC provides faster and more

extensive processing capability and additional data

storage space. The field-friendly NDE 360 is compact

and lightweight. The IES data can be downloaded

from the NDE 360 to a PC, allowing for the same

post processing available with the Freedom Data PC.

The IES-M Model includes a built-in microphone for

situations where the user wishes to collect acoustic

data simultaneously with IES data to detect deck

delaminations. This system is an add-on test

method for the Freedom Data PC platform only,

purchased separately.

3-D IE Scan Display showing thickened end and possible thicker voided duct areas for 2 m tall wall

over 62 m length with vertical thickness scale of 100 cm (1 m).

Sold only to US Government Agencies and Universities,

as well as approved International sales. For consulting

services, call 303.423.1212 for details.

Freedom Data PC or

NDE 360 Required,

Sold Separately

IES-M Model:

Freedom Data PC

Platform Only

spt-27


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Slab NDE Impulse 360 » Response One Platform » ASTM - Multiple C1740-10 NDE Tests | ACI 228.2R

The Slab Impulse Response method is excellent for evaluating the condition of slab subgrade and tunnel lining support.

The Slab Impulse Response (SIR) system is designed to

identify subgrade voids below slabs-on-grade less than two feet

thick. In addition, the Slab IR test method can be used on other

concrete structures to quickly locate areas with delaminations or

voids in the concrete, if the damage is relatively shallow. Slab

IR can be performed on reinforced and non-reinforced concrete

slabs as well as asphalt or asphalt-overlay slabs.

The Slab IR method is often used in conjunction with GPR

for subgrade void detection and mapping. Collecting Slab IR

data at multiple, densely spaced locations can improve the

conclusions by mapping relative areas of higher and lower

mobility. Relatively low mobility (velocity/force) and flexibility

(displacement/force) qualitatively indicates that such an area

appears to be more solidly supported than an area with

relatively high mobility and flexibility.

» Applicable On:

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

System is compact, durable, and easily transported allowing

for up to 600 tests per day

Real-time waveform display while testing

Short learning curve for data acquisition and basic processing

2-D maps are easily generated from data by exporting the

tables from WinSIR into Excel

English or Metric units can be used

Concrete Slabs and Retaining Walls

Pavements

Pond or Pool Bottoms

Runways

Spillways

Tunnel Liners

» Test For:

Delaminations in Decks

Voids below slabs/tunnel linings

Soft, weak subgrade support

Model

SIR-1 Model

SIR-2 Model

Advantages

Complete system for testing of slabs-on-ground

Allows the user to test slabs and to expand testing to

tunnels, inclined spillways, etc.

Freedom Data PC or

NDE 360 Required,

Sold Separately

spt-28


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Slab Impulse Response » ACI 228.2R

Method

Conventional SIR testing requires access to the top of the

slab. The vertical geophone receiver is mounted to the

surface of the slab adjacent to the impact location and

generally 3-4 inches away. Once the slab top is impacted

with an impulse hammer, the response of the slab is

monitored by the geophone. The hammer input and the

receiver output are recorded by an Olson Instruments

Freedom Data PC or NDE 360 equipped with the Slab

Impulse Response System (SIR-1). In easy access areas,

400-600 Slab IR tests can be performed in an 8 hour

workday. Once all of the data is collected, it can be

processed with the WinSIR software provided, imported into

a spreadsheet program, and then contour mapped.

Determine areas of void/poor subgrade support and flawed

concrete conditions with Slab Impulse Response

Data Collection

The user-friendly SIR software is written and tested at Olson

Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do not outsource

any tech support questions and, should you require software

support, we welcome your questions and comments.

Available Models

The Slab Impulse Response system is available in two

different models which can be run from Olson’s

Freedom Data PC or NDE 360 Platforms:

1. Slab Impulse Response - 1 (SIR-1)

2. Slab Impulse Response - 2 (SIR-2)

The SIR-1 Model includes a vertical geophone transducer

for flat slabs, an instrumented hammer, cables, and the

acquisition/processing software. This system can be easily

used to test slabs-on-grade and then create 2-D contour maps

by importing the results table into programs like Excel. These

renderings are often a valuable resource for isolating and

repairing voids below slabs-on-grade.

Data Example » 1

Data Example » 2

Subgrade support condition evaluation

parameters:

■■

■■

■■

Mean mobility (in/sec/lbf)

Shape of the mobility plot at frequencies above

the initial straight-line portion of the curve

(between 100 to 800 Hz in this investigation)

Initial slope of the mobility plot gives

the low-strain flexibility (in/lbf) of the

spillway-subgrade system

Interpretation Pitfalls

■■ Slab thickness

■■ Local reinforcement

■■ Local joints/seams

The SIR-2 Model includes the addition of an omnidirectional

velocity transducer to perform tests on walls

and ceilings of concrete beams and tunnels.

Good subgrade support –

low, smooth mobility.

Poor subgrade support –

high, irregular mobility

spt-29


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-S » ACI 228.2R

Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) investigations are typically applied to assess material stiffness and

condition, and layer thickness.

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

Receivers mounted on the SASW-S bar allow for fast and

accurate field measurements

Real-time waveform display while testing

System is compact, durable, and easily transported allowing

for multiple tests per day

Measurements accurate to within 5% for the determination of

the thickness and stiffness of the top layer in a pavement

system or of the concrete liner of a tunnel

Acquisition and analysis software are compatible and easy to

use yielding fast and accurate results

The Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW-S) system is

designed for the following applications:

1. Condition assessment of concrete, including liners in tunnels,

slabs, and other structural concrete members.

2. Evaluation of alkali-silica, fire, freeze-thaw and other cracking

damage.

3. Surface-opening crack depth measurement.

4. Determination of abutment depths of bridges.

5. Determination of pavement system profiles including the

surface layer, base and subgrade materials with optional

WINSASW software.

The SASW method uses the dispersive characteristics of surface

(Rayleigh) waves to determine the variation of the shear wave

velocity (stiffness) of layered systems with depth. The SASW

testing is applied from the surface making it both nondestructive

and non-intrusive. Once the shear wave velocity profiles are

determined, shear and Young’s moduli of the materials can be

calculated through the use of simple mathematical equations.

If optional WINSASW software is purchased, shear wave velocity

profiles can be determined from experimental dispersion curves

(surface wave velocity versus wavelength) and compared to actual

SASW measurements through a process called forward modeling

or through an inversion process. This allows the user to find

the best thickness and stiffness model for the layered system of

interest. The SASW method can be performed on any material

provided there is an accessible surface for receiver attachments.

SASW is also used for geophysical purposes in estimating shear

wave velocity of soils and rock (see the SASW Section in the

Geophysical Engineering Section, page 38).

» Applicable On:

Asphalt

Concrete

Masonry

Stone

Wood

» Test For:

Layer Thickness

Material Moduli

Shear Wave Velocity Profiles

Model

SASW-S Model

SASW-A Model

SASW-SA Model

Option

WINSASW Software

Advantages

Rapidly performs SASW tests with receiver spacings

between 2.4" and 31.5" (6 and 80 cm). Includes SASW Bar.

Performs testing with accelerometer receiver spacings up to

12 ft (3.6 m). Does not include SASW Bar.

Most complete SASW system. Includes SASW Bar and two

accelerometers for testing with receiver spacings up to

12 ft (3.6 m).

Advantages

Allows determination of pavement system profiles

Freedom Data PC or

NDE 360 Required,

Sold Separately

spt-30


Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-S » ACI 228.2R

structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Method

The SASW method requires an accessible surface for receiver

attachments. The extent of the accessible surface limits the

investigation depth. As a rule of thumb, in order to investigate

material properties to a depth D, the line of receivers

on the surface must extend to at least a distance equal to

1.5D, preferably 2D. Once the receivers are mounted to the

surface, acoustic energy is generated by an impactor and

measured on the receivers.

Data Collection

The user-friendly SASW software is written and tested at Olson

Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do not outsource

any tech support questions and, should you require software

support, we welcome your questions and comments. It should

be noted the SASW-S data is usually displayed and analyzed

with our WinSW software. Additionally, more detailed analysis

and modeling is possible with a program called WINSASW,

available from the University of Austin Texas.

Available Models

The Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves system is

available in three different models which can be run

from Olson’s Freedom Data PC or NDE 360 Platforms:

1. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves - S (SASW-S)

2. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves - A (SASW-A)

3. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves - SA (SASW-SA)

The SASW-S Model is the base model and includes

the SASW receivers mounted to the SASW bar, the

SASW cable, and ball-peen hammers for impacting

the surface. This system is used for testing with receiver

spacings between 2.4" and 31.5" (61 mm and .8 m).

These spacings are appropriate for depth investigations

down to approximately 2.6 ft (0.8 m).

The SASW-A Model is comprised of two accelerometers.

This system is appropriate for testing with receiver

spacings up to 12 ft (3.6 m).

The SASW-SA Model is the most complete SASW

system as it includes both the SASW bar and a two

accelerometers, which will allow for investigations up

to approximately 12 ft (3.6 m).

Data Example » 1

SASW results showing good quality data taken

on good quality concrete

It’s important in the field to limit

the accepted data to those wave

forms that originate at zero volts

with good repeatability. Once the

data is accepted, it is important to

check the coherence and the phase

analysis of the data, which appear

in the lower two plots. Good quality

data on good quality concrete

consists of high coherence and

multiple saw-tooth phase cycles.

spt-31


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity/Sonic Pulse Velocity » ASTM C597-02, E494-95 | BSI 98/105795 | ACI 228.2R

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) investigations are performed to assess the condition of structural members such as

elevated slabs, beams, and columns when access to both sides is available. Sonic Pulse Velocity (SPV) is performed

on mass concrete over 10 ft (3 m) in thickness.

The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) systems are designed to

identify and map voids, honeycomb, cracks, delaminations, and

other damage in concrete, wood, masonry, stone, ceramics, and

metal materials. UPV tests are also performed to predict strength

of early age concrete. The UPV methodology relies on direct

arrival of compressional waves, which are generated by sources

with resonant frequencies ranging from 50 to 150 kHz. The

highest resonant frequency sources/receivers are typically used

with thinner structural members for higher resolution and smaller

anomaly identification.

Features:

■■ ~ 50 kHz UPV transducers standard

■■ Short learning curve for data acquisition and basic processing

■■ Real-time waveform display while testing

■■ System is compact, durable, and easily transported allowing

for multiple tests per day

■■ 2-D maps are easily generated from data by exporting the

tables from WinUPV into Excel

■■ Tomographic velocity images can be generated from this data

giving the user a 2-D or 3-D visual tool of the region in question

■■ English or Metric units can be used

■■ System includes a calibration bar as per ASTM and other standards

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

Assess the condition of structural members with 2 sided access

The test is performed by positioning the source and receiver

on either side of the area in question, then the source sends a

compressional wave through the region, and the receiver records

the full waveform on the other side. The position of the two

transducers can be varied such that direct, semi-direct, and indirect

tests can be performed, which aids in mapping out the volume of

the defect. Further tests can be performed if the user wishes to

generate a 3-D rendering of the volume in question. This is done

by testing many different “paths” through the medium and then

using a tomographic inversion program to generate a model. For

more information about the tomographic inversion software, see

the Tomographic Imaging Section, page 14.

» Applicable On:

Beams, Beam Intersections

Columns

Complex Geometries

Shaft Tops

Walls

» Test For:

Cracks

Delaminations

Honeycomb

Velocity vs. Strength Correlation with Cores

Voids

Model

UPV-1 Model

SPV-1 Model

SPV-2 Model

Advantages

Complete system for testing compression wave velocity and flaw detection

Test mass concrete up to 20 ft (6 m) in thickness

Allows for larger impacts of mass concrete over 20 ft (6 m) in thickness

Options

Tomo-1 Software

Advantages

Allows the user to perform and display tomographic inversions of UPV/SPV

data which provides 2-D or 3-D velocity images of the tested materials

Direct Transmission Semi-Direct Transmission Indirect Transmission

Freedom Data PC or

NDE 360 Required,

Sold Separately

spt-32


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity/Sonic Pulse Velocity » ASTM C597-02, E494-95 | BSI 98/105795 | ACI 228.2R

Method

Conventional UPV testing requires access to two surfaces,

preferably two parallel surfaces such as the top and bottom

surfaces of a slab or the inside and outside surfaces of a wall.

This test can be performed, however, using the indirect

method (figure on previous page) which does not require

access to two surfaces. In defect areas, the compressional

wave velocity is slower than in sound areas and signal

amplitude is often lower. For structural members containing

large, severe voids, signal transmission may be completely

lost. In some defect areas, such as honeycombs, the

compressional wave velocity may be almost the same as in

sound areas, but distortion of the signal (filtering of high

frequencies) may be used as an indication of a honeycomb defect.

UL T R A S O PU N L I S EVE C L O C I T A Y N D

TOM O G R A P H YIM A G I O N F G IN T E R N A L

H O N E Y C O M B /VO I D I N

C O N C R E T E HI G H W A Y

S I G N CO L U M N

Data Collection

The user-friendly UPV software is written and tested at Olson

Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do not outsource

any tech support questions and, should you require software

support, we welcome your questions and comments. For more

information about the inversion program, GEOTOM®, and the

visualization program, Slicer Dicer®, please feel free to contact

our corporate office.

Available Models

The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity/Sonic Pulse Velocity systems

are available in three different models which can be run

from the Freedom Data PC or NDE 360 Platforms:

1. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity - 1 (UPV-1)

2. Sonic Pulse Velocity - 1 (SPV-1)

3. Sonic Pulse Velocity - 2 (SPV-2)

The UPV-1 Model includes a pair of waterproof 50 kHz

transducers, the necessary cables and modules for running

this system, and the acquisition/processing software. This

system can be easily used to test a variety of “paths”

through a medium and then create 2-D contour maps by

importing the results table into a spreadsheet program.

2-D VELOCITY TOMOGRAM

OF COLUMN identifies slow

velocity zones indicative of

internal poor quality concrete

due to poor consolidation in

a horizontal slice and good

concrete

UPV DATA from 5 N-S and 5 E-W

tests on a 1 ft grid was used on

the tomogram shown. Angled

rays and more tests produce

more accurate images

Data Example » 1

The SPV-1 Model includes a 0.2 lb (0.1 Kg) impulse

hammer and accelerometer receiver to test mass concrete

up to 20 ft (6 m) in thickness. The SPV data can also be

input into TOMO-1 to provide velocity tomograms.

The SPV-2 Model includes a pair of accelerometer receivers

for larger impacts of mass concrete over 20 ft (6 m) in

thickness. The SPV data can also be input into TOMO-1

to provide velocity tomograms.

Purchase the Tomo -1 Option, (tomographic imaging/

visualization software) and your data can be inverted,

and 2-D or 3-D models can be created of the volume in

question. These renderings are often a valuable resource

for isolating and repairing defects.

A signal generated from the UPV

test method can be considered a

good signal if it meets all three

of the following requirements as

shown:

1) The signal should begin or

originate at the origin, zero

point, of the graph.

2) The arrival time of the wave

should be very clear and

apparent, regardless if it

breaks up or down.

3) The signal should not be clipped.

3 Requirements for Good Quality UPV Signals

spt-33


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Multiple NDE 360 Impact » One Surface Platform Waves - Multiple » NDE Tests

Multiple Impact Surface Wave (MISW) investigations are used in QA or forensic investigation of subgrade, base and

top asphalt /concrete pavement layers as well as for structures and tunnels.

Multiple Impact Surface Waves (MISW) systems are designed

to measure asphalt and concrete pavement surface layer (Single

Layer software) thicknesses to within ~ 0.2 to 0.4 inches (~ 5

to 10 mm) when calibrated with limited cores. In addition, the

MISW system can be used to measure surface wave velocity

profiles vs. depth from which Young’s (elastic) moduli and

layer thicknesses are determined (Single Layer and Multiple

Layer software options). The pavement layer thickness/

moduli profile is used for mechanistic-empirical pavement

design and rehabilitation studies. The MISW system can be

used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) purposes

for each layer of a pavement system during construction to

provide pavement system layer thickness, typically the surface

pavement layer, and moduli data for pavement, base, and

subgrade layers. In pavement rehabilitation projects, MISW can

be used to measure asphalt/concrete thickness/moduli as well

as the thickness/moduli of the underlying base, and subgrade

layers of pavement systems.

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

Surface pavement layer thickness can typically be determined

to ~ 0.2 to 0.4 inches (~ 5 to 10 mm) along with Young’s

moduli (asphalt moduli is temperature corrected)

Real-time waveform display and surface layer data processing

while testing

NDE 360 MISW systems are compact, durable, and easily

transported allowing for multiple tests per day and field

analysis of top layer results

Freedom Data PC MISW system allows for field analysis of

top layer results and more detailed field processing of data

MISW offers improved accuracy vs. other surface wave

methods for thickness/Young’s Moduli profiles

SeisNDT-SL Single Layer software (by Dr. Nils Ryden) for QA

of thickness/moduli of pavement (asphalt/concrete), base

(gravel, cement, or lime-treated roadbase materials), and

subgrade layers during new construction

SeisNDT-ML Multiple Layer software for forensic thickness/

moduli determination of pavements and other layered

systems (includes SeisNDT-SL for Single Layer Systems)

The MISW test method utilizes many of the same principles,

equations, and data collection procedures as the SASW method

(see SASW-S section). The differences between the two methods

are predominantly in the data collection and processing where

the MISW method is based on multichannel data processing

techniques, developed for the Multichannel Analysis of Surface

Waves (MASW) method. All of the data taken during MISW

testing is analyzed together to create a dispersion image or

phase velocity spectrum.

» Applicable On:

Asphalt

Base

Concrete

Rock

Subbase

Subgrade Soil

» Test For:

Layer Shear Moduli

Layer Poisson's Ratio

Layer Thickness

Layer Young's (Elastic) Moduli

Model

MISW-SL

Options

MISW-ML

Advantages

For thickness/moduli of surface pavement layer (asphalt/concrete)

& moduli of base and subgrade materials as they are placed.

Advantages

Includes the theoretical modeling package for determination of

thickness/moduli profiles of multiple and single layer systems.

spt-34


structural | PAVEMENT | tunnel systems

Multiple Impact Surface Waves »

Data Example » 1

Method

In typical MISW tests, the generated surface waves are

measured with an accelerometer fixed at zero offset. The

testing proceeds by generating triggered hammer impacts

out to a predetermined distance at fixed intervals of 2 to 8

inches (50 to 200 mm) and measuring the associated

surface wave responses at the accelerometer. All recorded

signals are then compiled to make an equivalent multichannel

record that can be transformed to a phase velocity

spectrum similar to the Multichannel Analysis of Surface

Waves (MASW) technique.

Multiple Impact Surface Waves (MISW) approach to Seismic Pavement Testing

Data Acquisition using (1) source and (1) receiver

Resulting Multiple Impact Record

Data Collection

The user-friendly MISW SeisNDT software was written by

Dr. Nils Ryden. This software has been extensively tested

at Olson Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado and used

for various projects. We do not outsource any tech support

questions and, should you require software support, we

welcome your questions and comments.

Available Models

The Multiple Impact Surface Wave system is available in

two different models which can be run from the Freedom

Data PC or NDE 360 Platforms:

1. Multiple Impact Surface Waves – SL-1 (MISW-SL-1)

2. Multiple Impact Surface Waves – ML-1 (MISW-ML-1)

The MISW-SL Model is the base model. This system

includes the equipment and basic software required for

performing MISW testing of single (top) layers, but does

not include the modeling software for multiple layer systems.

The MISW method is shown on the top left above with the resulting multiple impact surface wave

data record in the top right. The time domain data is transformed to the frequency phase velocity

domain as shown in the bottom center. At higher frequencies (+12,000 Hz in the bottom center

figure) and shorter wavelengths the symmetric (compressional – S0 is the fundamental mode) and

anti-symmetric (flexural – A0 is the fundamental mode) wave propagation modes combine as the

surface wave velocity in the top layer of a pavement system. At lower frequencies (< 2000 Hz in

the bottom center figure) the multiple wave propagation modes are analyzed together to determine

the thickness/shear wave velocity/Young’s moduli profiles of pavement, base and subgrade

layers with the multiple layer theoretical modeling software to match the experimental frequency

phase velocity domain data that is shown.

Data Example » 2

Multiple Impact Surface Waves (MISW) — Asphalt Results

The MISW-ML Model includes the theoretical modeling

software for multiple layer investigations of pavements

(inversion), structures and tunnels making it the most

complete MISW system available as it can also be used on

single layer systems for QA of new pavement systems.

The MISW systems share many common attributes with

the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-S (SASW-S),

system. For more information on the above mentioned test

method, please refer to the individual section in this catalog.

Freedom Data PC or

NDE 360 Required,

Sold Separately

This data (left side of plot) is typical for testing of the surface pavement layer, in this case asphalt.

By assuming a free plate for the top asphalt (or concrete) pavement layer, one can simply match the

S0 and A0 modes (see top right plot) and determine the S1 mode (impact echo thickness resonance

frequency – see blue vertical cursor line in bottom right plot) to get the thickness (h), shear wave

velocity (Vs) and Poisson’s ratio properties for the surface pavement layer (shown in the top right plot).

spt-35


Geophysical Systems

Crosshole/Downhole NDE 360 » One Platform Seismic - Multiple » ASTM NDE D4428/D4428M-07/D7400-08(DS)

Tests

Crosshole/Downhole Seismic (CS/DS) investigations provide information on dynamic soil and rock properties.

CS/DS -1 System

The Crosshole Seismic (CS) system and method determine shear

and compressional wave velocity versus depth profiles. From these

measurements, parameters, such as Poisson’s ratios and moduli,

can be easily determined. In addition, the material damping can be

determined from CS tests. These dynamic soil and rock properties

are often utilized for earthquake design analyses necessary for

certain structures, liquefaction potential studies, site development,

and dynamic machine foundation design. The most complete version

of this downhole system, as manufactured by Olson Instruments,

includes a borehole source capable of generating shear and

compressional waves and a pair of matching three component

triaxial geophone receivers. These instruments are lowered to the

same depth in boreholes set at ~ 10 ft (3 m) apart in a line.

The instruments are coupled to the side of the grouted borehole

inclinometer casing, allowing for the detection of shear and

compressional waves as they pass between the receivers.

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

Optional P-SV Source

Real-time waveform display while testing

Thin layers, which are often invisible to surface methods,

can be detected with CS/DS investigations

Acquisition and processing software are easy to use,

yielding fast and accurate results

CS method is the most accurate method for determining

material properties of rock and soil sites

Accuracy and resolution for the CS test method are constant

for all test depths, whereas the accuracy and resolution for

the DS surface method decreases with depth

Sources and receivers can be oriented with inclinometer

casing dummy probes

P-SV source used in CS tests can impact in the vertical,

transverse, and radial directions

Correlation between CS and Spectral Analysis of Surface

Waves (SASW) tests on soil sites showed that the values

from both tests typically compare within a 10-15% difference

The Downhole Seismic (DS) investigations are similar to CS

investigations, but require only one borehole to provide shear and

compressional velocity wave profiles. The DS method uses a hammer

source at the surface to impact a wood plank and generate shear

and compressional waves. This is typically accomplished by coupling

a plank to the ground near the borehole and then impacting the

plank in the vertical and horizontal directions. The energy from these

impacts is then received by a single or pair (preferred) of matching

three component geophone receivers, which have been lowered

downhole and are spaced 5 to 10 ft (1.5 to 3 m) apart.

» Applicable On:

Soil and Rock for Seismic Vibrating

Machine Foundation Design

» Test For:

Seismic Shear and Compressional

Wave Velocities

Locate Faults, Fractures

Image Voids, Solution Caverns,

Washouts with Tomography

Model

Advantages

CS/DS-1 Model

This system includes one triaxial geophone and an accelerometer,

used for triggering purposes. It allows for direct

path measurements associated with each set of impacts.

Most cost effective system for testing.

CS/DS-2 Model

(shown in photo at left)

This system includes two triaxial geophones and an

accelerometer allowing for dual path measurements

associated with each set of impacts. Most time effective

system for testing.

Options

Advantages

P-SV Source

This component allows for accurate and rapid triggering

in CS testing by directly impacting the borehole casing.

The source is configured for use with the above mentioned

systems.

geo-36

CS/DS -2 System

Tomo-1 Software

Allows the user to perform and display tomographic

inversions of CS/DS seismic velocity data which provides

2-D or 3-D shear or compressional wave velocity images of

soil and rock


Geophysical Systems

Crosshole/Downhole Seismic » ASTM D4428/D4428M-07/D7400-08(DS)

Method

The CS investigation requires drilling of two or more (ideally

three) boreholes cased with PVC or slope inclinometer casing

for deeper borings up to 328 ft (100 m), and grouted in

accordance with ASTM standards to ensure good

transmission of wave energy. The boreholes are typically 4-6

inches in diameter cased with 2.32 to 3 inch (59 to 76 mm)

I.D. casing, not to exceed 4 inches (102 mm) I.D. The testing

is simplified if inclinometer casing is used rather than normal

PVC pipe. Typical distances between adjacent in-line

boreholes are on the order of 10 ft (3 m). The testing is

performed by lowering both the source and receiver(s) to an

investigation depth, firing the source, and recording the

energy with the receivers.

The DS investigation requires drilling a single borehole

with similar specifications as listed above, except that only

a single grouted 2 inch (50 mm) to 3 inch (76 mm) I.D. PVC

casing is needed, not to exceed 4 inches (102 mmm) I.D.

The testing is performed by lowering the receiver(s) to an

investigation depth, impacting the coupled surface plank,

and recording the energy with the receivers.

All of the CS/DS Models

are compatible with Olson

Instrument’s P-SV Source.

This component provides

the user with the most

accurate and rapid method

of generating impacts.

Dummy

Probe

Optional

P-SV Source Receiver 1

Triple Port

Manifold

SV

P

Dummy

Probes

SV

Optional

Receiver 2

P

Triaxial

Geophone

Receivers

Data Collection

The user friendly CS/DS software is written and tested at Olson

Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do not outsource

any tech support questions and, should you require software

support, we welcome your questions and comments.

Data Example » 1

Available Models

The Crosshole/Downhole Seismic system is available in

two different models with an optional P-SV Source. All

systems require the Olson Instruments Freedom Data PC

platform for testing:

1. Crosshole/Downhole Seismic - 1 (CS/DS-1)

2. Crosshole/Downhole Seismic - 2 (CS/DS-2)

The CS/DS -1 Model is the base model for Crosshole

or Downhole Seismic testing. This system includes one

triaxial geophone and one accelerometer allowing for

direct path measurements associated with each set of

impacts, either in the borehole if a downhole source is

used (CS) or on the surface if a downhole source is not

used (DS). Specifically, this system can be used to test the

material between the impact and the receiver’s location in

the borehole.

The CS/DS -2 Model includes two geophones and an

accelerometer allowing for dual path measurements

associated with each set of impacts, either in the borehole

or on the surface. Specifically, this system can be used to

test the material between the impact and the receivers’

location in the borehole(s). This DS-2 system performs the

Freedom Data PC Required,

Sold Separately

Screen shot from an Olson Instruments Freedom Data PC showing a

waveform recorded during a Crosshole Seismic test.

geo-37


Geophysical Systems

Spectral NDE 360 Analysis » One of Platform Surface - Waves Multiple - G NDE » ACI Tests 228.2R

Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves Geophysical (SASW-G) investigations are typically applied to assess material

properties of soil and rock.

Optional SASW-S Bar and

Extension Arm for:

SASW-S+ G4 or G8 Models

The Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW-G) system is

designed to measure the in-place shear wave velocity profile

of soil and rock without requiring a borehole. In general, the

method uses the dispersive characteristics of surface waves to

determine the variation of the shear wave velocity (stiffness)

of layered systems with depth. Once the shear wave velocity

profiles are determined, shear and Young’s moduli of the

materials can be estimated through the use of elastic wave

theory equations. The shear wave velocity profiles (shear wave

velocity versus depth) are determined from the experimental

dispersion curves (surface wave velocity versus wavelength)

obtained from SASW-G measurements through a process called

forward modeling or through an inversion process. The SASW-G

method has been applied to soil sites with measurement depths

exceeding 150 feet. It should be noted that the method requires

an accessible area on the surface with a length equal to or

greater than the measurement depth required. The method can

applied on both bare ground as well as paved surfaces. Add the

SASW-S bar for structural and pavement applications.

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

System design allows for fast and accurate field measurements

System is compact, durable, and easily transported, allowing

for multiple tests per day

Real-time waveform display while testing

SASW measurements are accurate to within 5% for the

determination of the thickness and stiffness of the top

layer in a pavement system

Correlation between SASW and Crosshole Seismic (CS) tests

on soil sites showed that the values from both tests typically

compare within a 10% difference

Acquisition and modeling software are compatible and easy

to use, yielding fast and accurate results

» Applicable On:

Asphalt

Concrete

Masonry

Rock

Soil

Wood

» Test For:

Layer Thickness

Shear Wave Velocity Profiles

Soil Moduli

Model

SASW-G4 Model

SASW-G8 Model

SASW-S+G8 Model

Advantages

Four channel SASW-G system with a pair of 1 Hz

geophones and a pair of 4.5 Hz geophones. Most

cost effective system.

Eight channel SASW-G system with four 1 Hz geophones

and four 4.5 Hz geophones. Allows for more rapid testing

than the SASW-G4 Base Model.

Most complete SASW system which includes structural

and geophysical options.

Freedom Data PC or

NDE 360 Required,

Sold Separately

geo-38

SASW-G8 Models:

Freedom Data PC

Platform Only


Geophysical Systems

Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves - G » ACI 228.2R

Method

The SASW-G method requires an accessible surface for receiver

attachments. The extent of the accessible surface limits the

investigation depth. As a rule of thumb, in order to investigate

material properties to a depth D, the line of receivers on the

surface must extend to a distance equal to 1.5D, preferably 2D.

Once the receivers are mounted to the surface, acoustic energy

is generated by an impactor and measured on the receivers.

Data Collection

SASW - Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves

Determination of Pavement and Soil Velocity Profiles

Freedom DATA

source

The user-friendly SASW software is written and tested at Olson

Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. We do not outsource

any tech support questions and, should you require software

support, we welcome your questions and comments. It should

be noted SASW-G data is usually displayed and analyzed in a

program called WINSASW, available from the University of

Texas at Austin.

receivers

Ground Level

R1

R2

Available Models

The Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves – Geophysical system

(SASW-G) is available in three different models:

d1

d1/2

d1

1. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves – G4 (SASW-G4)

2. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves – G8 (SASW-G8)

3. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves – S+G8 (SASW-S+G8)

Subsurface

up to 300’

The SASW-G4 Model is the base model for Spectral Analysis

of Surface Wave testing, and can be run from the Freedom

Data PC or NDE 360 platforms. This system includes a pair of

1 Hz geophones, a pair of 4.5 Hz geophones, a four channel

module, and associated connection cables.

d1 = 2’‘ to 300’

The SASW-G8 Model can be run from the Freedom Data PC

only. The system includes four 1 Hz geophones, four 4.5 Hz

geophones, an eight channel module, and associated connection

cables. This system allows for faster testing than the SASW-G4

model.

The SASW-S + G4/G8 Models can be run from the

Freedom Data PC only. The system includes all parts listed

for the SASW-G8 system and SASW-S system (see the SASW-S

Section, page 30). This is the most complete SASW system

available.

Data Example » 1

Example SASW-S shear wave velocity profile data for seismic building design

geo-39


Geophysical Systems

Seismic NDE 360 Refraction/Seismic » One Platform Reflection - Multiple NDE » ASTM TestsD5777-00 /ASTM D7128-05

Seismic Refraction investigations are commonly used to determine bedrock depth & rippability. Seismic Reflection

surveys are used to map, detect, & delineate geologic conditions including the bedrock surface, voids, water table

and layer geometry (folds).

The Seismic Refraction & Reflection (SRR) system is designed

to allow for either seismic refraction or seismic reflection data

acquisition. The SRR system, which is designed for shallow

surveys, can also be used for detecting voids in large civil

structures such as dams (seismic reflection).

Seismic Refraction surveys are used for excavation purposes

to map the bedrock depth and evaluate rock rippability. Seismic

refraction measurements are applicable in mapping subsurface

conditions for various uses including geologic, geotechnical,

hydrologic, environmental, mineral exploration, petroleum exploration,

and archaeological investigations. Seismic Refraction

investigations are commonly used to determine layer thickness

and/or the subsurface compressional wave velocity of the

overburden and underlying bedrock or to water table, stratigraphy,

lithology, structure, and fractures. This inherently shallow

technique requires that compressional seismic wave velocities

increase with depth so wave refraction occurs.

Features:

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

System design allows for fast and accurate field measurements

System is compact, durable, and easily transported allowing

for multiple tests per day

System includes a 12-channel geophone (4.5 Hz) string

with ~ 10 ft (~ 3 m) spacings and a 100 ft (~ 30 m)

extension cable for flexible testing setups

The National Instruments 16 bit A/D data acquisition card

with a maximum sampling rate of 64,000 samples/second

for 13 channels allows for user programmable gain from x1

to x10,000 on the channels which makes the sensitivity

equivalent to a 24 bit seismic system

Data is acquired by triggering off of a single 4.5 Hz trigger

geophone spiked in the ground by the impact point to record

the source impact (sledgehammer, shotgun or other impact

source not included)

Real-time waveform display while testing

Data is exported in SEG2 format which allows for analysis

with both IXRefrax® and Reflexw® optional software

packages, as well 3rd party seismic data analysis programs

Seismic Reflection surveys are used to map, detect, and

delineate geologic conditions including the bedrock surface,

confining layers (aquitards), faults, lithologic stratigraphy,

voids, water table, fracture systems, and layer geometry (folds).

This methodology requires that the target be sufficiently deep, so

that the incoming reflected wave arrives after the surface wave

generated from the impact. Near-surface seismic-reflection data

are generally high-resolution (dominant frequency above 80 Hz)

and image depths from around 20 ft (6 m) to as much as several

hundred feet (100+ meters).

» Applicable On:

Mass Concrete

Mass Cyclopean Masonry

Rock

Soil

» Test For:

Layer Thickness

Bedrock Topography

Water Table Depth/Mapping

Compressional Wave Velocity Profiles

Rippability/Excavatability

Fractures, etc.

geo-40

Model

SRR-1 Model

Options

IXRefrax®

Refraction Software

Reflexw® Reflection/

Refraction Software

Advantages

Complete system for acquiring both seismic reflection and

refraction data

Advantages

Allows the user to account for topography, perform necessary

inversions, and create 2-D forward models for refraction surveys

in a quick and easy fashion with state-of-the-art analysis

Allows the user to create module type processing for 2-D

data analysis and 3-D interpretation. More complex and

comprehensive processing software.


Geophysical Systems

Seismic Refraction/Seismic Reflection » ASTM D5777-00 /ASTM D7128-05

Method

In typical Seismic Refraction and Reflection tests, the

geophone string is secured to the ground surface along

a survey line using the spikes attached to each individual

geophone and the roaming geophone is placed near

the impact point(s). The testing proceeds by generating

hammer impacts at various locations along and near the

geophone string. All recorded signals are then compiled

and analyzed. The acquisition procedures and processing

techniques are dependent on the type of survey being

conducted and the target of the investigation. Seismic

refraction requires that the seismic velocity increase

with increasing depth (otherwise SASW should be used).

This allows for analysis of the wave refracted along the

boundary of the overburden and underlying bedrock.

Seismic reflection surveys require that the target is

sufficiently deep so that the surface wave from the impact

does not interfere with the reflected wave.

Data Example » 1

Data Collection

The user-friendly SHM acquisition software is written and

tested at Olson Instruments’ corporate office in Colorado. The

two available processing packages, IXRefrax® and Reflexw®,

were created by ©Interpex and ©Sandmeier Scientific Software

respectively. We do not outsource any tech support questions

and, should you require software support, we welcome your

questions and comments.

Available Models

The Seismic Refraction/Reflection system is available in a

single model, which can be run from the Freedom Data PC:

1. Seismic Refraction/Reflection – 1 (SRR-1)

The SRR-1 Model is the base model for acquiring both

seismic reflection and refraction data with a 12 channel

geophone string (4.5 Hz geophones spaced at 10 ft or 3m

with 100 ft or 30 m extension cable) plus an impact trigger

geophone. Export raw data to SEG-2 files for analysis with

3rd party seismic refraction and/or reflection geophysical

software.

Seismic Refraction bedrock profile on highway hillside. Elevation and

topography features are accounted for in the bedrock profile display

Data Example » 2

If the user wishes to utilize either of the compatible processing

software packages mentioned on the previous page in the

bottom right table, they can be incorporated into the SRR-1

model above.

Freedom Data PC Required,

Sold Separately

Seismic Reflection survey results from top of concrete dam spillway over

cyclopean masonry/rubble fill. Note the depth to the bottom of the top slab and

reflections from apparent deeper voids

geo-41


Purchase Worksheet

Select Your Equipment Interest(s):

Olson Instruments Platforms

❏ Freedom Data PC

❏ Freedom DAS PC

❏ NDE 360

❏ Concrete Thickness Gauges

❏ Resonance Tester (for Lab Use Only)

Contact Olson:

Available System Add-Ons for Freedom Data PC/NDE 360

❏ *Crosshole/Downhole Seismic [CS/DS]

❏ *Crosshole Sonic Logging [CSL]

❏ Impact Echo [IE]

❏ Impact Echo Scanning [IES]

❏ Multiple Impact Surface Waves [MISW]

❏ Parallel Seismic [PS]

❏ Resonance Testing

❏ *Seismic Refraction/Reflection [SRR]

❏ Slab Impulse Response [SIR]

❏ Sonic Echo/Impulse Response [SE/IR]

❏ Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-G [SASW-G]

❏ Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves-S [SASW-S]

❏ Tomographic Imaging Software [for CSL, UPV and CS/DS]

❏ Ultraseismic [US]

❏ Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity [UPV]

Olson Instruments, Inc.

12401 W. 49th Avenue

Wheat Ridge, CO USA 80033-1927

Toll Free: 1.888.423.1214

Ph: 303.423.1212

Fax: 303.423.6071

email: info@OlsonInstruments.com

www.OlsonInstruments.com

www.OlsonEngineering.com

* Not available on the NDE 360 Platform

Questions for Olson:

Notes:


Equipment in use at

various job sites.


Olson Instruments, Inc.

12401 W. 49th Avenue

Wheat Ridge, CO USA 80033-1927

Toll Free: 1.888.423.1214

Ph: 303.423.1212

Fax: 303.423.6071

email: info@OlsonInstruments.com

www.OlsonInstruments.com | www.OlsonEngineering.com

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines