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March 2010 • Volume CXVIII • Number 1

A Selection of Milled Silver Coins from an Old Collection


An Official Byzantine Religious Medallion or Amulet?

S. Bendall 5

Tis a Mad World at Hoddesdon: John Clark’s

1668 Halfpenny Robert Thompson 6

John Ross of Paisley

An Unrecorded Token Issuer Mike Shaw 7

Symposium in Early Medieval Coinage 9

A Hoard of Oval Farthings from Ireland

Tim Everson 10

Portraits of Greek Coinage R. J. Eaglen 12

Semiotics of Celtic Coins VIII – Seeing Past

the Die-Cutters Robert D. Van Arsdell 13

Book Reviews 16


David Magnay 17

Ann Elizabeth Johnston 18

Dr. J. S. “Stoffel” Vogelaar 19

PS1 Victoria (1837-1901), “Una and the Lion” proof set, 1839, Five Pounds -

with 13 leaves to rear hair fillet, dirige legend and lettered edge - to Farthing

including Maundy Set (S.PS3), in somewhat ragged case of issue, some very minor marks

to gold coins and 3d, minor mark on edge of Halfcrown, otherwise as struck with a lovely

matching tone, unavailable to the market for over 70 years, very rare (15) £52,500

Autographs, Banknotes, Bonds & Shares, Coins,

Medals, Numismatic Books and Stamps




25/26 February Winter Collector’s Series Sale New York Spink Shreves

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22 April Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria London 1005

22 July Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria London 1006

25 November Orders, Decorations, Campaign Medals & Militaria London 1008

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B/BABELON: Traité des Monnaies Grecques et


BCV/SEAR: Byzantine Coins and Their Values

BELL/BELL: Tradesmen’s Tickets and Tokens


BHM/BROWN: British Historical


BMC/British Museum Catalogue

BN/MORRISON: Catalogue des Monnaies Byzantines

BR/BROOKE: English Coins

BW/WILLIAMSON’S edition of Boyne: Trade Tokens

of the Seventeenth Century

C/COHEN: Monnaies Imperiales, 2e edition

CNI/Corpus Nummorum Italicorum

Cr/CRAWFORD: Roman Republican Coinage

DICKINSON, Michael. 17th Century Tokens of the

British Isles and Their Values

D.F./Spink’s Catalogue of British Commemorative

Medals 1558 to the present day by D. Fearon

D&F/DOWLE and FINN: The Guide Book to the

Coinage of Ireland, A.D. 995 to present

DH/DALTON and HAMER: Provincial Token Coinage

of the 18th Century

DO/Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue

DV/DAVIS: The Nineteenth Century Token Coinage

ELIAS: The Anglo-Gallic Coins

EMC/COPE and RAYNER: Standard Catalogue of

English Milled Coinage 1662–1972

ESC/English Silver Coinage from 1649

Fr/The Bronze Coinage of Great Britain

Gobl/R. GOBL: Sasanian Numismatics

H/HEAD: Historia Numorum

Heiss/HEISS: Monnaies Antiques de l’Espagne

L&S/LINECAR and STONE: English Proof and Pattern

Crown Size Pieces 1658–1960

LRBC/CARSON, HILL and KENT: Late Roman Bronze


Mack/MACK: The Coinage of Ancient Britain

M./MARSH: The Gold Sovereign

MCE/Milled Coinage of England

Mesh/Y. MESHORER: Jewish Coins


Illustrations of British History

Milne/MILNE: Catalogue of Alexandrian Coins

Mitch/MITCHINER: Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian

Coinage (9 volumes)

N/NORTH: English Hammered Coinage (2 volumes)

P/PECK: English Copper, Tin and Bronze Coins in the

British Museum, 1558–1958

Parsons/PARSONS: The Coinage of British Africa

Pr/PRIDMORE: The Coinage of the British

Commonwealth of Nations (4 parts)

Ratto/Ratto Catalogue, Monnaies Byzantines

RCV/SEAR: Roman Coins and Their Values


Imperial Coinage

S/SYDENHAM: Coinage of the Roman Republic

S/(English Coins) Spink Standard Catalogue

SCBI: Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles

Sellwood/SELLWOOD: An Introduction to the

Coinage of Parthia

SNG ANS/Syllogue Nummorum Graecorum:

American Numismatic Society

SNG Cop/Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum:

Danish National Museum, Copenhagen

SNG/Sylloge Numorum Graecorum

SNG v. Aul/Syllogue Nummorum Graecorum:

Sammlung Hans von Aulock

St/STEWART: The Scottish Coinage

VA/VAN ARSDELL: Celtic Coinage of Britain

W/WITHERS: British Copper Tokens 1811-1820

WR/WILSON and RASMUSSEN: English Pattern, Trial

and Proof Coins in Gold 1547-1968



¡ = Gold ¿ = Silver Æ = Bronze

WM = White Metal Mm = Mint or initial mark

Obv = Obverse W = Reverse

MM = millimetre g = gramme

mgm = monogram


R = Rare RR = Very rare RRR = Extremely rare

RRRR = Highest rarity

R 1 –R 7 7 also used for 19th and 20th Century

English Copper Coins and modern pieces from



FDC = Fleur de coin, mint state

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M = Moderate P = Poor

UNC = Uncirculated (Modern Coins)

VG = Very Good: F+ (Banknote lists)

Any two of the above may be used in conjunction

as follows

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Printed in England by Pardy & Son (Printers) Ltd Parkside, Ringwood, Hampshire BH24 3SF

The Numismatic Circular Published since 1892

March 2010 Volume CXVIII Number 1


An Official Byzantine Religious Medallion or Amulet?

S. Bendall 5

Tis a Mad World at Hoddesdon:

John Clark’s 1668 Halfpenny Robert Thompson 6

John Ross of Paisley

An Unrecorded Token Issuer Mike Shaw 7

Symposium in Early Medieval Coinage 9

A Hoard of Oval Farthings from Ireland

Tim Everson 10

Portraits of Greek Coinage

R. J. Eaglen 12

Semiotics of Celtic Coins VIII –

Seeing Past the Die-Cutters Robert D. Van Arsdell 13

Book Reviews 16


David Magnay 17

Ann Elizabeth Johnston 18

Dr. J. S. “Stoffel” Vogelaar 19

Our list of numismatic items and books offered for sale

follows on page 20

An Official Byzantine Religious Medallion

or Amulet?

S. Bendall

This large, pierced and struck copper amulet or medallion can

hardly be described as a pseudo-coin but none the less possibly

has some interest for numismatists.

Figure 1

Obv. IC – XC and H CTAV – PACIC (The Crucifiction); Christ on

cross, which rests on a small platform with a double linear border

decorated with pellets, flanked by two half length figures of, on l.,

female figure, nimbate, holding a winding sheet (?) and, on r., a

figure lacking a nimbus, r. hand slightly extended 1 ; crescent and

globe in upper fields.

Rev. H ANAC/TACIC (The Resurrection) 2 in two lines in upper r.

field; Christ advancing l., holding short patriarchal cross in r.

hand and raising Adam from a seated or crouching position with

Eve standing behind him; to l. a figure, wearing stemma

surmounted by a pyramid of three pellets and with trilobate

pendilia, divitision and chlamys, standing in his tomb gesturing

towards Christ with both hands. In larger versions of this scene in

mosaics there are two such figures, Kings David and Solomon 3 .

Diam. 40 x 47 mm; Wt. 23.01 gm;

Die axis 6 o’clock (180 degrees). Figure 1.

Figure 2

This is not a unique object. Another, unpierced, specimen,

struck from the same dies as far as can be seen from the engraving

by which it was illustrated (Figure 2), was acquired and published

over a century ago by G. Schlumberger 4 . That it lacks certain

details visible on this new specimen seems to indicate that it was

possibly not in quite such good condition 5 . Schlumberger did not

describe this object in any great detail, devoting only nine lines to

it, merely describing it as unusually large and very beautiful. He

considered it of the Comnenian period, i.e. of the 12th century

which is surely correct considering its style and design. Other

larger depictions of the Resurrection in mosaics differ, sometimes

considerably, such as that at Daphni where Christ holds a longer

patriarchal cross while Adam, Eve, Solomon and David are on the

left of Christ and, on His right, St. John the Baptist with, behind

him, a number of the ‘Just’ waiting for salvation 6 . The version on

this medallion, on the other hand, appears somewhat similar to

the mid-11th century mosaic of the Anastasis in a lunette on the

east wall of the narthex of Hosios Loukas except that the mosaic

depicts both Solomon and David, nimbate, while the broken

remnants of the gates of Hell lie beneath Christ’s feet, a feature

which, like the figure of Solomon, the flan of this amulet was

presumably too small to include 7 .

A feature of slight interest is the form of the pendilia of the

king’s crown which is trilobate. This form of pendilia does not

seem to appear on the coinage until the reign of Theodore I

Lascaris of Nicaea (1204-1222). However, in the mosaics in

Hosios Loukas and Daphni both Solomon and David have the

same trilobate pendilia, the form that, inverted, surmounts their

crowns as trefoils. With a possible Constantinopolitan

provenance for both specimens, these amulets, by style, can

hardly be provincial or Palaeologan (since later 13th century

depictions of the Anastasis show Christ standing between Adam

and Eve, extending a hand to each) or, by design, Latin.

Of interest to the numismatist is the superior style and large

size of this amulet, the fact that both specimens seem to have been

struck from the same pair of dies and appear to come from

Constantinople, all of which suggests to the writer that the

amulet was an official production. Could they have been

produced at the Constantinopolitan mint? There are rare lead

seals of similar size but their style is not so fine and the dies for the

multitude of lead seals that exist are cruder and would not have

MARCH 2010 5

een produced by the mint but presumably by private engravers

throughout the empire. Who else could have produced this

amulet? To produce dies and strike medallions/amulets of this size

and quality possibly required a master engraver and the facilities

of the mint. The only copper coins of comparable size had been

folles of Justinian I (527-565) and Constantine IV (668-685).

There is no sign that these amulets were overstruck on any of

these earlier folles. Their flans were presumably specially

produced and are well struck albeit both showing slight signs of

double striking.

That such a large amulet or medallion could be struck in the

12th century might seem unusual but whether produced at the

mint, as the writer suspects, or by some other workshop, perhaps

official, it is obvious that it was possible even at such a late date to

strike a coin-like object as large as and in better style than any

earlier Byzantine copper coin although, of course, unlike this

object, coins were generally struck in enormous quantities from

large numbers of dies which would have been much more

cursorily engraved.


My thanks to Konstantin Olbrich for his help.


1. The figures at the foot of the cross should represent the two Marys, the

mother of Christ and Mary Magdalene although Schlumbeger’s

illustration depicts the right hand figure as a male holding a book (the


2. The Anastasis took place in the brief period between Christ’s crucifiction

and resurrection when he descended to Hell and redeemed Old Testament


3. Since the king on this amulet appears beardless he is presumably David

as on mosaics Solomon is depicted as bearded. The flan is too small to

depict both.

4. ‘Monuments Byzantins Inedits’, Gazette Archeologique, 1883 and

reprinted in ‘Melanges d’Archeologie Byzantine’, Paris 1895.

Schlumberger acquired his specimen in Constantinople. Its whereabouts

is apparently now unknown. It is not in the Bibliotheque Nationale

which received so much of Schlumberger’s material. The specimen

published here also seems to have come from Constantinople some 35

years ago.

5. The engraving lacks, on the obverse, the IC XC, the platform on which the

cross stands and the extended hand of the right hand figure who appears

to be depicted holding a book whereas he or she is actually also possibly

holding a winding sheet and is thus probably Mary Magdalene. On the

reverse the king’s crown lacks both its ‘cross’ and pendilia.

6. C. Diehl, ‘Manuel d’Art Byzantine’, Paris 1910, p. 466, fig. 227.

7. Diehl, p. 478, fig. 232. The figure of the king is not nimbate on this

medallion while both Solomon and David are on the mosaics but this can

hardly mean that it represents a recently deceased Comnenian emperor.

Tis a Mad World at Hoddesdon:

John Clark’s 1668 Halfpenny

Robert Thompson

In Williamson’s standard catalogue of seventeenth-century

tokens, under HODDESDON in Hertfordshire, appears the

following entry 1 .

126. O. IOHN . CLARKE . AT . THE = Two brewers carrying a


R. IN . HODSDON . HIS . HALFE . PENNY . I668 (in six

lines). (Octagonal.)

‘This name is well known in and about Hoddesdon’.

That annotation, if intended to support the publication of the

token in Hertfordshire, was of no value. ‘Clark’ formed the 27th

commonest surname in England and Wales in 1853, ‘Clark’ and

‘Clarke’ together the ninth commonest 2 . The surname does not

support this attribution. Neither can a single find in 2008 by

someone known to detect around Ashwell and Royston, both in

Hertfordshire, though about twenty miles north of Hoddesdon 3 .

Believing him a Hertfordshire issuer, Longman found in the

Hertfordshire Sessions Rolls a 1662 recognizance for an

alehouse-keeper named John Clarke concerning unlawful games

in his house, which does not mention his locality, and a 1690

recognizance for a John Clark to answer for an assault on a

colonel of a Dutch regiment quartered at Hoddesdon, which does

not mention his trade 4 . Many bearers of the name are indexed in

the volume.

Williamson’s Hertfordshire 126 was not catalogued by his

predecessor Boyne. The token’s first appearance seems to be in a

manuscript addition facing page 113 of an interleaved copy of

Boyne, once the property of Nathan Heywood (c.1856-1918) 5 .

He, a Manchester solicitor, is of untarnished reputation 6 . It is

incomprehensible that Heywood should have recorded the token

as above, for the Norweb specimen, ex Nott, can be traced back

through the Hertfordshire collector William Longman

(Glendining sale 17 July 1957, lot 242), and Messrs Baldwin, to

Heywood himself, lot 43 in his sale of 22 April 1918. It reads:

Obv. · IOHN · CLARK · AT · Y E · around Two Brewers

supporting a barrel on a pole

Rev. · IN· | HOGSDO N | HIS | HALFE | PENNY | I668

Coppery, octagonal, 180°.

Figure 1

Thus Heywood misspelled the surname, also Y E , and on the

reverse HOGSDO N was rendered HODSDON [sic!]. This seems to

be the origin of the mistaken spelling HODSDON, and consequent

misattribution, in Williamson 1889, unavoidably accepted by

Seaby 1961 and Dickinson 1986 7 . Correctly read, the token

should never have been attributed to Hertfordshire.

Attention needs to focus on the place-name HOGSDO N . There

is no vowel between G and S to suggest the pronunciation of

Hoddesdon seen in Hodgesdon (1554), and found in Hodgesden on

Norweb tokens iii.2225-6. That same pronunciation must lie

behind HOGESDEN on the token of John Smigersgill, who is

sufficiently documented in Hertfordshire despite his Yorkshire

surname 8 . Before universal literacy pronunciation is the

determinant, and Hoddesdon is not recorded with a

pronunciation starting Hog... 9

The spelling HOGSDO N must represent the pronunciation

(hogzdon), with g as in ‘get’, and its identity must lie somewhere

other than Hoddesdon. The obvious candidate is Hoxton, in the

Middlesex parish of Shoreditch, beside the Berwick road (now

A10). This occurred, for example, as Hochestone in Domesday

Book, Hogesdon in 1528, Hogsdon in 1546, Hogsden in 1593,

Hogesdon al. Hoxton in 1625 10 . It was Hoggsdon on Morden’s 1695

map of Middlesex. The token should be attributed to HOXTON

(Middlesex, Shoreditch parish).

One John Clark, Hoxton, and his wife Mary, had a daughter

Judith baptised at St. Leonard, Shoreditch on 3 July 1674 11 . A

messuage occupied by ‘Clarke’ in 1676, and sold to John Clarke in

1680, was afterwards in the occupation of his widow Mary, then

of Sarah Waxham, and then of Thomas Waxham according to a

1732 indenture. In 1747 the assignees of Waxham sold the

Waxham messuage, and another on its south side formerly

occupied by a Mr Castlefrank, to James Atkinson. The Waxham

house remained in the Atkinson family until 1894, when it was

in use as part of the Hoxton House Asylum and known as The

White House, cf. the 1668 halfpenny of EZEK: | TANNER...AT |

THE: | WHIT HOVSE | IN | HOXTON 12 . Numbers 46 and 48

Hoxton Street (since re-numbered 34), occupied chiefly as an

Infant Welfare Centre, correspond to the surviving Hoxton House

of two storeys over a basement, with attics lighted by dormer

windows, the exterior of brick with a plain brick band at first floor



‘The date of erection of the latter cannot be ascertained, but was

certainly later than 1680. The great probability is, therefore, that

the present premises, the details of which are quite compatible

with their having been erected in the late 17th or early 18th

century, are the actual premises occupied by Castlefrank’ 13 .

To emphasize that the token-issuer’s name is not distinctive,

three wills, none of them (from the index) prima facie

relevant, were proved for a John Clarke of St. Leonard, Shoreditch,

in 1661-1700:

John Clerke, 1687, his relict Elizabeth renouncing


John Clarke, 1695, administration to relict Judith;

John Clarke, St. Leonard, Shoreditch, and St. Bartholomew the

Less, 1695: administration/ will to guardian of son Thomas

during his minority 14 .

The issuer’s token at least can be published where it belongs,

and Hoxton may celebrate with cakes and ale:

‘As toward the towne mine eye I cast,

In mingled troopes I might beholde

Women and men (some yong, some olde)

Like to a Spring-tide, strongly flowing

To Hogsdon, not one backward going.

Out of the Citty rush’d the streame,

A while (me thought) I did but dreame...

The Lawyer that in Terme-time takes

Fat fees, pleades here for Ale and Cakes.

Doctors, Proctors, Clarkes, Atturneis,

To Pimlyco make sweattie iourneis.’

7. P. Seaby, ‘A guide to the token coinage of the 17th century:

Hertfordshire’, SCMB (1961), pp. 189-91, 226-9, 267-71 (p. 229);

M. Dickinson, Seventeenth-century Tokens of the British Isles (London,

1986), p. 74.

8. SCBI 43: The Norweb... Tokens... Part III: Hampshire to Lincolnshire

(London, 1992), no. 2228.

9. J. E. B. Gover et al., The Place-names of Hertfordshire (Cambridge, 1938),

pp. 228-9.

10. J. E. B. Gover et al., The Place-names of Middlesex (Cambridge, 1942),

p. 146.

11. Hackney Archives Department: St. Leonard, Shoreditch, parish registers.

12. Williamson, Middlesex 105; SCMB (1967), pl. 29; publication of Norweb

specimen forthcoming.

13. London County Council, Survey of London, vol. VIII: The Parish of St.

Leonard, Shoreditch (London, 1922), pp. 134-5.

14. Index to Testamentary Records in the Archdeaconry Court of London ...,

vol. II, ed. M. Fitch (London, 1985), p. 39.

15. [Pimlico] Pimlyco, or Runne Red-cap: Tis a mad world at Hogsdon (London,

1609), sigs. B4b, D1a; reproduced in facsimile with a preface by A. H.

Bullen (Oxford, 1891), in Antient drolleries, no. 2; this reprinted

Breinigsville PA, 2009 (Kessinger Publishing’s legacy reprints).

16. A. D. Mills, A Dictionary of London Place-names (Oxford, 2001), pp. 178-9.

John Ross of Paisley

An Unrecorded Token Issuer

Mike Shaw

In his seminal work “Tokens of the Industrial Revolution”

(published by Spink, 2001), H. E. Manville published the most

comprehensive study ever undertaken of foreign silver coins

countermarked for use in Great Britain during the Industrial

Revolution (c.1787-1828). In this work he described the

prevailing monetary, economic and social conditions which led to

the issue of privately countermarked tokens (mainly Spanish

dollars), the results of his research into the issuers, and

undertook perhaps his most far-reaching task of all, that of

recording all known specimens.

It is a reflection on the thoroughness of his research that since

this publication, no new issuer of these tokens has hitherto been

identified. Finally, however, a previously unknown private issuer

of countermarked dollars has come to light.

Figure 2

The Pimlico ale-house in Hoxton Street was the subject of this

1609 poem which suggested the present title, Pimlyco, or Runne

Red-Cap: Tis a mad world at Hogsdon 15 (Figure 2). It probably gave

its name to the better-known Pimlico district of Westminster, and

itself is now believed to have been transferred from the Pamlico or

Pamticough Indians who lived near Raleigh’s Roanoke

settlements in Virginia. Consequently, Pimlico was the first native

American place-name in England 16 .


1. G. C. Williamson, Trade Tokens issued in the Seventeenth Century (London,

1889-91), p. 318.

2. B. Cottle, The Penguin Dictionary of Surnames, 2nd edn. (Harmondsworth,

1978), p. 92.

3. Ex inf. Mr Roger Paul, 28.7.08 and 25.10.09.

4. Hertford County Records: Notes and Extracts from the Sessions Rolls, 1581

to 1698, Vol. 1, ed. W. J. Hardy (Hertford, 1905), pp. 142, 387; W.

Longman, ‘Notes on some Hertfordshire issuers of seventeenth-century

tokens’, NCirc 16 (1907-8), cols. 10457-60.

5. W. Boyne, Tokens issued in the Seventeenth Century (London, 1858),

ex Nathan Heywood, property of R. H. Thompson.

6. H. E. Manville, Biographical Dictionary of British and Irish Numismatics

(London, 2009), p. 132.

Figure 1 Figure 2

There recently appeared in commerce a Spanish dollar

(8 Reales of Ferdinand VII, dated 1813, struck at the Mexico City

mint with the assay initials J J - Joaquín Dávila Madrid and José

García Ansaldo). The most obvious feature of this coin, however,

is that it has been countermarked on the obverse, and the

countermark has later been obliterated by two strikings of a

circular grille or “lattice” punch (figure 1). There is a

corresponding flat area on the reverse (figure 2). Not surprisingly,

the piece was offered for sale with this described as an unidentified

and cancelled countermark.

The cancellation of privately countermarked dollars is a wellknown

feature of the series as we know it today. Faced with a

shortage of silver coins, merchants would countermark Spanish

silver dollars (which were readily available) with a pledge to

redeem them at a fixed value. However, once in circulation, the

intrinsic value of such a token was still dependent on its silver

content, and thus subject to fluctuations in the market price of

MARCH 2010 7

ullion silver. For long periods this might be relatively stable, but

during periods of turmoil (notably during wars with France, for

example) the bullion price might be subject to sharp fluctuations.

If it fell significantly (eg. with a victory or a declaration of peace),

the merchant might find himself in the position of being required

to redeem his token for more than it was now actually worth. This

he would probably be prepared to do once, but in order to make

further use of the coin it would then be necessary to invalidate the

pledge on his countermark, to prevent it being presented to him

for redemption at a loss for a second time.

As may be seen from the photograph, it is evident that this

cancellation has been successful. Certainly there is absolutely no

identifiable trace of a redemption value, which is normally

found at the centre of such countermarks. However, with some

trial rotation and counterbalancing in the hand (which,

unfortunately, it is obviously not possible to replicate in print), the

search for the name of a possible issuer did offer some intriguing

clues in this case. The remains of a name do appear, clockwise,

from a position beginning at six o’clock of the countermark in

figure 1. The legible letters of the countermark then appear to be

Figure 3

JOHN, with a best reading of ROSS... for the letters following, and

finally ...SLEY (ideally observed from a combination of angles, but

discernible from figure 3). There is also evidence below this

lettering of two concentric circles, containing between them a

ring of large separated dots (not the more common joined

beading) which would probably have surrounded the value. The

reverse carries no evidence of a separate punch (as is sometimes

the case), only the flattening normally observed from the pressure

of obverse punching. Comparisons with Manville’s recorded

issuers give rise to obvious discrepancies in each case which

prevent a match. However, several token issuers are known from

Paisley (Manville estimated a dozen), making it the likely place of


The hypothesis for our issuer was thus JOHN ROSS of PAISLEY,

but the incomplete reading also left scope for a longer name


fuller commercial styling for the business (eg. & CO., & SON(S),

SR., JR., or a description of his commercial activity). The date of

its issue could obviously be no earlier than the 1813 date of the 8

Reales, although neither the coin nor the legible letters of the

countermark show much wear, perhaps suggesting a short lived

circulation (this is worth noting, as silver bullion prices dropped

sharply in 1814 (Napoleon’s first exile) and again in 1815

(Waterloo), which led to the prompt cancellation of high value

countermarks by some other token issuers).

With the generous guidance of the staff at the Paisley Local

Studies Library, the following information was pieced together.

Examination of the Paisley Burgess Roll revealed the signature

of John Ross, manufacturer, Cumberland Court, 24 Causeyside,

entered on 10th October 1808 (cautioner William Boyd,


The first extant Paisley Trades Directory, for 1810 (by

Archibald Bell, published by J. Neilson), makes reference to John

Ross & Co., manufacturer, Cumberland Court, Causeyside (also

Mrs. Ross, vintner, 24 Causeyside).

Directories do not exist for every year, but the same entry for

Mrs. Ross is repeated in the next available directory (1813,

Gilroy), although this time John Ross himself is absent (this is not

necessarily significant as such gaps are a feature of sporadic early

directories, and he does appear in all those following).

George Ritchie’s directory (July 1820) has John Ross & Co.,

manufacturers, and Mrs. Ross, vintner, both at 24 Causeyside.

Pigot (1821) includes John Ross Sen., manufacturer of plaid,

muslins and shawls.

Robert Biggar (1823) has John Ross Sen. & Co.,

manufacturers, at 24 Causeyside street, also John Ross sen.,

house at 30 Storie Street. However, in 1827 (George Fowler) John

Ross appears only as John Ross sen., thread manufacturer, house

30 Storie Street.

The lack of reference to commercial premises suggested that

perhaps Ross had retired from his business during the intervening

period (which coincided with a heavy recession for the cloth

manufacturing trades), and upon investigation this was

reinforced by the following advertisement, appearing in the

Paisley Advertiser (12th May 1827 and 19th May 1827);

“TO LET. That mill situated in George-street of Paisley, as possessed

for some time back by Messrs. John Ross Senior & Co., length 40 feet

by 32 feet within the walls and Three Storeys high with Garretts.

There is a Steam Engine of Five Horse power, and Great Gearing, fitted

up on the premises. Entry at Whit-Sunday first. Apply to Mr. John

Burns, 59 Causeyside, or Mr. Andrew Campbell, 53 Moss-street,


In 1828 (George Fowler) there is another directory entry for

John Ross sen., thread manufacturer, house 30 Storie Street, and

he appears again in the 1829-1831 editions, his house now at 31

Oakshaw Street (but no mention of any business premises).

Instead, the Paisley Advertiser records his election to the Town

Council of Paisley on 6th October 1827, as Treasurer on 11th

October 1828, and successive re-elections as a baillie (10th

October 1829 - 8th October 1831), and this succession of events

is also recorded in the annual directories for those years (all


On 2nd June 1832 the Paisley Advertiser carried his obituary;

“Death. Here, on the 27th ult., John Ross Esq., Thread Manufacturer.”

(He died 27th May 1832).

It is worth noting that John Ross’s address and trade would

have made him a neighbour, and possibly a competitor, of

another countermarked token issuer, J. Muir (Manville 84).

Manville noted that John Muir, also a manufacturer of shawls and

plaids, had premises at Cumberland Court, Causeyside, in 1810,

and apparently at 12 and 32 Causeyside at later dates. Causeyside

also appears in Manville’s probable or possible addresses for John

Lang (Manville 76), McGavin & Clarkson (Manville 78), and J.

McLean (Manville 81).

The dates, location, type of commercial activity and other

similarities with known issuers suggest that this John Ross issued

our newly discovered token. No other contemporary merchant

with a plausible alternative name was found, so we may surmise

that the illegible space in the legend of the cancelled countermark

might easily have accommodated any of & CO., SEN(R)., MFR., as

found in the directories (or possibly a combination of these). We

know that Ross was active in commerce 1808-23 at least

(possibly until 1827), and while the coin date of 1813 gives an

earliest possible issue date, the lack of other detail, including the

absence of any legible value, complicates dating the countermark

more precisely. These details await discovery of a second specimen

or reliable documentary evidence.

In a future revision of Manville’s work, John Ross may become

M 86A.

Harry Manville was thus prophetic when writing of the Paisley

countermarks “It appears likely that other issues may have been

redeemed and melted with no specimens remaining, and new

ones may yet be discovered” (page 152).


Symposium in

Early Medieval


Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

Saturday 20 March 2010

Speakers include: Anna Gannon, Kevin

Leahy, Catherine Karkov, Rory Naismith,

Megan Gooch, Lucy Moore, Philip Shaw,

Wybrand Op den Velde, John Naylor and

Tony Abramson

Attendance free of charge.

For further information contact

Tony Abramson: 0113 225 0680

or t.abramson@ntlworld.com

MARCH 2010 9

A Hoard of Oval Farthings from Ireland

Tim Everson

An old, illegally excavated, hoard of oval farthings has recently been brought to my attention.

Because of its illegal nature there is a lack of names and dates, but details given to me have the ring

of veracity. Metal detecting is illegal in the Republic of Ireland but, sometime in the early 1990s, a

metal detector was being used on the foreshore of Dublin harbour when it came across a group of

copper coins. These turned out to be about 100 Richmond (and one Lennox) farthings, dating from

1624 to 1632 and, with one exception, they were all ovals. A group of 24 of these coins was

recently shown to me. Unfortunately they are the worst condition specimens with corroded edges.

It seems as though they may have formed the outside of a ‘ball’ of coins, with the ones in the centre

protected. These tokens are as follows:



Lennox Type 5 E54a, pm Cross patée 1 example



Richmond Type 7b E 113g, pm Cross patée 4 examples


Richmond Type 7b As E 113g but with 7 harp strings 1 example


Richmond Type 9 E 115b, pm Martlet 1 example


Richmond Type 10a E 117a, pm Crescent 1 example


Richmond Type 10c E 119, pm 9 16 examples

Apparently these numbers equate with the hoard as a whole. About half the hoard, or 50 pieces

consisted of pm 9, about 20 of pm Cross patée, and then about half a dozen each of Martlet,

Millrind and Crescent. The solitary round Richmond had a pm Cross patée, E 71. The James I listed

here was apparently the only James I in the hoard.

There are several interesting points to mention here. Firstly the lack of Type 8 and Type 10b.

In the author’s new classification of this series, I stated (p.39) that there was no evidence for the

chronology of Middle period Richmond ovals. Given that this is a hoard of reasonable size, and that

Type 8 is quite common, it would seem that Type 8 had not begun at the time this hoard was lost,

and that Type 8 should post-date Type 10. The same could perhaps be said for Type 10b post-dating

Type 10c, but 10b is too rare a piece to be certain of this. Examination of these pieces also

convinced the author that E 113h and E 115a probably don’t exist, but are misreadings of

punctuation by the author. The new discovery of a Type 7b with 7 harp strings is interesting. The

large number of Type 10c with pm 9 in this hoard reminded me of the small hoard of eight

farthings with pm 9 which I bought in 1996. It seems highly likely to me that they came from this

same hoard. They were better quality pieces and were obviously the first to be sold off. I have now

seen eight different pairs of dies for E 119, pm 9 farthings which is perhaps all there were,

considering these farthings were manufactured in strips vertically.

This hoard is perhaps the final proof that oval farthings were issued for use in Ireland. Doubts

raised by Nigel Clark and others, due mainly to who was selling oval farthings and alleged

provenances, may be entirely due to the illegal removal from Ireland of this comparatively large

hoard for sale in England.

The mixture of pms in the hoard would seem to suggest that the farthings might have been on

the way back out of Ireland to the London Token House when lost, because a fresh delivery would

surely all have had the same privy mark. Perhaps, however, old stock from the Token House was

being recycled and sent, along with an issue of the newest pm 9 tokens to Dublin. 100 farthings

are of course only just over 2 shillings and would only fill a small purse or bag. A delivery to Dublin

would have been much larger, in a chest perhaps, so maybe just one small bag was dropped during

unloading. It is such a shame that the hoard was dispersed before it could be properly examined,

which might have helped more with some of these points. It is to be hoped that the Republic of

Ireland adopts a Treasure Act similar to England & Wales, which would reward finders of such

items and therefore encourage them to be declared. Many questions on the use of small change in

Ireland could then be answered.


Everson, T. The Galata Guide to the Farthing Tokens of James I and Charles I: A History and Reclassification. Galata 2007




Lennox Type 5


2. 3. 4. 5.

Richmond Type 7b


Richmond Type7b


Richmond Type 9


Richmond Type 10a

9. 10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15. 16.

17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24.

Richmond Type 10c

MARCH 2010 11

Portraits of Greek Coinage

R. J. Eaglen

31 – Clazomenae

¿ hemidrachm, c.380 – 350


Figure A


Figure B

Obv. Laureate head of Apollo, facing slightly l., with free-flowing


Rev. Swan facing l., arching neck and spreading wings.

ΑΓΟΛΛΑΣ (magistrate) above and ΚΛ (Clazomenae) below.

2.08g (13mm), die axis 315°.

Author’s collection. Ex David Miller, 2004.

Clazomenae is glimpsed intermittently as a modest star in the

firmament of the Greek city states. It was one of the twelve cities

comprising the Ionian League 1 . It was the birthplace of the

distinguished philosopher Anaxagoras 2 and its athletes enjoyed

success in the games at Delphi and Olympia 3 . From the late sixth

century BC it produced distinctive black figure vases and

impressive painted sarcophagi. Michael Grant mentions that the

city was also well-known for its fish paste 4 . This is somewhat akin

to saying that the United States of America is notable for its


The city originally developed close to the Gulf of Izmir, some

twenty miles west of Smyrna 5 . According to Pausanias, at the

beginning of the fifth century the inhabitants moved to an island

close by the mainland for fear of Persian invasion. In calmer

times, Alexander the Great had a 400 yard causeway constructed

to join the island to the mainland 6 . Neither the barrier of water

nor the fortifying walls constructed by the Clazomenians were

proof against their succumbing to domination by Athens or by

Persia. In the wake of the latter’s defeat at Marathon in 490 7 , the

city joined the Delian League and for that privilege paid

increasing tribute to Athens between 454 and 415 8 , culminating

in a short-lived and ineffectual revolt in 412 9 . However, under the

King’s Peace of 386, at the end of the Corinthian War waged by

an unlikely alliance of Athens, Persia and others to thwart the

expansionist ambitions of Sparta, Clazomenae was consigned to

Persian rule 10 . This change ushered in a surprising and

remarkable flowering of mint output at the city.

Proximity to Lydia as the cradle of coinage resulted in silver

being struck to the Persian standard at Clazomenae from the late

sixth century 11 . The obverse showed the forepart of a winged boar,

flying right and the reverse consisted of a quadripartite incuse

square. There followed an interruption precipitated by an Ionian

revolt in 494 against increasing Persian exactions 12 . Between 480

and 450 the winged boar obverse was revived, now accompanied

by an incuse square containing a ram’s head or a gorgoneon 13 .

The coinage introduced after the King’s Peace abandoned the

earlier imagery for a facing head of Apollo on the obverse and a

swan with outstretched wings on the reverse, as illustrated in

Figures A and B 14 . Besides gold staters, silver was struck using the

Attic standard in tetradrachms, didrachms, drachms and

hemidrachms 15 . The dies, especially of the rare stater and of the

tetradrachm, included examples of artistry excelled nowhere else

in ancient Greece. Some of the tetradrachms were signed by the

engraver Theodotos, with the words ΦΕΟΔΟΤΟΣ ΕΠΟΕΙ

(Theodotos made it). Perhaps the finest example of all is that

shown in Figure C from Berlin (x2) 16 . In contrast with Sicily,

where the engravers’ signatures usually form a discreet part of

the design, Theodotos’ name is placed proudly in the field.

Consequently the word ΕΠΟΕΙ is needed to make it clear that the

name refers to the engraver rather than a magistrate. Much later,

this form of words, in Latin, was widely used by artists and

craftsmen as a merited or occasionally optimistic celebration of

their work: ‘Isaac Ollivierus fecit’, on a miniature watercolour on

vellum,1616 17 ; ‘Thos Tompion Londini fecit’, on the dial of a

longcase clock, c.1675 18 .

It would be absurd to be tempted into partiality between

Theodotos’ facing bust dies of Apollo and those of Athena signed

by Eucleidas 19 or of Arethusa by Cimon 20 at Syracuse, or of Apollo

by Heracleidas at Camarina 21 , or, indeed, the finest unsigned

tetradrachms of Helios from Rhodes 22 or of Apollo from

Amphipolis 23 . Fittingly, Theodotos’ conception of Apollo most

closely resembles Heracleidas’ portrayal of the same god.

Heracleidas’ treatment of the hair, however, is quite different,

more whispy and given body by bold wreathing with laurels. In

contrast, Theodotos’ Apollo has thicker locks of free-flowing hair

with less bold laurel leaves. On certain of the dies from

Amphipolis a strikingly unusual effect is obtained by turning the

face slightly further towards profile 24 . The facial expression

achieved with the Berlin obverse die (Figure C) is captivating.

Although identifiably more human than the facing heads of

Rhodes, it nevertheless conveys a detachment, serenity and

introspective profundity setting it apart from mundane

experience 25 .

Figure C (x2)

The superb obverse design is matched by the reverse

portraying a swan with spread wings (Fig. F below) The image fits

perfectly within the circle of the flan, the nearly parallel lines of

the wing feathers contrasting pleasingly with the curves of the

bird’s head and neck. In comparison, the quadriga on Sicilian

reverses scores with its appealing detail and sense of movement,

but inevitably loses something in our eyes because of its

widespread repeated use 26 . The image of a swan on the coins of

Clazomenae has been explained in various ways: as an emblem of

Apollo, because the species was abundant in the region, and,

more speculatively, because the name of the city recalled the

bird’s plaintive notes 27 . Apart from Clazomenae, the swan occurs

on the reverse of coins struck in the mid fourth century at Leucai,

located at the south of an island in the Gulf about twelve miles to

the north of Clazomenae 28 . Its appearance there is not surprising

since the Clazomenians gained control of the island after a

dispute with Kyme arbitrated by the Delphic oracle 29 . An exotic

image of a swan also appears on didrachms of Camarina (c.410),

showing the bird swimming through waves with the nymph

Camarina on its back 30 .

Writing in glowing terms of a Theodotos tetradrachm in the

British Museum, H. J. Berk in 100 Greatest Ancient Coins, has

speculated that it would command a market value in excess of

$500,000 31 . And arguably its style and certainly its metal quality

is inferior to the Berlin specimen. At the other extreme unsigned

examples of the type in poor condition occasionally appear on the

market at about 1% of Berk’s figure 32 , but, as the percentage


difference implies, comparison is irrelevant. Nevertheless, for the

more modest collector, well executed unsigned dies of smaller

denominations do come on to the market. Interestingly, even

Lockett possessed two drachms, five hemidrachms, but no

tetradrachm 33 and Gulbenkian was happy to purchase four

drachms and a hemidrachm besides his two tetradrachms 34 .

To conclude, the hemidrachm illustrated as Figures A and B

is shown enlarged at Figures E and G, alongside life-size images

of the Berlin specimen (Figures D and F). Given that the

hemidrachm only has about one eighth of the metallic content of

the tetradrachm and a mere quarter of its surface area, it stands

up bravely to the comparison.

23. Jenkins, Ancient Greek Coins, 213; GCV 1378 (p.141), illustrated.

24. GCV 1378.

26. Other remarkable obverse dies by Theodotos include Gulbenkian 737,

Jameson 1493 and GCV 4315 (p.397), illustrated, the coin referred to in

footnote 31 below. Amongst unsigned dies Pozzi 2399 is outstanding,

with a slender face, copious hair and finely modelled mouth.

26. See GCV 944 (p.100), illustrated, for an example by Cimon.

27. Head, Historia Nummorum, p.368.

28. Atlas, Maps 56 D5, 57 E3.

29. Poleis, p.1046.

30. Bunker Hunt, I, 19 June 1990, 80.

31. H. J. Berk, 100 Greatest Coins (Atlanta, 2008), No.47, p.47.

32. E.g. CNG Mail Bid Sale 73, 13 September 2006, 321, sold at $4,000,

against an estimate of $1,000.

33. Lockett 2270-1, 2272-6. The 43 Sartiges plates of spectacular coins (see

J. Spring, Ancient Coin Auction Catalogues, 1880 – 1980, entry 487,

p.190) only includes two hemidrachms from Clazomenae (354-5).

34. Gulbenkian 735, 738, 740-1; 739; 736-7. Strangely some of these

pieces fell short of his normal standards of artistic merit.

Figure D

Figure E

Semiotics of Celtic Coins VIII –

Seeing Past the Die-Cutters

Robert D. Van Arsdell

Figure F

Figure G


Figures C, D and F are published with the permission of the

Münzkabinett, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, object 18216497.


1. Heroditus 1. 142.3; M. Grant, A Guide to the Ancient World (London,

1986), p.173; An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis (Poleis), edited by

M. H. Hansen and T. H. Nielsen (Oxford, 2004), p.1076.

2. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (OCD), 3rd edition revised, edited by

S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth (Oxford, 2003), p.84.

3. Poleis, p.1077.

4. Grant, Guide to the Ancient World, p.173.

5. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World (Atlas), edited by R. Talbert

(Oxford and Princeton, 2000), Maps 56 D5, 57 E3.

6. Pausanias 7.3.9.

7. OCD, p.921.

8. Poleis, p.1076.

9. Thucydides 8.14.3, 8.23.6.

10. OCD, pp.391, 807.

11. D. R. Sear, Greek Coins and their Values (GCV), II (London, 1979), 3501-2


12. B. V. Head, Historia Nummmorum (Oxford, 1911), p.567.

13. GCV 4309-12 (pp.395,397).

14. The winged boar survived as a small symbol beneath the swan on staters

(see G. K. Jenkins, Ancient Greek Coins (London, 1972), 299 (illustration);

GCV 4313 (p.397).

15. GCV 4314-9 (p.397).

16. Berlin. The obverse is finely illustrated (x4) in C. M. Kraay and M. Hirmer,

Greek Coins (New York), 608, and the reverse (x2), 609.

17. D. Foskett, Miniatures, Dictionary and Guide (Woodbridge, 1987), p.65.

18. T. Robinson, The Longcase Clock (Woodbridge, 1981), p.62.

19. Kraay and Hirmer, Greek Coins, 111 (Plate IV); Jenkins, Ancient Greek

Coins, 400.

20. Kraay and Hirmer, Greek Coins, 122; R. J. Eaglen, ‘Portraits of Greek

Coinage, 4 - Larissa’, NCirc, June 2005, p.173, Figure A; Jenkins, Ancient

Greek Coins, 418; GCV, I (London, 1978), 944 (p.100), illustrated.

21. Kraay and Hirmer, Greek Coins, 44 (Plate III); Jenkins, Ancient Greek Coins

429; GCV 771 (p.81), illustrated.

22. GCV 5029, 5032 (p.456), illustrated; Jenkins, Ancient Greek Coins, 208.

See ‘Portraits of Greek Coinage, 29 - Rhodes’, NCirc, September 2009,

pp.161-2 for later facing heads of Helios.

Have the die-cutters helped or hindered us in the quest to

understand the images on Ancient British coins? I have asserted 1

that the images are propaganda, not art – that they carry coded

messages from rulers to the people. But these images were created

by craftspeople, ones who may have injected ideas of their own.

How do we deal with the complications here?

A two-step procedure can help. The first step is to determine

whether the creativity of the die-cutter has caused any confusion.

Then, if we suspect it has, we can change the semiotic analysis in

the second step to minimize the effect of that confusion.

The issue of “confusion” needs some explanation. Surely the

rulers would take care to see that their messages were translated

properly onto the coins. However, no ruler would be immune to

the claim that a die-cutter, using skill and creativity, had “made a

more forceful statement of the message”. We have to overcome

two aspects of this creativity when we look at images.




Artistry, decoration and semiotics

Figure 1

The first is the way the die-cutters used artistry to express

emotions that increase the impact of the image on the viewer. The

second is the way they used decoration to modify images or fill up

empty space to produce a pleasing effect to attract the viewer.

There is no clear boundary between the two, and each overlaps

semiotic expression (figure 1). Indeed, a die-cutter may employ

MARCH 2010 13

oth artistry and decoration on the same image. In general, the

possibility of decoration should be taken as a caution that not

every dot, pellet-in-circle motif, sunburst or flower carries some

deep and complicated semiotic message.

The most difficult job when appraising British coin imagery is

to find the Code that links the image with the intended message.

When artistry and decoration intrude on the semiotics they can

make it easier to find the Code or they can obscure it entirely,

depending on the circumstances.

The biga stater of Cunobeline (figure 2) shows both effects in

action. In the following analysis I will show how the die-cutter

has used artistry to make one Code plain to the viewer. Then, on

the same image, I will show how decoration has made it difficult

to assess the Code of an Amalgamation Switcher. This confusion

causes us to find several possible Codes, leaving us to choose the

most plausible among them.

The reverse of the biga stater carries a main image of two

horses and a wheel, usually interpreted as a biga 2 . Cunobeline’s

name appears below the horses and a large leaf appears above.


Figure 3

Cunobeline Biga Stater

Figure 2

Cunobeline’s name would be an Amalgamation Switcher

meaning that he was taking credit for whatever was conveyed by

the rest of the imagery.

Taking the biga first, the die-cutter has used artistry to

enhance the impact of the horses. The image may have been

adapted from Roman denarii 3 , but the die-cutter has exaggerated

its appearance. The legs have been abnormally lengthened and

stretch out from the horses in an unnatural way. The horses are

straining for speed, adding the connotation of violence to the

message. This biga isn’t in a parade, it’s in action – and

Cunobeline is taking credit for that action. Here, the use of

artistry has helped clarify a Code in which the wheel and horses

denote a war chariot, with a connotation of military action. We

need not change our semiotic analysis, because there appears to

be no confusion about the image.

The leaf (figure 3), however, is more problematic. Likely an

Amalgamation Switcher, one immediately suspects it adds the

connotation of “success”, but the Code may be more complicated

than that. The difficulty lies in the form of the leaf. It’s an

elongated, heart-shaped leaf, and one wonders if it denotes a

specific type of plant, one conveying a message well known in pre-

Roman Britain.

In general, heart-shaped leaves are unusual in Celtic imagery.

Jacobthal 4 mentions an Attic cup imported to the Kleinaspargle in

Germany, a first century AD Roman potshard from Knorr, and a

“row-of-hearts” pattern in his gazetteer of images. None of these

is a convincing pointer to Celtic semiotics. Eluere 5 mentions a

sculpture of a vine in gold-covered bronze, and Vouga 6 shows a

heart-shaped leaf on a sword from La Tene. This meager list

suggests the heart-shaped leaf was not a common symbol in the

Iron Age anywhere in Europe.

If an actual plant was intended, a likely one for Britain is

Clematis Vitalba (Traveller’s Joy or Old Man’s Beard). Syringa

(Lilac), a post-medieval introduction to Britain, is unlikely.

Clematis is a climbing shrub that grows aggressively, often

driving out other species of plants. It’s considered intrusive and

dangerous to native species in New Zealand. One might jump to

the conclusion that these traits would be well known in Ancient

Britain, and suggest that the leaf denotes aggressiveness – that

Cunobeline had “smothered” his enemies. Such a suggestion,

while plausible, forces us to project a modern meaning onto a

2000 year old image. This is even less justified than selecting an

image from the Bronze Age to suggest a Code for the leaf. To find

the likely Code, we need to seek evidence closer to the time of the


Clematis is mentioned in Pliny’s Natural History 7 , dedicated to

the Emperor Titus, and thus written within 75 years of the coin.

He mentions Clematis primarily for its medicinal uses. One, that of

“stopping bleeding”, would be appropriate to a military situation.

He does not suggest that the people in Britain or Gaul attached

any special significance to the plant. There is nothing about

Pliny’s description of Clematis that suggests a Code for the coin

image. This negative evidence, while inconclusive, leaves us with

the suspicion that the die-cutter has used decoration to “improve”

the appearance of the coin. He has engraved a heart-shaped leaf

instead of the type intended by the ruler.

Two other kinds of leaf may have carried the intended

message. Pliny mentions Viscum (mistletoe) 8 as a plant that had

special significance to the Druids. He mentions that it is an

antidote for poisons. If the Code denoted mistletoe, then the

intended connotations might include “Druid involvement” and

“antidote”. This would lead to a second denotation of

“assassination”, with connotations of “treachery” and “survived

an assassination attempt”. The image of a mistletoe leaf above the

horses would have been fairly unattractive. If the die-cutter used

decoration to change it to a heart-shaped leaf, it would have

improved the appearance of the coin.

Alternatively, the intended leaf may have been Laurum

(laurel). A laurel leaf would also have been unattractive, and we

may suspect that the die-cutter improved its appearance via

decoration. Laurel leaves appear on most British staters. Indeed,

as the images on the earliest British staters became increasingly

abstract, the laurel wreath on the head of Apollo came to

dominate. A Code involving the denotation “laurel” and the

connotations of “accomplishment” or “success” is plausible for

the image. This would be a case in which both the image and its

Code had been borrowed from the Greco-Roman world.

But we are left with the unsatisfactory feeling that the heartshaped

leaf has been engraved by a die-cutter intent on

“improving” the image via decoration, but we cannot be sure.

Some possibilities for Codes are:


1) The leaf is simply a decoration, has no meaning, and there

is no Code to find.

2) The first denotation of the leaf is Clematis but we don’t

know the Code’s connotations. We might be tempted to

suggest some based on our modern knowledge of the plant.

3) The first denotation of the leaf was supposed to be mistletoe

and the Code’s connotations may involve religious elites and

treachery. Further Codes may involve an assassination

attempt and survival. Perhaps, the Druids tried to kill

Cunobeline or alternatively they may have saved him by

administering an antidote.

4) The denotation of the leaf was supposed to be laurel

and the Code’s connotations involve “success” or


Faced with four choices, we can now say that the die-cutter has

caused confusion. He has confused modern viewers, and he may

have confused ancient viewers as well.

At this point we change our semiotic analysis, using the

concepts of overcoding and undercoding 9 .

We could overcode the meaning of an image when we have

some understanding of the situation and the culture of the people

involved. We believe we know the Code and have identified the

first denotation and connotations accurately. We then use these to

suggest second and third denotations and connotations. The

result is a large, detailed sememe diagram, full of complicated


We could undercode the meaning when we are unsure of the

situation and the culture of the people involved. We do not know

the Code well and can only suggest a possible first denotation and

one or two connotations. The connotations are best left simple,

even vague, to assure we are not stepping beyond the bounds

imposed by our lack of understanding. The result is a small,

uncomplicated sememe diagram, with only simple or vague

meanings. The hope is, given time, our understanding will

improve and allow us to enlarge the diagram.

Using overcoding and undercoding, we can now choose

amongst the four Codes for the leaf.

1) The leaf is simply a decoration. The leaf too large to be a mere

decoration – it ought to have a semiotic role, acting as an

Amalgamation Switcher, modifying the meaning of the

biga. The idea that the leaf is simply a decoration and has no

meaning is the least likely suggestion.

2) The leaf is Clematis. Denoting the leaf as Clematis doesn’t

help our semiotic analysis. We can’t suggest any

connotations based on evidence from the time of the coin.

We just don’t have a good enough understanding of the

situation or the culture of the people. Suggesting

connotations based on our modern knowledge of the plant

and then elaborating the sememe diagram further would be

unjustified overcoding. It is virtually a waste of time to

assert a denotation for an image without adding a plausible

set of connotations. Semiotic workers should reject any

approach that merely gives a denotation for an image,

because the important part of the message usually lurks

in the connotations. The test of a semiotic analysis is how

well the connotations hold up under scrutiny. While

plausible, the denotation of Clematis should be rejected.

3) The leaf was supposed to be mistletoe. The denotation mistletoe

offers the attraction that we have a contemporary

document offering a plausible set of connotations. Druidic

involvement and antidotes for poisons are plausible

connotations for the time. However, we lack a true

understanding of the situation to assert these connotations

are correct. Thus, any sememe diagram involving Druids,

poison and intrigue constitute unjustified overcoding. The

mistletoe denotation is tantalizing and plausible. But we

should reject it until we have a better understanding of the


4) The leaf was supposed to be laurel. Laurel offers the attraction

that earlier Celtic coins have a laurel wreath as a main

device. The denotation of the leaf as laurel with the

connotation of “success” or “accomplishment” should have

been well understood by local people at the time of

Cunobeline. The image, its denotation and connotations

would have been borrowed from the contemporary Roman

semiotics. By using the single, vague connotation of

“success” we are properly using undercoding in a situation

where we are unsure of the situation or the culture of the

people. Of the four denotations, laurel is the simplest and

most likely choice. The leaf would then be an

Amalgamation Switcher meaning that Cunobeline’s

military action had been successful. It is the kind of message

to be expected on a new ruler’s coinage.

To complete the analysis we have to appraise the obverse

image. The CAMVL denotes Camulodunum, with a connotation

that it is the place of minting or perhaps the Capitol. The double

row of dots should denote a laurel wreath, with the connotation

of “success”, and the four heart-shaped leaves should again

denote laurel with a connotation of “success”. Thus the obverse of

the coin mimics the message on the reverse. Overall, the message

of the coin is that Cunobeline has been responsible for a

successful military action.

The period 10 B.C. to 10 A.D. has always been a problematic

one for numismatists, because it is almost impossible to identify

the British rulers 10 . Usually it has been interpreted as a period of

unrest, ended by the accession of Cunobeline. The Biga stater, as

a “victory” issue fits with this interpretation well. This message

would have especially resonated with the Warrior Elites. However,

other groups in society may have been persuaded to support

Cunobeline had he ended a period of strife.

As an aside, Cunobeline issued later staters on which the laurel

wreath was replaced by an ear of Barley. Allen 11 suggested the

barley denotation and offered the connotation that Cunobeline

and Verica had a rivalry (Verica placed a vine leaf on his coins).

Hawkes then suggested to Stevens 12 that the barley ear carried the

connotation that Cunobeline championed British beer while

Verica championed Roman wine. He suggested the rivalry was

over a pro-Roman versus anti-Roman stance using beverages as a

metaphor. One wonders today whether we have enough

knowledge of the situation and the culture of the people to assert

these connotations. Should the trio have merely suggested that

the barley ear carried a connotation like “the wealth of the

realm”, and thus used undercoding? Or, alternatively, was Allen

justified in overcoding the sememe to include a rivalry between

two rulers? Finally, was Hawkes completely unjustified in

overcoding the sememe further to suggest beverages as a

metaphor for a political stance? Today, we might re-read the

ancient authors carefully and reach the conclusion that

undercoding was the best choice based on our knowledge of the

situation. But today, we have the benefit of Eco’s writings to help

us see the issues involved more clearly. It would be 25 years after

Stevens’ paper appeared that Eco’s “A Theory of Semiotics” was



1. Van Arsdell, R.D., 2009, Semiotics of Celtic Coins V – It’s Not Art, NCIRC,

vol. CXVI, p. 194.

2. Evans, J., 1864, The Coinage of the Ancient Britons, p. 296.

3. For example, see Grueber, H. A., Coinage of the Roman Republic in the

British Museum, vol. 3, pl. LIX, number 4.

4. Jacobthal, P. 1944, Early Celtic Art, pl. 26, pl. 219(c), pl. 344 number


5. Eleure, C., 2004, L’Art des Celtes, pl. 304.

6. Vouga, P. 1923, La Tene, pl. II, no. 3.

7. Pliny, Natural History, XXIV, 88.

8. Pliny, Natural History, XVI, 95, and XXIV, 6.

9. Eco, Umberto, 1976, A Theory of Semiotics, pp. 133 – 136.

10. For example, see diagram, Allen, D.F., 1944, The Belgic Dynasties of

Britain and their Coins, Archaeologia, vol. CX, pp. 44 – 45.

11. IBID, p. 10.

12. Stevens, C.E. 1951, “Britain Between the Invasions (B.C. 54 – A.D. 43), in

Aspects of Archaeology in Britain and Beyond” Essays Presented to O.G.S.

Crawford, p. 342.

MARCH 2010 15

Book Reviews

Byzantine Coins in Central Europe between the 5th and 10th

Century, Ed. Marcin Woloszin, MORAVIA MAGNA, Seria Polona,

vol III, Krakow, 2009. 684 pp. £60.

This work publishes 37 papers read at a conference organised

by the Polish Acadamy of Arts and Sciences and the Institute of

Archaeology of the University of Rzeszov between 23 and 26

April 2007 although five are represented only by the abstracts

submitted to the organisers prior to the conference. The five

speakers were, for some reason, later unable to supply the full

texts of their spoken papers. These are starred below.

Of these papers 26 are published in English, 10 in German and

one in French, but all have a brief summary in English. The

authors, with few exceptions, are German or eastern European


The papers are as follows under five general headings (I - V):

I. Romans, Barbarians, Treasures: Historical Interpretation, The

International Cooperation.

1. Tribute und Jahrgelder in fruhmittelalterlichen

Konigsschatzen als Faktoren der Munzdistribution in

Ostmitteleuropa. Matthias Hardt.

2.* A Network for the Study of Coin Finds in Europe.

Georges Depeyrot.

II. Late Antiquity: Empire.

3.* From Aetius to Clovis: An unpublished argenteus struck

at Trier at the end of the Fifth Century. Francois Planet.

4. Invictissimus Avtor - An Unusual Series of Baduila

(Totila): A New Example From Croatia. Zeljko Demo.

5. Coin Hoards from Late 6th and 7th Century Discovered

in the Republic of Macedonia. Maja Hadzi-Maneva.

6.* Single Finds from the 5th Century A.D. in Dobrogea.

Delia Moisil, Gabriel Talmatchi and Gabriel Custurea.

7.* Some Guiding Remarks on Byzantine Coin Circulation

in Dobrogea (6th - 7th C. A. D.). Gabriel Custurea.

8. La Circulation Monetaire a (L)IBIDA (Scythie Mineure)

du Ve Siecle au Debut du VIIe Siecle. Mihaela Iacob.

III. Migration Period.

9. Ost-und westromische Goldmunzen des 5.

Jahrhunderts im Karpatenbecken. Peter Prohaszka.

10. Spatromische und volkwanderungszeitliche

Munzhorte und andere Munzefunde im Nordlichen

Karpatenbecken. Eva Kolnikova and Karol Pieta.

11. Germanic Gold Bracteates from the Hoard in Zagorzyn

near Kalisz. Aleksander Bursche.

12. Remarks on the Inflow of Roman Coins into Southern

Poland in the Second Half of the 4th and in the 5th

Centuries A.D. Jaroslaw Bodzek.

13. A Solidus of Theodosius II from Opaka in the context of

other finds from District Lubaczow dated to AD 5th

Century. Marcin Piotrowski and Grezgorz Dabrowski.

14. Der Zufluss von Solidi in die sudlichen Ostseegebiete.

Renata Ciolek.

15. Late Roman and Byzantine Coins found in Denmark.

Helle W. Horsnaes.

16. Solidus Finds in the Northern Lands. Tuukka Talvio.

IV. Migration Period: Barbaricum (6th - 7th Century).

17. Byzantinische Munzen des ausgehenden 5 bis

beginnenden 8 Jahrhunderts in den ostlichen Regionen

des Merowingerreiches. Jurg Drauschke.

18. Der byzantinischen und Karolingischen Fundmunzen

aus dem osterreichischen Bereich der Avaria - Eine

Neubearbeitung. Heinz Winter.

19. Finds of the Early Byzantine Coins of the 6th and the

7th Century in the Territory of the Czech Republic. Jiri


20. Finds of Byzantine Coins from the 5th - 10th Century

from the Southern Part of the Carpathian Basin. Jan


21. Antike Munzen in Gebiet der Slowakei aus der Zeit des

Awarischen Khaganats. Jozef Zabojnik.

22. Der Fund von Kleinschelken (Siebenburgen, 1856) im

Licht neuertdeckter Archivdaten. Peter Somogyi.

23. Face Value or Bullion Value? Early Byzantine Coins

beyond the Lower Danube Border. Andrei Gandila.

24. Byzantinische Munzen aus dem 6 - 7 JH in Polen.

Marcin Woloszyn.

25. Byzantine Coin Finds from the 6th to the 8th Century

between Elbe and Oder and their Meaning for

Settlement History. Felix Biermann.

26. Byzantine Coins of the 5th - 9th Century and their

Imitations in the Central and Eastern Ciscaucasus. Yurij

A. Prokopenko.

V. Middle Ages.

27. Coin Finds of Emperor Constantine V Copronymus in

Southern Croatia. Tomislav Separovic.

28. The Byzantine Empire and the Territories North of the

Lower Danube (9th - Early 11th Cent.). The Numismatic

Evidence. Ernst Oberlander-Tarnoveanu.

29. Byzantine Coins from the 9th - 10th Century from the

Czech Republic. Nada Profantova.

30. The Roman and Byzantine Coins in the Hoard Find

from Kelc (Czech Republic). Lubos Polansky and Lenka


31. Some Remarks on the Beginnings of the Influx of

Byzantine Coins into Wielkopolska in the 10th Century.

Adam Gliksman.

32. A Gilded Miliaresion from the Excavations in the Market

Square in Cracow. Maciej Salamon.

33. Funde byzantinische Munzen in Estland. Ivar Leimus.

34. A Byzantine Solidus Coin from the Research of B. A.

Zvizdec’kyj in Iskorosten. Andrei V. Petrauskas.

35. A Remarkable 10th Century Warrior Burial from the

Tumulus on the Territory of Prince Volodymyr’s Town

in Kyiv, Ukraine. Michail M. Ievlev.

36.* New Facts in the Numismatics of Mediaeval Cherson.

Eugeny Ja. Turovsky.

37. From Money-Trade to Barter. Economic

Transformations in Byzantine Crimea (10th - 13th

Century). Thomas Bruggemann.

As can be seen from the titles, the topics are wide-ranging,

several being quite general such as nos. 7, 9, 17, 22 and 28 while

others are more specific such as nos. 3, 4, 11, 13, 32 and 34.

It seems unlikely that this book will appeal to those who merely

collect by catalogue numbers but for other students of Byzantine

coins it is surely a book worth adding to their libraries. Most of the

articles have lengthy bibliographies - in fact the grand total of

referenced works for all the articles is over 2200. Some, generally

books such as RIC, DOC and MIB are obviously duplicated but the

majority of references are to articles which will surely be

unknown to most of the readers of this review. In addition, for

those interested in following up any of these topics, the postal and

e-mail addresses of all the authors appear at the end of their




‘Monete Bizantine di Sicilia’, Marco Anastasi, 2009, 252 pp. £85.

This book, despite its price, may be useful to those who specialise

in collecting Byzantine coins struck in Sicily since Spahr is out of

print and it illustrates some 600 coins. However, it is by no means

a work of scholarship. The major numismatic works consulted

are ‘Byzantine Coins and their Values’, the 1930 Ratto catalogue,

Andreas Sommer’s catalogue of the Byzantine coins in the

University of Gottingen, Spahr and two recent catalogues of

Sicilian Byzantine bronze coins by Calciati (2000) and Trivero

(2006).There is no mention of the catalogues of the coins in DO,

the BM, the BN, the Barber Institute, Berlin or the Hermitage

(published by Tolstoi) but only five private Italian collections and

the ANS.

The material for this work appears to have been culled from

trawling the internet – no fewer than 68 dealers’ websites are

listed. The illustrations have possibly come from the same sources

and vary in quality.

There is a brief historical introduction to each reign,

presumably taken from Ostrogorsky’s history of the Byzantine

empire since this is the only historical work listed in the sources

used. The shortcomings of this work can be seen from that

although Mezezius is mentioned as rebelling on the death of

Constans II, his coinage, solidi and tremisses are omitted.

However, there are several coins listed that were unknown to

Spahr and a number of new varieties (variant legends etc.) of

several types, mainly gold and not all illustrated. It seems a little

unnecessary to list 46 countermarked coins of Heraclius not just

by the form of the countermarks but listing each undertype

known to the author.

Since the major catalogues are neither mentioned in the

bibliography nor used as references it is not surprising that minor

articles have been overlooked such as that in the Numismatic

Circular in February 1981 which published the first known

specimen of S. 1114A; MIB 213 which is illustrated by Hahn and

is possibly the photo reproduced in this book. Both the author of

1981 article and Hahn published this coin and other coppers of

Constans as bearing indictional and not regnal dates and this was

followed by Seaby’s ‘Byzantine Coins and their Values’. The

author of this book, while using Seaby’s reference has reverted to

describing the years of the reign as regnal.

The book comes with a small insert giving valuations in euros

for all but the rarest coins. This book is now the major gathering

of this material available in print.



David Magnay

3rd October 1942 - 3rd September 2009

David Edgar Magnay, TD, RAPC, a

very well-known figure in the

paranumismatic world and a longtime

expert in the fields of toy and

model money, died at the Marie

Curie Hospice, Penarth, on 3

September 2009 after a short

illness. He was 66 years old.

Born on 3 October 1942,

David spent his early years in the

UK and Singapore, where his

Father had been incarcerated in a

PoW camp after the fall of the city.

He was educated at Mowden Hall in

Northumberland and Bryanston and

joined Lloyds Bank in Southampton at

the age of 18. His banking career took him all over the UK and I

first met him when he lived at Laverstock, just outside Salisbury.

Already a keen collector of coins, especially crowns, David and his

wife Georgina joined our Society in 1969 and we were sorry to

lose them from our number when work took him to Chandlers

Ford, then Tunbridge Wells, West Kirby (where David was senior

manager of a Liverpool city centre branch) and finally Cardiff,

where he was the bank’s senior commercial manager. Made

redundant by the bank in the late 1980s, he and two colleagues

founded the Business Mortgage Company in Cardiff in 1989,

from which he retired 11 years ago.

David also spent a long time - no less than 37 years - in the

Territorial Army. Joining the Army Emergency Reserve in

Southampton in 1961 he was told by the recruiting sergeant

that as ‘you work in the bank, lad, you are therefore in the Royal

Army Pay Corps.’ Latterly David was paymaster and regional

administrative officer for 104 Regiment, Royal Artillery, in

Newport, putting in about 100 days service a year. He was proud

of his Territorial Decoration, qualifying for the medal after 15

years and earning three further clasps, each representing a

further six years’ service.

Although as a schoolboy David collected stamps, the job with

Lloyd’s fired an enthusiasm for coins in 1960 which never left

him. He became a considerable authority on toy coins and model

money, forming as a consequence a particularly notable

collection of fractional farthings and Victorian pattern pennies by

the Birmingham diesinker Joseph Moore (1817-92), which was

dispersed by DNW in February 1999. In the 1970s and 1980s he

contributed several articles to the pages of Spink’s Numismatic

Circular on model money and collaborated extensively with the

late David de Sola Rogers in the latter’s Toy Coins, published in

1990. Building on the original series of monographs by Roy

Hawkins in BNJ from 1960-8, David compiled A Catalogue of

Advertising Imitation Spade Guineas and Half-Guineas, which

appeared in 1997; he, along with David Young and Gavin Scott,

subsequently became the principal collaborators in Bryce

Neilson’s 2003 Galata publication, A Thousand Guineas, A

Checklist of Imitation Guineas and their Fractions. David

attended his first Token Congress in 1987 and in recent years was

a regular attender, sometimes accompanied by Georgina.

Apart from coins, David had many other interests. He had been

a member of lions clubs in Tonbridge, Wallasey and Cowbridge

and he and Georgina were two of the instigators of the Vale of

Glamorgan National Trust Association, for which he served as

treasurer for seven years. He was a founder member and

subsequent chairman of Vale Probus Club and chairman of

Cowbridge Allotments Association, even broadcasting on

horticultural matters for Harlech TV, and had recently served on

the town council of Cowbridge with Llanbethian. Testifying to the

high esteem in which he was held locally, over 200 people

attended his funeral at Holy Cross Church, Cowbridge, on 16


David’s wife, Georgina, whom he married in 1965, and their

triplets, Claire, Andrew and Kate, survive him.



MARCH 2010 17

Ann Elizabeth Johnston

12th July 1944 - 2nd January 2010

Ann was born 12 July 1944 in

Banff, Scotland. Her father, of

no particular education, was a

meteorologist in the Royal Air

Force who took advantage of

the opportunities available to

the de-mobbed after the war

and went on to attain the PhD

in Physics (UCL), to work on a

high theoretical level at

Harwell, and then to turn

about to teach happily in the

state school system in Oxford.

From him, and from her

Scottish mother, Ann

absorbed the joy of learning

and the need for exactitude in


After an excellent education at Bath High, Ann entered UCL to

take the degree in Economics: her ever-adventurous mind drew

her to a kind of study to which she had not been previously

exposed. She received the degree with First Class Honours, and

regretted ever after that she had wasted her time on such an

unprofitable subject.

A grant to spend a year at the University of Michigan led to an

introduction to the Classics, and particularly to ancient

numismatics. Her earliest readings in Babelon’s Traité excited the

notion that an Ionian issue of Persian staters with a seeming

shapeless reverse punch actually bore a map of the Maeander

valley and surrounds: she had discovered the earliest preserved


Returning to London, Ann enrolled in the MA programme in

Economics at U.C. to get the advanced degree. At the end of the

programme she failed her examinations miserably, having spent

the whole year reading Herodotus and perfecting her Greek with

John Barron, and publishing the earliest-map article in the

Journal of Hellenic Studies (1967). It was just the first of several

important works of numismatic scholarship to be published over

a period of 40 years, from the revision of Noe’s two Metapontum

volumes and the creation of the third and final volume, to Greek

Imperial Denominations (2007), a masterly study of a subject of

bottomless difficulty. In between, there appeared several

important articles and reviews, e.g. her clarification of the

difficult problem of the identification of the two “Antonini”,

Caracalla and Elagabalus (ANSMN, 1982), and “Caracalla’s

Path”, on the coinage of emperor’s visit to Asia Minor in 214/5, a

professionally exact demonstration as to what could be done with

numismatic evidence when properly understood (Historia, 1983).

She was also a contributing author to the publication of the

excavation coins from Sardis, covering the Greek and Greek

Imperial. Her reviews are well-known for the exactitude that she

required of her authors, some of whom thanked her.

Ann never held an academic post, although she held a

research fellowship at Clare Hall, her Cambridge University

college. She worked professionally as an editor and translator, first

for the Cambridge University Press, later, when she lived in Paris,

for the Club of Rome, the OECD, several journals, and privately.

Her interests in art and architecture, in history, in learning were

boundless. Besides her scholarly publications she contributed to

studies of the population of Cambridgeshire (“broken down by

age and sex”); her “Mrs Buttrey’s Guide to the Afternoon Teas of

East Anglia” (3 editions) was well known to a select public – it

could not be published because of her trenchant observations on

some inadequate teas; and at her death she had all but finished a

Guide to the Trees of the Cambridge University Botanic Garden –

it will be published posthumously.

Ann was immensely energetic in both mind and body. No

exhibition, concert, opera, film, or good book escaped her

scrutiny. She cooked like a professional and read cookbooks as

others read novels. She was a rare female member of a group of

British Alpine hikers which met annually on the continent, and

was composed entirely of the great and the good. She herself

hiked whenever possible, finding particular pleasure in the

scenery and flora of the Swiss Alps, the Czech Republic, and

Caucasian Georgia. Ann played a vigorous game of tennis until

no longer able, and was as well an accomplished kayaker.

In all this activity, in all her life, she made, and kept in touch

with, innumerable friends, in many countries, both within the

academy and without. Some she helped to support in their need.

Ann was married to T. V. Buttrey 1967-1980. She died on 2

January 2010 at the age of 65 in the Arthur Rank Hospice,

Cambridge, after eight years of coping intelligently with the

ravages of mandibular cancer. She left her entire estate to be

divided among a variety of charities, principally Saving Faces, a

medical charity dedicated to research in facial surgery, and Clare

Hall, for an endowment for graduate study in the humane


A Bibliography of Works Published by Ann Johnston:

“The Earliest Preserved Greek Map: A New Ionian Coin Type”,

in Journal of Hellenic Studies 87 1967, pp. 86-94

“Maps on Greek Coins of the 4th Century B.C.”, in Imago

Mundi 25 1971, pp. 75-76

“New Problems for Old: Konrad Kraft on Die-sharing in Asia

Minor” (review article on Konrad Kraft, Das System der

kaiserzeitlichen Münzprägung Kleinasien – Materialen und Entwürfe

(Berlin, 1972)), in NumChron 134 1974, pp. 203-207

“The Intermittent Imperials: the Coinages of Lycia, Lycaonia,

and Pisidia” (review article on Hans von Aulock, Die Münzprägung

des Gordian III und der Tranquillina in Lykien (Istanbul, 1974);

Münzen und Städte Lykaoniens (Istanbul, 1976); Münzen und

StädtePisidiens (Istanbul, 1977)), in NumChron 140 1980,

pp. 205-211

“The Greek Coins”, in T.V. Buttrey et al., Greek, Roman and

Islamic Coins from Sardis, (Cambridge MA, 1981), pp. xiv-xvii,


“Caracalla or Elagabalus? A Case of Unnecessarily Mistaken

Identity”, in American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 27

1982, pp. 97-147

“Die Sharing in Asia Minor: the View from Sardis”, in

Proceedings of the International Numismatic Convention on Greek

Imperials = Israel Numismatic Journal 6-7 1982-3, pp. 59-78

“Caracalla’s Path: the Numismatic Evidence”, in Historia 32.1

1983, pp. 58-76

“The Denominational System of the Greek Imperials of Bizye

in Thrace”, in NumChron 143 1983, pp. 231-239

“Hierapolis Revisited”, in NumChron 144 1984, pp. 52-80

“The Coinage of Metapontum, parts 1 and 2” (New York,

1984) – a re-edition of S. P. Noe’s title = American Numismatic

Society Notes and Monographs nos. 32 and 47 (2nd edd.)

“The So-called ‘Pseudo-Autonomous’ Greek Imperials”, in

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 30 1985, pp. 89-112

Review of Rubrecht Ziegler, Städtisches Prestige und kaiserliche

Politik. Studien zum Festwesen im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert n. Chr.

(Düsseldorf, 1985), in NumChron 148 1988, p. 240


Review of E. Levante et al., Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum,

Switzerland I, Levante – Cilicia (Zürich, 1986), in NumChron 148

1988, pp. 243-4

“The Bronze Coinage of Metapontum”, in Georges Le Rider

et al. edd., Kraay-Mørkholm Essay: Numismatic Studies in Memory

of C.M. Kraay and O. Mørkholm (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1989),

pp. 121-136

Review of K. Butcher, Roman Provincial Coins: an Introduction to

the ‘Greek Imperials’ (London, 1988), in NumChron 149 1989,

pp. 236-238

“The Coinage of Metapontum, part 3” (New York, 1990) –

completing the work begun by S. P. Noe = American Numismatic

Society Notes and Monographs no. 165

“La double vie de William Henry Waddington”, in Bulletin de la

Société Française de Numismatique 49.10 1994 pp. 959-963

Review of David MacDonald, The Coinage of Aphrodisias

(London, 1992), in NumChron 154 1994, pp. 306-310

“Aphrodisias Reconsidered”, in NumChron 155 1995, pp. 43-


“Greek Imperial Denominations in the Province of Asia”, in

Johannes Nollé et al, Internationales Kolloquium zur kaiserzeitlichen

Münzprägung Kleinasiens, 27-30 April 1994 (Milan, 1997),

pp. 205-221

“Questions of Survival”, in Richard Ashton and Silvia Hurter

edd., Studies in Greek Numismatics in Memory of Martin Jessop Price

(London, 1998), pp. 155-162

Review of Michael Matzke and Dietrich Mannsperger, Sylloge

Nummorum Graecorum Deutschland. Univ. Tübingen 6. Phrygien-

Kappadokien (Munich, 1998), in NumChron 160 2000 p.385

“Metapontum”, in N.K. Rutter ed., Historia Numorum 2 I

(London, 2001), pp. 130-142

Review of Johannes Nollé, Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum

Deutschland. Pfälzer Privatsammlunger 5, Pisidien und Lykaonien

(Munich, 1999), in NumChron 161 2001, pp. 368-370

Review of Wolfgang Szaivert and Claude Daburon, Sylloge

Nummorum Graecorum Österreich. Sammlung Leypold I, Pontus-

Lydien (Vienna, 2000), in NumChron 162 2002, pp. 445-449

Greek Imperial Denominations ca. 200-275: A Study of the Roman

Provincial Bronze Coinages of Asia Minor (London, 2007) = Royal

Numismatic Society, Special Publication no. 43

Review of Christopher Howgego et al. edd., Coinage and Identity

in the Roman Provinces (Oxford, 2005), in American Journal of

Archaeology 111 2007, pp. 176-177

Contribution to W.E. Metcalf ed., The Oxford Handbook of Greek

and Roman Coinage, in press


Dr. J. S. “Stoffel” Vogelaar

It was with great sadness that I

learned that Stoffel Vogelaar

had passed away unexpectedly,

aged sixty, on the 2nd January

this year. I had not known him

long; in fact I had known his

books and coins longer. In

September 2007, whilst on a

visit to Spink in London, I was

able to buy a few books from

the “Vogelaar Library” that had

recently been purchased and

was also given the opportunity

to inspect his Romano-British

coins that were being prepared

for sale. I left that afternoon

hoping to be able to buy some of

these coins and wondering who Dr J S Vogelaar was.

Over the next eighteen months, I managed to acquire a few

more books from the library and a few coins from the various

auctions at which they were sold but I still knew very little about

the man. Then in early 2009, Dr Vogelaar contacted me to ask if I

would be prepared to write an article about his coin collection.

Over the next few months we had regular contact, mostly by

email, mostly about the article but increasingly about the

Romano-British London Mint coinage that is a particular study

area of mine. I became used to having Stoffel there – I would

email him in the morning and the reply would appear later that

day. Always useful, but also challenging where necessary, backed

up by his heavily annotated RIC.

Stoffel was born in a small village, Puttershoek, just south of

Rotterdam in the Netherlands, where his parents owned a farm.

He was an only child with a talent for languages, studying Latin

and Greek, as well as French, German and English, he also

acquired a basic knowledge of Russian and Spanish. He disliked

cities and preferred life in the country; having been to Ireland on

holidays he fell in love with the West of Ireland. Stoffel and his

wife Ann decided to sell their home in Holland and move to

Mulranny in 1977. He enjoyed the rural life and kept busy

reading, writing and extending his knowledge of history and

economics. In 1980, their daughter Ann was born, and Tom

three years later. When his father died and left his farm to him,

Stoffel decided to sell the farm and stay in Ireland, buying a farm

in Liscarney.

Stoffel was a great collector, he did not publish, but amassed a

large collection of Romano-British coinage in its widest sense. The

backbone of this collection were the coins of the period 287 to

325 AD; the coins of the breakaway empire of Carausius and

Allectus and subsequent issues of the Tetrarchies and

Constantine at the London Mint. He began collecting these coins

in the 1980’s and managed to combine this interest with another

passion – computers. Computers were the future, he believed, and

he quickly became quite expert, using the internet to expand his

collection and knowledge. He was a member of both the British

and Royal Numismatic Societies and was appreciated for his

expert knowledge, advising collectors and dealers alike. Stoffel

was a quiet, private person though and was happiest at home,

with his family, books, coins and his computer.

Following a period of ill-health, Stoffel decided to dispose of his

numismatic collections and from 2007 to 2009 there was a series

of sales that will be detailed in the forthcoming article in “The

Celator” magazine along with the interview conducted with

Stoffel in the months preceding his death.

Stoffel had a deep knowledge of Romano-British coinage and it

is to be regretted that this is no longer available to students of

these series. It was Stoffel’s dream that, one day, a formal

catalogue of his collection would be published. That now seems

unlikely, but as Stoffel said to me, “Never say never”.


MARCH 2010 19

The Numismatic Circular Published since 1892

A list of Ancient, British and Foreign Coins, Tokens, Medals and Numismatic Books

Offered for sale at fixed prices

Please be aware that payment made by

VISA or MASTERCARD now carries an additional charge of 2%,

no surcharge is applied on Debit cards

Greek Coins

GK2860 Sicily, Syracuse (c.344-317 BC), Æ Litra, head of Persephone left,

wreathed with corn, ΣYPAKOΣION, rev. Pegasos flying left, Σ below

(SNG ANS 527; SNG Cop. 733), dark green patina, unusually fine, about EF


GK2855 Lucania, Velia (c.365-350 BC), ¿ Didrachm (7.76g), head of Athena

left, wearing crested helmet ornamented with gryphon, P behind,

rev. YEΛHTΩN, lion at bay right, Φ above (Williams 264; Hist. Num. 1284),

good VF-almost EF £800

GK2861 Sicily, Syracuse, Hieron II (274-216 BC), ¿ 16 Litrai (13.49g),

diademed and veiled head of Queen Philistis, wife of Hieron, left, wreath

behind, rev. BAΣIΛIΣΣAΣΦIΛIΣTIΔOΣ, Nike holding reins of a walking quadriga

right, Φ above (SNG ANS 874), toned, almost EF £1,275

GK2856 Sicily, Akragas (c.480 BC), ¿ Didrachm (8.64g), eagle standing right,

AKPA, rev. crab above female head right (Jenkins, Gela, pl. 37,19), rare, almost

EF £1,000

GK2862 Kingdom of Thrace, Saratokos (late 5th cent. BC), ¿ Trihemiobol

(.67g), youthful male head right, with hair long on neck, rev. ΣAPATOKO round

large monogram of ΣΔ within incuse square (Youroukova 31-37), scarce,

about VF £150

GK2857 Sicily, Akragas (c.240-212 BC), Æ 23mm, laureate head of Zeus right,

rev. eagle standing facing on thunderbolt, wings spread, head turned right,

MN. ACILI (cf. SNG ANS 1148), olive-green patina, VF £200

GK2863 Uncertain Thraco-Macedonian (c.500 BC), ¿ Tetrobol (2.63g),

horseman right, rev. quadripartite incuse square (SNG ANS 1014), grainy

surfaces, very rare, good F £200

GK2858 Sicily, Selinos (c.530-510 BC), ¿ Didrachm (7.66g), selinon leaf,

rev. incuse square divided into twelve diagonal compartments, four of which

are raised (cf. SNG ANS 683), well centred on a broad flan, edge smoothed from

mounting, minor crack in flan, VF £550

GK2859 Sicily, Syracuse (c.405-400 BC), Æ Hemilitron, head of Arethusa left,

hair bound with ampyx and sphendone, barley-ear behind, rev. ΣY-PA

within spokes of wheel, a dolphin in each of the other two quarters

(SNG ANS 403-410), a very pretty obv. die, almost EF £175

GK2864 Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos (305-281 BC), ¿ Tetradrachm

(17.15g), Pella, diademed head of Alexander the Great right, with horn of

Ammon, rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike

crowning king’s name, and leaning left elbow on shield at her side, a spear

rests behind her, monograms on left and in ex. (Thompson 250), almost EF



GK2865 Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos (305-281 BC), ¿ Drachm (4.20g),

Ephesos, diademed head of Alexander the Great right, with horn of Ammon,

rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike crowning king’s

name, and leaning left elbow on shield at her side, a spear rests behind her,

lyre on left, A on throne (Thompson 174), a most attractive portrait, almost

EF/VF £440

GK2871 Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, the Great (336-323 BC), ¿

Tetradrachm (17.11g), Babylon, head of young Herakles right, wearing lion’s

skin headdress, rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY, Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle

and sceptre, MI and axe on left, monogram in wreath under throne

(Price 3753), VF £375

GK2866 Thracian Islands, Thasos (c.435-411 BC), ¿ Stater (8.80g), naked

satyr carrying draped, struggling nymph right, rev. quadripartite incuse

square (SNG Cop. 1017), dark gray tone, VF £450

GK2872 Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, the Great (336-323 BC), ¿

Tetradrachm (17.03g), Miletos, c.295-275 BC, head of young Herakles right,

wearing lion’s skin headdress, rev. AΛEΞANΔPOY, Zeus enthroned left, holding

eagle and sceptre, monogram on left (Price 2150), EF £550

GK2867 Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II (359-336 BC), Æ 18mm, young male

head (Apollo ?) right, hair bound with taenia, rev. ΦIΛIΠΠOY, jockey on

galloping horse right, Λ over pellet below (SNG ANS 935), good VF £95

GK2873 Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, the Great (336-323 BC), Æ

20mm, lifetime issue, head of young Herakles right, wearing lion’s skin

headdress, rev. AΛEΞANΔPOY, club and bow in case, E below (Price 304),

large flan, dark brown patina, good VF £120

GK2868 Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, the Great (336-323 BC), ¡

Stater (8.52g), Babylon, head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested helmet,

snake on bowl, rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY, Nike standing left, holding wreath

and stylis, MI on left, monogram in wreath behind (Price 3748), lustrous, EF


GK2874 Caria, Chersonesos (c.510-480 BC), ¿ Drachm (5.77g), forepart of

lion right, jaws open, rev. XEP (?), bucranium, within incuse rectangle

(cf. Cahn, Knidos, pl.10, 17-20), the reverse legend appears to read ΣAP. A most

interesting coin, very rare, toned, VF £800

GK2869 Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, the Great (336-323 BC), ¿

Tetradrachm (17.26g), Pella, head of young Herakles right, wearing lion’s

skin headdress, rev. AΛEΞANΔPOY, Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and

sceptre, bee alighting on rose on left (Price 206), of exceptional quality, good

EF £1,400

GK2875 Carian Islands, Rhodes (c.125-88 BC), ¿ Hemidrachm (1.34g), radiate

head of Helios three-quarters facing, turned slightly right, rev. rose with bud

on right, uncertain symbol (plant?) on left, magistrate ANTAIOC, all in shallow

incuse square (Jenkins, group D, 86; SNG Finland 664 var.), EF £160

GK2870 Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, the Great (336-323 BC), ¿

Tetradrachm (17.29g), Arados, head of young Herakles right, wearing lion’s

skin headdress, rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY, Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle

and sceptre, NE monogram in circle on left, Π under throne (Price 3347 var.),

apparently unrecorded without anchor symbol, good VF £525

GK2876 Cilicia, Tarsos, Satrap Mazaios (361-334 BC), ¿ Stater (10.79g), Baal

enthroned left, head facing, holding eagle, ear of corn and bunch of grapes

in right hand, and a lotus-tipped sceptre in left, Aramaic “Baal tars”,

rev. lion attacking bull left, Aramaic “Mazdai” above, monogram below

(SNG France 333; SNG Levante 106), Baal’s head and eagle not fully struck up,

as often, otherwise very sharp, good EF £750

MARCH 2010 21

GK2877 Cyprus, Amathos (c.350 BC), ¿ Obol (.49g), lion’s head right,

rev. forepart of lion right, head turned to face (Amandry 133B.a; BMC -),

scarce, toned, VF £135

GK2883 Kingdom of Persia (c.420-375 BC), ¿ Siglos (5.57g), the Great King

advancing right, holding spear and bow, rev. oblong incuse punch

(cf. BMC pl. XXV, 26), toned, almost VF £100

GK2878 Kingdom of Syria, Antiochos IV (175-164 BC), Æ 35mm, Antioch,

laureate head of Zeus-Sarapis right, rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY ΘEOY EΠIΦANOYΣ,

eagle standing right on thunderbolt (Seleucid Coins 1413; Svoronos 1416),

flake of metal from beard, otherwise unusually good, almost EF £395

GK2884 Kingdom of Parthia, Vardanes I (AD 40-45), ¿ Tetradrachm (14.49g),

Seleucia Sept. 42, diademed, draped bust left, wart on temple, rev. square

eight-line legend, Vardanes seated right, receiving palm-branch from Tyche

standing before him, date ΓNT above (Sellwood 64.10), VF £160

Ex Peus 11/06, lot 578.

Ex Auctiones 24, lot 362.

GK2879 Kingdom of Syria, Antiochos IX (114-95 BC), ¿ Tetradrachm

(16.24g), Antioch, 110/109 BC, diademed head right with light beard,

rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ, Athena standing left, holding Nike and

sceptre, Δ and monogram on left, all within wreath (Seleucid Coins 2366),

cabinet tone, about EF/good VF £275

GK2885 Kingdom of Parthia, Vologases I (AD 51-78), ¿ Tetradrachm

(14.58g), Seleucia, May 52, diademed, draped bust left, rev. square legend,

Vologases seated left receiving diadem from Tyche standing before him, date

above (Sellwood 68.7), VF £160

Ex Peus 31/10/07, lot 352.

GK2880 Phoenicia, Tyre (c.AD 4-5), ¿ Shekel (14.08g), laureate head of

Melqarth right, rev. TYP[OY IEPAΣ K]AI AΣYΛOY, eagle standing left, palm-branch

over far wing, club and date PMΣ on left, KP, pellet and monogram on right

(cf. BMC 197; ex Siloam hoard), almost EF £395

GK2886 Indo-Greek Kingdom, Hermaios and Kalliope (c.90-70 BC), ¿

Indian-Standard Tetradrachm (9.69g), conjoined diademed and draped busts

of Hermaios and Kalliope right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ EPMAIOY KAI KAΛΛIOΠHΣ, rev.

Kharosthi legend, the helmeted king on galloping horse right, spear, bow and

quiver behind him fastened to horse’s flank, monogram below

(SNG ANS 1317; Bib. Nat. 1, B), very rare, good metal, VF £1,500

GK2881 Mesopotamia, Babylon (c. 322-312 BC), ¿ Tetradrachm (16.65g),

Baal seated left, holding sceptre, rev. lion walking left, Γ above

(SNG Delepierre 3005), VF £250

GK2887 Indo-Greek Kingdom, Strato I (c.125-110 BC), Æ “medium” unit,

draped bust of Herakles right, club over shoulder, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣΣTPATΩNOΣ,

rev. Nike walking right, holding wreath and palm-branch, control-marks

in field, Kharosthi legend (SNG ANS 1012; Bib. Nat. 29A), dark patina,

almost EF £130

GK2882 Kingdom of Characene, Apodakos (c.110-105 BC), ¿ Tetradrachm

(15.78g), diademed, bearded head right, rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΠOΔAKOY, Herakles

seated left on rock, holding club on knee, IΣ in ex. (Alram 496 var.), toned,

very rare, VF £850

GK2888 Indo-Greek Kingdom, Diomedes (c.95-90 BC), Æ “medium” unit, the

Dioscuri standing facing, each holding spear, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣΔIOMHΔOY,

rev. humped bull right, control-marks below, Kharosthi legend

(SNG ANS 1236; Bib. Nat. 10C), dark patina, about EF £160


Roman Coins

All struck at Rome, unless otherwise indicated.

RM4146 Roman Republic (c.211-206 BC), Æ Quadrans, head of young Hercules

right, wearing lion’s skin headdress, three pellets behind, rev. ROMA above

prow of galley right, three pellets below (Crawford 56/5; BMC 255;

RCV 1037), unusually fine, good VF £300

RM4152 P. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus (c.50 BC), ¿ Denarius, bare head of

M. Claudius Marcellus (consul 222 BC) right, triskeles behind, MARCELLINVS,

rev. M. Claudius Marcellus, togate, carrying trophy into tetrastyle temple of

Jupiter Feretrius, MARCELLVS COS QVINC (Cr. 439/1; Syd. 1147), the moneyer

recalls the exploits of his illustrious ancestor, who was consul five times, captured

Syracuse in 211BC (hence the triskeles on the obv.), and dedicated the spoils he

took from the Gaulish chieftain Britomartus, who he had slain with his own hands,

in the pictured temple in 222BC, good VF £650

RM4147 M. Aburius Geminus (132 BC), ¿ Denarius, helmeted head of Roma

right, GEM behind, mark of value under chin, rev. Sol in galloping quadriga

right, holding whip, M. ABVRI below, ROMA in ex. (Cr. 250/1; Syd. 487), EF


RM4153 Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius (c.49 BC), ¿ Denarius, diademed head of

Apollo right, star below, Q. SICINIVS III VIR, rev. lion’s skin on club of Hercules

between arrow and bow, C. COPONIVS PR. S.C (Cr. 444/1a; Syd 939), cabinet tone,

EF £385

RM4148 P. Servilius Rullus (c.100 BC), ¿ Denarius, bust of Minerva left,

wearing helmet and aegis, RVLLI, rev. Victory in biga right, holding

palm-branch, P below, P. SERVILI [M F] in ex. (Cr. 328/1; Syd. 601), toned, good VF


RM4154 Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio (Imperator 47-46 BC), ¿ Denarius,

Africa, head of Africa right, wearing elephant-scalp headdress, stalk of corn

before, plough below, Q. METEL SCIPIO IMP, rev. Hercules standing facing, hand on

hip, leaning on club draped with lion’s skin and set on rock, EPPIVS LEG F C (Cr.

461/1; Syd 1051; Sear 44), good VF £475

RM4149 Faustus Cornelius Sulla (c.56 BC), ¿ Denarius, diademed and draped

bust of Diana right, crescent above, lituus behind, FAVSTVS, rev. Sulla seated

left, being offered olive-branch by Bocchus, king of Mauretania, kneeling

right, while Jugurtha, king of Numidia, kneels behind, his hands bound,

FELIX above (Cr. 426/1; Syd. 879), the moneyer was married to Pompey’s

daughter and was the son of the dictator Sulla; he records here his father’s hand in

the surrender of Jugurtha and the submission of Bocchus while acting as Marius’s

quaestor, toned, almost EF £1,250

RM4155 Augustus (27 BC-AD 14), ¿ Denarius, moneyer M. Durmius,

19/18 BC, head of Honos right, with features of Augustus, M. DVRMIVS III VIR

HONORI, rev. AVGVSTVS CAESAR, Augustus in biga of elephants left, holding

branch (RIC 128; C. 427), rare, good VF £1,450

RM4156 Augustus (27 BC-AD 14), Æ Quadrans, 5 BC, garlanded altar, SISENNA

GALVS III VIR, rev. MESSALLA APRONIVS AAAFF round large S C (RIC 462; C. 425),

good VF £65

RM4150 C. Memmius (c.56 BC), ¿ Denarius, head of Ceres right, wreathed

with corn, C. MEMMI C. F, rev. captive kneeling at foot of trophy of Eastern arms,

C. MEMMIVS IMPERATOR (Cr. 427/1; Syd. 920), toned, good VF £220

RM4157 Tiberius (AD 14-37), ¿ Denarius, Lugdunum, laureate head right,

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, rev. PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right, holding

branch and sceptre (RIC 30; C. 16), about VF £250

RM4151 C. Memmius (c.56 BC), ¿ Denarius, laureate and bearded head of

Romulus (Quirinus) right, C. MEMMI C. F –QVIRINVS, rev. MEMMIVS AED. CEREALIA

PREIMVS FECIT, Ceres seated right, holding torch and corn-ears, a snake at her

feet (Cr. 427/2; Syd. 921), toned, almost EF £385

RM4158 Caius (Caligula) (AD 37-41), ¿ Denarius, 40, laureate head right,

C. CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III, rev. S P Q R / P P / OB C S within oak-wreath

(RIC 28; C. 21), part of edge corroded, some deposit, good F-almost VF £350

MARCH 2010 23

RM4159 Claudius (AD 41-54), Æ As, 42, bare head left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M

TR P IMP P P, rev. CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, S – C, Constantia standing left in military

dress, right hand raised, left holding spear (RIC 111; BMC 201), smooth dark

patina with a dusting of green, almost EF £330

RM4165 Titus (AD 79-81), Æ 29mm, Judaea, laureate head right, rev. IOVΔAIAΣ

EAΛΩKYIAΣ (Judaea Capta), trophy between seated captive figure of Judaea and

shield (BMC 2; Hendin 745), almost VF £150

RM4160 Galba (AD 68-69), ¿ Denarius, July 68-Jan 69, laureate head right,

IMP SER GALBA AVG, rev. S P Q R / OB / C S within oak-wreath (RIC 128; C. 287a),

surfaces lightly porous, strong portrait, about EF £1,500

RM4166 Trajan (AD 98-117), ¿ Denarius, 114-7, laureate bust right, aegis on

far shoulder, bare chest showing, IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC,

rev. PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus

and cornucopia (RIC 333; C. 192), an unusual bust variety, almost EF/VF


RM4161 Vitellius (AD 69), ¿ Denarius, bare head right, [A VITE]LLIVS GERMANICVS

IMP, rev. CONCORDIA PRAETORIANORVM, Concordia seated left, holding patera and

cornucopia (RIC 66; C. 21), toned, good F £295

RM4167 Trajan (AD 98-117), Æ Sestertius, 104-111, laureate bust left, with

drapery on shoulders, chest bare, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS

V P P, rev. S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, S C, Trajan on galloping horse right,

brandishing javelin at a Dacian falling to his knees before him (cf. BMC 838

and note, and RIC 535; obv. die of Strack 374), a very rare heroic bust variety,

natural olive-green patina, some minor pitting, VF-good VF £1,600

RM4162 Vespasian (AD 69-79), ¿ Denarius, 75, laureate head right, IMP CAESAR

VESPASIANVS AVG, rev. PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, holding branch

(RIC 772; C. 366), about EF £280

RM4163 Vespasian (AD 69-79), Æ Sestertius, Rome, 71, laureate head right, IMP


right, inscribing shield set on palm-tree, her left foot on helmet, Judaea on

right, seated right, in mournful attitude (RIC, 2nd ed., 221:C. 625), brown

patina, about extremely fine £3,750

Ex NAC 27, 12/5/04, lot 354 (SF6500).

RM4168 Trajan (AD 98-117), Æ Sestertius, Rome, 116, laureate bust right,



standing facing, head right, holding spear and parazonium amid the three

reclining figures of Armenia, Euphrates and Tigris (RIC 642; C. 39), smoothed

green patina, good VF/VF £550

RM4164 Vespasian (AD 69-79) and Titus, ¿ Didrachm, Caesarea, 76-77,

laureate head of Vespasian right, rev. laureate head of Titus right

(RPC 1650; Metcalf 4; Syd. 102), VF £330

RM4169 Trajan (AD 98-117), Æ Dupondius, 112-114, radiate, draped bust

right, rev. DACIA AVGVST, PROVINCIA / S C in ex., Dacia seated left on rock, holding

legionary eagle, with two children before her, one holding bunch of grapes,

the other holding corn-ears (RIC 623a; BMC 992), scarce, about VF £230


RM4170 Hadrian (AD 117-138), ¿ Denarius, 117, laureate, draped and


TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P, PA-X, Pax standing left, holding branch and

cornucopia (RIC 7c; C. 1013), scarce early issue, toned, good VF £200

RM4175 Faustina Jnr, wife of Marcus Aurelius, ¿ Denarius, struck under

Antoninus Pius, draped bust right, her hair waved and coiled on back of

head and bound with band of pearls, FAVSTINAE AVG PII AVG FIL, rev. PVDICITIA,

Pudicitia standing left, drawing veil and raising fold of skirt (RIC 507; C.

176), a charming portrait, minor flan crack, toned, EF £185

RM4171 Hadrian (AD 117-138), Æ As, laureate head right, drapery on far

shoulder, HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, rev. COS III, S – C, Minerva walking right,

brandishing spear and holding shield (RIC 664; BMC 1337), dark brown

patina, almost EF £320

RM4176 Septimius Severus (AD 193-211), ¿ Denarius, laureate head right,

SEVERVS PIVS AVG, rev. COS III P P, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and

palm-branch (RIC 526; C. 102), EF £100

RM4177 Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus, ¿ Denarius, draped bust

right, IVLIA AVGVSTA, rev. PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, right hand on breast,

left elbow on throne (RIC 576; C. 168), toned, EF £130

RM4172 Hadrian (AD 117-138), Æ As, 125-128, laureate head right, drapery

on far shoulder, HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, rev. COS [III], S C, galley left, with rowers, a

vexillum at prow, and arched cabin at stern (RIC 674 var; BMC 1345 note =

C. 449), small spots of verdigris, about EF £400

RM4178 Macrinus (AD 217-218), ¿ Denarius, laureate, draped and cuirassed


standing facing, head left, holding long caduceus and cornucopia (RIC 60;

C. 15), toned, almost EF £175

RM4173 Hadrian (AD 117-138), Æ Dupondius, laureate head right, HADRIANVS

AVGVSTVS, rev. CLEMENTIA AVG COS III P P, S – C, Clementia standing left, holding

patera and sceptre (RIC 714; BMC 1438 var.), smooth dark patina, almost

EF/good VF £320

RM4179 Julia Paula, 1st wife of Elagabalus, draped bust right, IVLIA PAVLA AVG,

rev. VENVS GENETRIX, Venus enthroned left, holding apple and sceptre (RIC 222;

C. 21), sharp, good EF £295

RM4174 Antoninus Pius (AD 138-161), Æ Sestertius, 143/4, laureate, draped

bust right, ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, rev. IMPERATOR II, S – C, Victory flying

right, holding trophy (RIC 717b; BMC 1610-1612 var.; C. 434), Antoninus

was awarded the title Imperator for the second time after his victories in Britain.

Most attractive dark green patina, broad flan, EF £3,200

RM4180 Julia Mamaea, mother of Severus Alexander, Æ Sestertius, diademed,

draped bust right, IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA, rev. VENERI FELICI, S – C, Venus standing

right, holding sceptre and Cupid (RIC 694; BMC 190), dark patina, EF/good

VF £300

MARCH 2010 25

RM4181 Maximinus (AD 235-238), ¿ Denarius, laureate, draped and

cuirassed bust right, MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, rev. FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing

facing, head left, holding standard in each hand (RIC 18A; C. 9), very broad

flan, both circles of dots fully within, about EF £100

RM4187 Aurelian (AD 270-275), Æ Antoninianus, Serdica, radiate, cuirassed

bust right, IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, rev. IOVI CONSER, Aurelian standing right, holding

short sceptre, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre, S in

ex. (RIC 260; C. 105), well centred on a broad flan, EF £100

RM4182 Gallienus (AD 253-268), Æ Antoninianus, radiate head right, GALLIENVS

AVG, rev. VBERITAS AVG, Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia, E

on right (RIC287 var.; Göbl 583; RSC 1010c), silvered, EF £50

RM4188 Tacitus (AD275-276), Æ Antoninianus, radiate, draped and cuirassed

bust right, IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, rev. PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left,

holding wand over globe, and cornucopia (RIC 92; C. 100), EF £65

RM4183 Postumus (AD259-268), Æ Antoninianus, Cologne, radiate, draped

and cuirassed bust right, IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, rev. IOVI VICTORI, Jupiter walking

left, head turned back, brandishing thunderbolt and holding sceptre

(RIC 311), an exceptional example, EF £65

RM4189 Florian (AD 276), Æ Antoninianus, Cyzicus (?), radiate, draped and


Victory standing right, holding palm-branch and raising wreath towards

head of Florian standing left before her in military dress, holding sceptre, S in

ex. (cf. RIC 114 for obv., but gold, and 116 for rev.), about EF £140

RM4184 Postumus (AD259-268), Æ Antoninianus, Cologne, radiate, draped

and cuirassed bust right, IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, rev. ORIENS AVG, Sol striding left,

right hand raised, left holding whip, P on left (RIC 316 note; RSC 213c), EF


RM4190 Probus (AD 276-282), Æ Antoninianus, Siscia, radiate, cuirassed bust

left, holding spear and shield, IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, rev. VIRTVS PROBI AVG,

Mars walking right, holding trophy and spear, XXIVI in ex. (RIC 816), scarce,

EF £175

RM4185 Victorinus (AD 268-270), Æ Antoninianus, Cologne, radiate, draped

and cuirassed bust right, IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, rev. INVICTVS, Sol advancing

left, right hand raised, left holding whip, star on left (RIC 114), EF £38

RM4191 Diocletian (AD 284-305), Æ Antoninianus, Cyzicus (?), radiate, draped

and cuirassed bust right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, rev. CONCORDIA MILITVM,

Diocletian standing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing on

right before him, holding sceptre, Γ in field, XXI. In ex. (cf. RIC 306), fully

silvered, EF £70

RM4186 Claudius II, Gothicus (AD 268-270), Æ Antoninianus, radiate,

cuirassed bust right, IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, rev. AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing

left, holding scales and cornucopia (RIC 14), EF/about EF £40

RM4192 Allectus (AD 293-296), Æ “Quinarius”, “C” mint, radiate, cuirassed

bust right, IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, rev. VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with mast, QC in ex.

(RIC 128), dark green patina, good VF/EF £160


RM4193 Constantine I (AD 307-337), Æ Follis, London, 310, laureate, draped

and cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, rev. SOLI INVI-CTO COMITI, Sol

standing left, right hand raised, left holding globe, T-F in field, PLN in ex.

(RIC 122), EF £75

RM4199 Valens (AD 364-378), ¡ Solidus (4.44g), Antioch, 364-7,

pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N VALENS PER F AVG,

rev. RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head right, holding

labarum and Victory on globe, cross on left, *ANTI* in ex. (RIC 2(d); C. 32),

graffito “B” in rev. field, light obv. scratch, almost EF/VF £695

RM4194 Constantine I (AD 307-337), Æ Follis, London, 320-321, helmeted,

cuirassed bust right, CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, rev. VIRTVS EXERCIT, two captives seated

on ground either side of standard inscribed VOT / XX, PLN in ex. (RIC 185),

EF/good VF £55

RM4200 The Vandals, Hilderic (AD 523-530), ¿ Half Siliqua (1.01g),

Carthage, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N IVSTINVS P A,

rev. FELIX [CARTA], figure of Carthage standing facing, holding ears of corn (?)

(BMC 2; MIB 9), dark “patina”, rare, about VF £200

RM4195 Constantine I (AD 307-337), Æ Follis, London, 323/4, helmeted,

cuirassed bust right, CONSTANTINVS AVG, rev. BEAT TRA-NQLITAS, altar inscribed VOT

/ IS / XX, surmounted by globe, three stars above, PLON in ex. (RIC 263), almost

EF £55

RM4201 Byzantine Empire, Maurice Tiberius (AD 582-602), ¿ Half Siliqua

(.93g), Carthage, facing bust, wearing plumed helmet with pendilia and

consular robes, holding mappa and cross on globe, D N MAVRIC TIb P P A,

rev. cross on three steps between alpha and omega (Sear 554; MIB - ), large

flan, with short crack, dark “patina”, good VF £220

Hammered Coins

HS4023 Early Anglo-Saxon, Sceat, 1.02g, Series Q, bird 1, rev. quadruped left,

pellets in field (N.138; S.836), on a broad flan, VF, scarce £450

RM4196 Constantine I (AD 307-337), Æ Half Follis (2.89g), Trier, c.310-313,

laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, rev. MARTI

CONSERVATORI, helmeted and cuirassed bust of Mars right (cf. RIC 885), rare

issue, brown patina, almost EF £150

HS4024 Kings of Mercia, Burgred (852-874), Penny, 1.11g, type D, moneyer

Cenred (N.426; S.941), nicely toned, EF £950

RM4197 Crispus (Caesar AD 317-326), Æ Follis, London, 323-4, bust left,

wearing plumed helmet and imperial robes, seen from the front, CRISPV-S NOBIL

C, rev. BEAT TRA-N.QLITAS, altar inscribed VOT / IS / XX, surmounted by globe, three

stars above (cf. RIC 275ff), apparently an unrecorded bust variety, more normally

seen on the “Roma” portrait on Urbs Roma issues, about EF £65

HS4025 Kings of Wessex, Ecgberht (802-39), Penny, 1.23g, non portrait type,

West Saxon mint, Winchester?, moneyer Eanwald, SAXONIORVM on three lines,

ECGBEORHT REX, rev. cross EANPALD MOIETA (BMC XX; N.590; S.1041), ragged

edge and some what bent in the ground otherwise VF and extremely rare £1,950

RM4198 Crispus (Caesar AD 317-326), Æ Follis, Arelate, 322, laureate head

right, CRISPVS NOB CAES, rev. CAESARVM NOSTRORVM round wreath containing

VOT / X, T, star in crescent, and A in ex. (cf. RIC 244 and 247), mintmark not

noted for VOT X , EF £50

HS4026 Aethelred II (978-1016), Penny, 1.39g, long cross type, Exeter,

Wynsige, rev. PYNSIGE MΩO EAXE (Hild. 602/4; N.774; S.1151), peck marked on

reverse, otherwise good VF with a strong portrait £425

MARCH 2010 27

HS4027 Cnut (1016-35), Penny, 1.13g, Short cross type, Thetford, Wineman,

rev. PINEMAN ON DIOD (N.790; S.1159), light tone, almost EF £350

HS4032 Edward I, Penny, 1.31g, Berwick-on-Tweed, Blunt class IV, local dies

(N.1078a; S.1415), struck off centre, toned, good VF £100

HS4028 Edward the Confessor (1042-66), Penny, 1.24g, Hammer cross type,

Wilton, Saepine, rev. SÆPINE ON PILTV (N.828; S.1182), unusual portrait with

obverse legend commencing at seven o’clock, light tone, good VF, very rare £900

HS4033 Edward III (1327-77), Penny, 1.11g, pre-treaty period, series G, London,

annulet below bust (N.1205; S.1589), toned, good VF £125

HS4034 Henry V (1413-22), Groat, 3.84g, class C, normal bust, mullet on right

shoulder (N.1387; S.1765), full round coin, toned, bold VF £475

HS4035 Henry V, Halfpenny, 0.44g, class F, London, annulet and trefoil by

crown (N.1411; S.1796), ghosting of reverse on obverse otherwise EF £175


HS4029 Henry I (1100-35), Penny, 1.35g, Large profile/cross and annulets type,

London, Eadwine, rev. EDPINE: ON: LVNDE (BMC type 8, N.864; S.1269), edge cut

as normal with this issue, good VF with an excellent portrait and extremely rare


A previously unrecorded moneyer for this type at London

HS4036 Henry VI (1422-61), Groat, 3.60g, Leaf-trefoil issue, London, leaf on

breast, m.m. cross fleury / plain cross (N.1484; S.1897), good VF £250

HS4030 Edward I (1272-1307), Penny, London, class 8 (N.1034/1; S.1405),

toned, lovely portrait, a good VF £125

HS4037 Henry VI, Salut d’Or, 3.36g, second type, Rouen, the Annunciation,

pellet stops, rev. cross dividing lis and lion passant, mullet stops, pellet in

annulet under last letter of legend both sides, m.m. lion passant (Elias 270c),

about EF £1,950

HS4031 Edward I, Penny, 1.27g, London, class 4a (N.1023; S.1394), toned,

bold VF £75

HS4038 Edward IV (first reign, 1461-70), Groat, 3.09g, Light coinage, class VII,

London, quatrefoils at neck, fleurs on cusps, m.m. crown (N.1570; S.2000),

toned, nearly EF £225


HS4039 Edward IV (second reign, 1471-83), Angel, 5.08g, class XVI, London,

m.m. cross and four pellets (N.1626; S.2091), reddish tone, bold VF £2,200

HS4044 Henry VIII, Groat, 2.62g, Second coinage, London, Laker bust A

Lombardic lettering both sides, saltires in cross ends, m.m. rose (N.1797;

S.2337C), small flaw by nose, good detail, VF, scarce £450

HS4040 Henry VII (1485-1509), Angel, 5.19g, class V, m.m. pheon (N.1698;

S.2187), a full coin, slight weakness in centre otherwise better than VF £1,950

HS4045 Henry VIII, Halfgroat, 1.26g, Second coinage, Canterbury, Archbishop

Warham, WA by shield, uncertain m.m. (N.1802; S.2343), attractive portrait,

bold VF £200

HS4041 Henry VII, Groat, 3.08g, Tentative issue, reads HENRIC VII, m.m. cross

crosslet (N.1743; S.2254), weak in parts, otherwise toned VF £650

Ex Ivan Buck, lot 375

HS4046 Henry VIII, posthumous coinage, Groat, 2.39g, Southwark, bust 6,

roses in cross ends, m.m. -/E (N.1872; S.2404), weak in part otherwise good

metal with an excellent portrait, VF £425

HS4042 Henry VIII (1509-47), Crown of the Double Dose, 3.73g, Second

coinage, hK [Henry and Katherine of Aragon] both sides, m.m. lis (N.1788;

S.2274), struck from worn dies, otherwise good VF £1,950

HS4047 Mary (1553-54), Angel, 5.01g, class I, annulet stops, reads REGIN, m.m.

pomegranate (Schneider 713; N.1958; S.2490), once cleaned, otherwise VF

and rare £4,250

HS4048 Philip and Mary (1554-58), Sixpence, 2.85g, 1554, full titles (N.1970;

S.2505), minor edge splits and marks, strong portraits, good VF or better £2,250

HS4043 Henry VIII, Sovereign, 12.06g, Third coinage, type 2, Southwark, m.m.

E/S (Schneider-; N.1825; S.2291), double struck in legends, good portrait, bold

VF and rare £13,500

HS4049 Elizabeth I (1558-1603), Groat, 2.03g, second issue, bust 1F, m.m.

cross crosslet (N.1986; S.2556), excellent portrait, about EF and rare thus £400

MARCH 2010 29

HS4050 Elizabeth I, Shilling, 6.09g, sixth issue, m.m. hand (N.2014; S.2577),

pleasing VF £400

HS4054 James I, Shilling, 5.70g, Third coinage, sixth bust, m.m. lis (N.2124;

S.2668), toned, VF £300

HS4051 Elizabeth I, Sixpence, 3.09g, 1592, sixth issue, bust 6C, m.m. tun

(N.2015; S.2578B), toned, good VF £300

HS4055 James I, Halfgroat, 1.04g, Third coinage, m.m. thistle (N.2127;

S.2671), toned, almost EF and rare thus £140

HS4052 Elizabeth I, milled coinage, Shilling, 5.94g, small size, m.m. star

(N.2023; S.2592), lightly toned, nearly very fine £750

HS4056 Charles I (1625-49), Tower, Halfcrown, 14.29g, type 1a2, first

horseman, no ground line, m.m. lis (Brooker 281/278; N.2201; S.2764),

slight metal stress on reverse, otherwise toned, almost EF / good VF with an

impressive provenance £1,850

Ex Brice, Webb and Lingford collections

HS4053 James I (1603-25), ‘fine work’ Laurel, 8.88g, Third coinage, first large

bust, reversed Ns in reverse legend, m.m. spur rowel (Schnieder -; N -;

cf. S.2637), a piece of fine work, perfectly centred on a full flan, nearly EF and

excessively rare £27,500

Ex Christies, 28 April 1987, lot 146

We are not aware of any other specimen of a Fine Work Laurel to have appeared on the market.

HS4057 Charles I, Tower, Shilling, 5.99g, group B, type 1b2, second bust, rev.

plume above shield, no cross fourchée, m.m. castle (Brooker 421/417;

N.2217; S.2785), light tone, bold VF, rare £850

HS4058 Charles I, Tower, Penny, 0.53g, group D, type 3.2, no CR by shield, no

inner circles, m.m. pellets (N.2268; S.2845), toned, good VF, excellent portrait



HS4059 Charles I, Briot’s second milled issue, Sixpence, 2.90g, m.m. anchor

and mullet / anchor (N.2306; S.2860), toned with some underlying brilliance,

good VF £350

HS4060 Charles I, Aberystwyth, Groat, 2.04g, large bust with armour, m.m.

book, (N.2337; S.2892), toned, almost EF £375

The Bobly Collection of Siege Coins

of the English Civil War

Bobly’s interest in siege pieces started in 1962 with the purchase of two Newark

Shillings. Over the past five decades he has amassed an impressive run of this

difficult series including the extremely rare three shilling piece of Carlisle,

examples of all the Newark issues, the four types struck at Pontefract; and copies

of extremely rare coins of Colchester and Scarborough. Bobly developed a

particular fascination with coins struck on flans showing the original plate

gilding and pattern and the collection contain a high proportion of these

interesting pieces.


Brooker – The John G. Brooker Collection, SCBI 33

Hird – The Late Alderman Horace Hird, Glendining and Co. in association

with Spink and Son, 6 March 1974, lots 243 - 284

Nelson – P. Nelson, ‘The Obsidional money of the Great Rebellion, 1642 –

1649’, BNJ 1905, pp. 291 – 359

For further reading on the various sieges see:

Tullie, Isaac ‘A Narriative of the Siege of Carlisle’ republished Michael Moon

Whitehaven, 1988

The Royal Commission for Historical Monuments ‘Newark on Trent, The Civil

War Siegeworks’ HMSO, 1964

Clarke, D. T. (compiled) ‘The Siege of Colchester 1648’ Colchester Borough

Council, 1975

Holmes, Richard H. ‘The Sieges of Pontefract Castle’ Pontefract, 1887

HS4061 Charles I, Aberystwyth, Threepence, 1.47g, small bust, plume 2 before,

rev. plume 1 above shield, m.m. book (N.2340; S.2894), toned, almost EF


HS4062 Charles I, Bridgnorth on Severn, Groat, 1.80g, 1646, m.m. plume

(N.2525; S.3021), toned, VF £575

HB01 Carlisle besieged (October 1644, surrendered 25 June 1645),

Three Shillings, 14.82g, 1645, crowned CR, rosette either side, value below,

rev. OBS CARL 1645 on two lines (Nelson 2, fig. 5; Brooker 1218 – this coin;

N.2634; S.3136), small old scratch on obverse, otherwise toned, good Fine and

extremely rare with a superb provenance


Bought Spink 1987

Ex Bridgewater House (302) and Brooker collections

HS4063 Charles I, Farthing, 0.62g, Maltravers type 3, m.m. harp / billet

(N.2282; S.3199), EF £50

HB02 Carlisle besieged, Shilling, 1645, 4.83g, crowned CR, value below,

rev. OBS CARL 1645 on three lines, rosette above and below (Nelson 3, fig. 6;

Brooker 1220; N.2635; S.3138), toned, Fine, very rare £10,000

Bought Baldwin 1968

HS4064 The Commonwealth (1649-60), Halfcrown, 14.69g, 1651, m.m. sun

(ESC 426; N.2722; S.3215), nicely toned, a really good VF £1,500

MARCH 2010 31

HB03 Scarborough besieged (July 1644, surrendered 22 July 1645),

Two Shillings, type III, uniface, castle gateway with two turrets punched

twice, value below (Nelson fig. 9 [Beeston Castle]; Brooker -; cf. N.2652a;

S.3169), an electrotype copy, possibly by Robert Ready £750

Bought 1965

HB07 Newark besieged, Shilling, 5.81g, 1645, 2nd issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, richly jewelled band to crown, eleven pearls to left arch, ten

pearls to right, rev. OBS NEWARKE 1645 (Hird 254; Brooker 1224 rev. N.2640;

S.3142), toned, well centred, good VF, rare £2,250

Bought 1962

HB04 Scarborough besieged, One Shilling and Sixpence, type II, uniface, small

castle gateway, value below (Nelson fig. 22; Brooker -; cf. N.2650k; S.3162),

a British Museum electrotype copy by Robert Ready, marked RR on edge £750

Bought Baldwin 1970

Robert Ready (1811-1901) worked as a duplicator for the British Museum between 1859 and 1897. He

made a series of superb electrotypes of rare coins in the collection some of which were offered for sale to

the public.

HB08 Newark besieged, Ninepence, 4.57g, 1645, 2nd issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, plain jewelled band to crown, eleven pearls to left arch, nine

pearls to right, rev. OBS NEWARKE 1645 on three lines (Hird 260; Nelson type b;

Brooker 1226 obv.; N.2641; S.3145), double struck, otherwise on a flan showing

traces of original plate pattern, toned, bold VF, rare £1,850

Ex Gibbs collection, Schulman, 1960, lot 24;

SNC June 1972 item 6412

HB05 Charles I, Farthing, 0.52g, contemporary forgery of Richmond type 2,

manufactured from official punches, reads CARA, F for E in REX, m.m. coronet

(Peck 123; S.3183A), good fine, rare £175

Bought Seaby 1965

A group of these counterfeit farthings were found in the well at Scarborough Castle and it has been

suggested that they may have been issued during the siege. See Peck pp. 55-56

HB09 Newark besieged, Ninepence, 4.42g, 1645, 2nd issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, plain jewelled band to crown, eleven pearls to left arch, nine

pearls to right, rev. OBS NEWARKE 1645 on three lines (Hird 260; Nelson type b;

Brooker 1226 obv.; N.2641; S.3145), toned, Fine / Fair, very rare £750

Bought 1965

HB06 Newark besieged (several times 1645-6, surrendered 6 May 1646),

Shilling, 6.01g, 1645, 1st issue, crude flat crown, dividing CR, value below,

nine pearls to each arch of crown, rev. OBS NEWARKE 1645 on three lines

(Hird 249; Nelson type a, fig. 28; Brooker 1223; N.2639; S.3141), toned,

a good Fine, very rare £2,250

Bought Baldwin 1970

HB10 Newark besieged, Halfcrown, 14.45g, 1645, 3rd issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, rev. OBS: NEWARK 1645 on three lines (Hird 245; Nelson fig. 29;

Brooker 1221; N.2638; S.3140), usual die flaws on reverse, toned, good VF and

very rare £3,750

Bought 1966


HB11 Newark besieged, Shilling, 5.66g, 1645, 3rd issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, plain jewelled band to crown, ten pearls to left arch, eight pearls

to right, rev. OBS: NEWARK 1645 on three lines (Hird 250; Brooker -; N.2641;

S.3143), on a large flan, toned, VF, rare £1,500

Bought P. Finn, 1999

HB15 Newark besieged, Ninepence, 3.21g, 1646, 4th issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, richly jewelled band to crown, ten pearls to both arches,

rev. OBS: NEWARK 1646 on three lines (Hird 264; Nelson type b; Brooker 1227;

N.2641; S.3144), reverse shows traces of Royal Arms, toned, almost VF most

interesting and rare £2,250

Bought 1967

Charles I left Newark for Oxford on horseback at 11pm on the 3rd November 1645 the night before the

third siege certainly leaving his baggage train behind. This coin is possibly cut from the King’s own silver

with traces of his coat of arms showing on the flan.

HB12 Newark besieged, Ninepence, 4.30g, 1645, 3rd issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, plain jewelled band to crown, rev. OBS: NEWARK 1645 on three lines

(Hird 260 obv; Brooker 1226; N.2641; S.3144), toned, almost Fine, rare £850

Bought Spink 1968

HB16 Newark besieged, Ninepence, 3.02g, 1646, 4th issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, richly jewelled band to crown, ten pearls to both arches,

rev. OBS: NEWARK 1646 on three lines (Hird 264; Nelson type b; Brooker 1227;

N.2641; S.3144), struck on gilt plate showing traces of original pattern, pierced at

12 o’clock, almost VF / about Fine, interesting and rare £750

Bought Baldwin 1999

HB13 Newark besieged, Halfcrown, 15.02g, 1646, 4th issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, rev. OBS: NEWARK 1646 on three lines (Hird 246; Brooker 1222;

N.2638; S.3140A), well centred on a broad flan, toned, VF £2,000

Bought 1966

HB17 Newark besieged, Sixpence, 3.02g, 1646, 4th issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, rev. OBS: NEWARK 1646 on three lines (Hird 267; Brooker 1228;

N.2642; S.3146), slightly double struck on reverse, otherwise toned, good VF,

rare £1,950

Bought 1965, Ex Dyson-Perrins and K V Graham (lot 320) collections

HB14 Newark besieged, Shilling, 5.66g, 1646, 4th issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, richly jewelled band to crown, ten pearls to both arches,

rev. OBS: NEWARK 1646 on three lines (Hird 255; Nelson type b; Brooker 1225;

N.2640; S.3143), slight porosity to flan, VF £1,000

Bought 1962

HB18 Newark besieged, Sixpence, 2.84g, 1646, 4th issue, crown dividing CR,

value below, rev. OBS: NEWARK 1646 on three lines (Hird 267; Brooker 1228;

N.2642; S.3146), struck on gilt plate showing traces of original pattern, pierced at

6 o’clock, about VF, interesting and rare £800

Bought 2004, Ex P. Finn, list 14, item329

MARCH 2010 33

HB19 Colchester besieged (13 June 1648, surrendered 17 August 1648), Half

Unite or Double Crown, 1648, uniface, castle gateway dividing crowned CR,

OBS. COL., date and value below (Nelson fig. 37; Brooker ; N.2637; S.-), a high

quality cast from an electrotype £850

Bought 1974

HB23 Pontefract besieged, in the name of Charles II after the execution of

Charles I, Shilling, 4.36g, 1648, type 2, octagonal shaped flan, crown with

furred band, over HANC: DEVS: DEDIT, on two lines, date below, CAROL: II: D: G: MAG: B:

F: ET: H: REX, rev. castle gateway, flag dividing PC, OBS to left, cannon to right,

POST: MORTEM: PARTRIS: PRO: FILIO (Hird 282; Nelson type IV, fig. 50;

Brooker 1235; N.2649; S.3151), toned, good VF, rare £6,750

Bought B. Hearn 1965

Milled Silver

A superb collection of milled silver coins, many bought from

Spink over the past 25 years.


HB20 Pontefract besieged (seized for the King 2 June 1648, invested Autumn

1648, surrendered 22 March 1649), Shilling, 4.83g, 1648, type 1,

octagonal shaped flan, crown over large C·R, DVM: SPIRO: SPERO in thick lettering,

rev. castle gateway, OBS to left, PC above, hand with sword to right, date below

(Hird 273; Nelson type 1; Brooker 1231; N.2646; S.3148), toned, almost VF,

rare £4,500

MS8942 George III (1760-1820), Crown, 1818 LVIII (ESC 211; S.3787), some

minor contact marks, proof like fields, almost uncirculated £575

Spink, Auction 98, June 1993, lot 198

HB21 Pontefract besieged, Shilling, 14.95g, 1648, type 2, lozenge shaped flan,

large crown over smaller C·R, DVM: SPIRO: SPERO, rev. castle gateway, OBS to left,

value dividing PC to right, date below (Hird 276; Nelson type II;

Brooker 1233; N.2647; S.3149), toned, VF, very rare £5,250

Bought 1965, Ex Lord St. Oswald collection, lot 110

MS8943 George III, Crown, 1819 LIX (ESC 215; S.3787), good VF £100

HB22 Pontefract besieged, in the name of Charles II after the execution of

Charles I, Shilling, 4.31g, 1648, type1, octagonal shaped flan, large crown

over C·R, DVM: SPIRO: SPERO, rev. castle gateway, flag dividing PC, OBS to left,

cannon to right, CAROLVS: SECVИDVS: 1648 (Hird 279; Nelson type I;

Brooker 1234; N.2648; S.3150), toned, good Fine, pleasing and rare £3,500

Ex Gordon Hopkins collection, Baldwin sale 30, lot 287

MS8944 George III, Crown, 1819 LIX, no stops on edge (ESC 215A; S.3787),

toned, EF, rare £475

Bought Spink, March 1996


MS8945 George III, Crown, 1819 LX (ESC 216; S.3787), a couple of minor marks,

toned, EF £325

Bought Spink, October 1984

MS8950 Victoria, Crown, 1896 LX (ESC 311; S.3937), good EF £250

MS8946 George III, Crown, 1820 LX, 20 over 19 (ESC 220A; S.3787), scratches

on obverse, VF, rare £200

MS8951 George V (1910-36), Wreath Crown, 1929 (ESC 369; S.4036), lustrous,

almost as struck £475

MS8947 Victoria (1837-1901), Gothic Crown, 1847 UNDECIMO (ESC 288;

S.3883), edge knocks, uneven tone, VF £750

MS8952 George V, Wreath Crown, 1936 (ESC 381; S.4036), some very light

contact marks, good EF, rare £650

MS8948 Victoria, Crown, 1888, wide date (ESC 298; S.3921), EF, rare £550

MS8953 George VI (1936-52), “VIP” proof Crown, 1951 (ESC 393D; S.4111),

some very light surface marks, frosted design and brilliant field, about as struck,

very rare £750

MS8949 Victoria, proof Crown, 1893 LVI (ESC 304; S.3937), scratch behind

head, some light hairlines, therefore good EF £700

MS8954 Elizabeth II (1952 -), “VIP” proof Crown, 1960 (ESC 393M; S.4143),

some very light contact marks, otherwise with frosted design, highly polished field,

as struck £500

MARCH 2010 35

MS8955 Elizabeth II, “VIP” Specimen Churchill Crown, 1965 (ESC 393o;

S.4144), with “satin” finish, as struck and very rare £1,200


MS8960 William III (1694-1702), Halfcrown, 1698 DECIMO, first bust, modified

large shields (ESC 554; S.3494), flaw in front of face, light tone, EF £750

Glendining, February 1999, lot 43

MS8956 Victoria (1837-1901), Double Florin, 1887, Roman I in date (ESC 394;

S.3922), EF £50

MS8961 George II (1727-60), Halfcrown, 1741 D. QVARTO, young head, roses

(ESC 601; S.3693), well struck, toned, good EF £1,850

Bought Spink, March 1994

MS8957 Victoria, Double Florin, 1888, Arabic 1 in date (ESC 397; S.3923),

mark on reverse, EF £60


MS8962 George II, Halfcrown, 1746 LIMA, D. NONO, old head, plain (ESC 605;

S.3695A), toned, good EF £750

MS8958 Charles II (1660-85), Halfcrown, 1679 T. PRIMO, fourth bust, error

edge, inscribed “DECNS” (ESC 483; S.3367), toned, pleasing VF with a stronger

reverse, the error rarer than ESC indicates £950

SNC, December 2003, MS5665

MS8963 George II, Halfcrown, 1751 V. QVARTO, old head, plain (ESC 610;

S.3696), minor adjustment marks on face, toned, EF, rare £1,750

SNC, February 1990, 370

MS8959 William and Mary (1688-94), Halfcrown, 1689 PRIMO, first busts,

second shield, caul and interior frosted, no pearls (ESC 509; S.3435), a little

softly struck, light tone, EF £1,100

Bonhams, 6 March 2002, lot 231

MS8964 George III (1760-1820), Halfcrown, 1817, “bull” head (ESC 616;

S.3788), toned, about uncirculated £400

Bought Spink, November 1996


MS8965 George III, proof Halfcrown, 1817, “bull” head, edge, milled (ESC 617;

S.3788), some very light cabinet friction, otherwise toned, as struck, rare £2,500

Bonhams, Sale 10603, lot 1256

MS8970 George IV, Halfcrown, 1825, second head, third reverse (ESC 642;

S.3809), light tone, a really good EF £375

MS8966 George III, Halfcrown, 1817, “bull” head, E over R in DEF: (ESC -;

S.3788 var.), toned, about as struck, an unrecorded variety £950

Bonhams, Sale 10603, lot 1225

The E of DEF has been punched in twice over an R.

MS8971 William IV (1830-37), Halfcrown, 1834, WW in script (ESC 662;

S.3834), a few minor marks, rich tone, good EF £375

MS8967 George III, Halfcrown, 1819, small head (ESC 623; S.3789), toned,

almost EF £250

MS8972 Victoria (1837-1901), Halfcrown, 1840, young head type A3, WW

incuse (ESC 673; S.3887), toned, about EF, scarce £500

MS8968 George IV (1820-30), Halfcrown, 1821, first head, first reverse

(ESC 631; S.3807), EF £275

MS8973 Victoria, Halfcrown, 1842, young head type A4, no initials (ESC 675;

S.3888), toned, EF £500

MS8969 George IV, Halfcrown, 1824, first head, second reverse (ESC 636;

S.3808), light tone, almost EF £250

MS8974 Victoria, Halfcrown, 1874, young head type A5, no initials (ESC 692;

S.3889), lustrous, uncirculated £400

Bought Seaby Auction, 23 April 1986

MARCH 2010 37

MS8975 Victoria, Halfcrown, 1874, young head type A5, no initials (ESC 692;

S.3889), some lustre, about uncirculated £400

MS8980 George V (1910-36), Halfcrown, 1911 (ESC 757; S.4011), good EF £80

SNC, August 2008, MS3042

MS8976 Victoria, Halfcrown, 1887, Jubilee head (ESC 719; S.3924), toned,

uncirculated £65

SNC, December 1998, 7379

MS8981 George V, Halfcrown, 1917 (ESC 764; S.4011), good EF £70

MS8977 Victoria, Halfcrown, 1891, Jubilee head (ESC 724; S.3924), toned,

about uncirculated £140

MS8982 George V, Halfcrown, 1926, second coinage (ESC 773; S.4021A),

EF £60

MS8978 Victoria, Halfcrown, 1897, old head (ESC 731; S.3938), bag marks on

obverse, otherwise uncirculated, attractive matt tone £100

MS8983 George V, proof Halfcrown, 1927, fourth coinage (ESC 776; S.4037),

almost as struck £70

SNC, August 2001, MS2156

MS8984 Elizabeth II (1952 -), Halfcrown, 1954 (ESC 781I; S.4145),

uncirculated £35

Bonhams, Sale 31195, lot 326

MS8979 Edward VII (1901-10), Halfcrown, 1906 (ESC 751; S.3980), good EF




MS8985 Victoria (1837-1901), pattern Florin, 1848, “Godless” type A,

rev. cruciform shields, plain edge (ESC 886 R2; S.3890), some very light

hairlines, otherwise toned, as struck £1,200

MS8990 Victoria, Florin, 1853, “Gothic” type B1, no stop after date, reads BRIT:

(ESC 808; S.3891), dipped, EF £225

Glendining, 1 October 1997, lot 394

MS8986 Victoria, Florin, 1849, “Godless” type A, WW in full behind bust

(ESC 802; S.3890), pleasing, good EF £250

MS8991 Victoria, Florin, 1856, “Gothic” type B1, no stop after date, reads BRIT:

(ESC 813A; S.3891), softly struck in centre, otherwise toned, uncirculated £500

MS8987 Victoria, Florin, 1849, “Godless” type A, WW obliterated (ESC 802A;

S.3890), EF, rare £275

SNC, August 2002, MS3093

MS8992 Victoria, Florin, 1858, “Gothic” type B1, no stop after date, reads BRIT:

(ESC 816B; S.3891), good EF £350

MS8988 Victoria, Florin, 1852, “Gothic” type B1, reads BRIT: (ESC 806; S.3891),

light bag marks, almost uncirculated £375

MS8993 Victoria, Florin, 1862, “Gothic” type B1, reads BRIT. (ESC 820 R2;

S.3891), light bag marks, good EF and very rare £1,750

Bought Spink, June 1994

MS8989 Victoria, Florin, 1852, “Gothic” type B1, ii over i in date, reads BRIT:

(ESC 807A R2; S.3891), good EF and rare £375

Spink, Auction 4018, 6 October 2004, lot 798

MS8994 Victoria, Florin, 1865, “Gothic” type B2, reads BRIT:, no colon

after date, die number 16 (ESC 826; S.3892), attractively toned, good EF,

scarce £500

Bought Spink, November 1985

MARCH 2010 39

MS8995 Victoria, Florin, 1865, “Gothic” type B2, reads BRIT:, with colon after

date, die number 43 (ESC 827 R3; S.3892), toned, good EF, very rare £750

MS9000 Victoria, Florin, 1879, “Gothic” type B6, reads BRITT:, 48 arcs, with WW,

no die number (ESC 851; S.3897), almost EF £200

Bought Spink (5244)

MS8996 Victoria, Florin, 1868, “Gothic” type B3, reads BRITT:, 48 arcs, with WW,

die number 25 (ESC 833; S.3893), toned, good EF £475

Spink, Auction 140, 16 November 1999, lot 765

MS9001 Victoria, Florin, 1879, “Gothic” type B7, reads BRITT:, 38 arcs, without

WW (ESC 852; S.3898), good EF £350

Bought Spink, July 1984

MS8997 Victoria, Florin, 1874, “Gothic” type B3, reads BRITT:, 48 arcs, iv over

iii in date, die number 29 (ESC 843A R2; S.3893), cleaned, otherwise good VF

and very rare £250

SNC, June 1994, 4236

MS9002 Victoria, Florin, 1880, “Gothic” type B8, reads BRITT:, 34 arcs, without

WW (ESC 854; S.3900), hints of lustre, good EF £350

Spink, Auction 140, 16 November 1999, lot 765

MS8998 Victoria, Florin, 1877, “Gothic” type B5, reads BRITT:, 42 arcs, stop

after date, no WW, die number 25 (ESC 848; S.3895), good EF £375

MS9003 Victoria, Florin, 1881, “Gothic” type B8, reads BRITT:, 34 arcs, without

WW (ESC 856; S.3900), light bag marks, almost uncirculated £300

MS8999 Victoria, Florin, 1878, “Gothic” type B5, reads BRITT:, 42 arcs, die

number 19 (ESC 849; S.3895), bag marks, good EF £375

Spink, September 1991, lot 5087

MS9004 Victoria, Florin, 1886, “Gothic” type B8, reads BRITT:, 34 arcs, without

WW (ESC 863; S.3900), EF £225


MS9005 Victoria, Florin, 1887, “Gothic” type B9, reads BRITT:, 46 arcs, without

WW (ESC 866; S.3901), matt tone, pleasing EF, scarce £325

MS9011 Edward VII, Florin, 1903 (ESC 921; S.3981), good EF £200

MS9006 Victoria, Florin, 1887, Jubilee head (ESC 868; S.3925), about

uncirculated £40

MS9012 George V (1910-36), Florin, 1911 (ESC 929; S.4012), light tone, EF


MS9007 Victoria, proof Florin, 1887, Jubilee head (ESC 869; S.3925), most

attractively toned, about as struck £175

MS9013 George V, proof Florin, 1911 (ESC 930; S.4012), toned, almost as

struck £110

MS9008 Victoria, proof Florin, 1893, old head (ESC 877; S.3939), attractive

rainbow tone, as struck £225

Bought Spink, August 1994

MS9014 George V, Florin, 1926 (ESC 945; S.4022A), good EF £50

Bought Seaby, 9 August 1986, G256

MS9009 Victoria, Florin, 1897, old head (ESC 881; S.3939), EF £45

MS9015 George V, proof Florin, 1927 (ESC 947; S.4038), toned, almost as

struck £95

MS9010 Edward VII (1901-10), matt proof Florin, 1902 (ESC 920; S.3981),

about as struck £90

MS9016 George V, Florin, 1928 (ESC 948; S.4038), about uncirculated £25

SNC, August 2002, MS3170

MARCH 2010 41


MS9017 Charles II (1660-85), Shilling, 1663, first bust, inverted die axis

(ESC 1022; S.3371), about EF, attractively toned £1,100

Spink, Auction 1258, 5 October 2000, lot 545

MS9023 William III, Shilling, 1697, first bust (ESC 1091; S.3497), richly toned,

EF £375

MS9018 Charles II, Shilling, 1663, first bust, Scottish and Irish shields

transposed (ESC 1024 R3; S.3371), toned, almost VF and very rare £800

SNC, December 2003, MS5667

MS9024 William III, Shilling, 1700, fifth bust (ESC 1121; S.3516), dark tone,

EF £350

MS9019 Charles II, Shilling, 1684, fourth bust (ESC 1066; S.3381), attractively

toned, nearly extremely fine and very pleasing £1,650

Spink, Auction 4018, 6 October 2004, lot 594

MS9025 William III, Shilling, 1700, fifth bust, no stops on reverse (ESC 1122;

S.3516), EF £450

Bought Spink, 10 April 1994

MS9020 James II (1685-88), Shilling, 1687, 7 over 6 and with G of MAG over A

(ESC 1072A; S.3410), with light adjustment marks otherwise EF with a clear

over date and overstrike in legend, very rare in this grade £2,500

SNC, December 2003, MS5668

MS9026 Anne, before Union, Shilling, 1702 VIGO, first bust (ESC 1130;

S.3585), toned with some underlying brilliance, EF £800

Ex Grantley collection, September 1944

MS9021 William and Mary (1688-94), Shilling, 1693, 9 over 0 (ESC 1076A R4;

S.3437), about VF and rare £450

SNC, December 2000, MS0090

MS9027 Anne, after Union, Shilling, 1708, third bust, plain (ESC 1147;

S.3610), lightly hay marked, EF £350

Bought Spink (4765)

MS9022 William III (1694-1702), Shilling, 1696 C, first bust C below, Chester

mint, R over V in GRA (ESC 1082A R4; S.3499), VF and very rare £475

SNC, June 2000, 2385

MS9028 Anne, after Union, Shilling, 1713, 3 over 2, fourth bust, roses and

plumes (ESC 1160; S.3617), graffiti on neck otherwise toned with underlying

brilliance, EF £500


MS9029 George I (1714-27), Shilling, 1715, first bust, roses and plumes (ESC

1162; S.3645), light tone, about EF £650

Bought Spink, March 1986

MS9035 George II, Shilling, 1741, 41 over 39, young head, roses (ESC 1202A

R5; S.3701), a really good VF and rare £500

SNC, February 2000, 228

MS9030 George I, Shilling, 1723 SSC, first bust (ESC 1176; S.3647), light tone,

EF £225

MS9036 George II, Shilling, 1745 LIMA, old head, plain (ESC 1205; S.3703),

dappled tone, good EF £550

Glendining, 30 April 1999, lot 334

MS9031 George I, Shilling, 1723 SSC, first bust, Arms of France at date

(ESC 1177 R2; S.3647), toned, good VF, rare £650

Ex Martin Hughes collection

Spink, Auction 139, 16 November 1999, lot 343

MS9037 George II, Shilling, 1750, wide 0 in date, 5 over 4, old head, plain

(ESC 1211; S.3704), lightly toned, EF and rare £525

Ex Martin Hughes collection

SNC, February 2000, 231

MS9032 George II (1727-60), Shilling, 1727, young head, roses and plumes

(ESC 1190; S.3698), light tone, EF £700

MS9038 George II, Shilling, 1758, old head, plain (ESC 1213; S.3704), toned,

EF £150

MS9033 George II, Shilling, 1728, young head, plain (ESC 1191; S.3700), some

hay marks, toned, almost EF, rare £950

MS9039 George III (1760-1820), “Northumberland “Shilling, 1763, young

head (ESC 1214; S.3742), richly toned, good EF £1,450

MS9034 George II, Shilling, 1739, young head, roses (ESC 1201; S.3701), light

tone, good VF, reverse better £325

MS9040 George III, Shilling, 1787, second head, without semée of hearts,

7 strings to harp (ESC 1216; S.3743), light haymarks, toned, EF £100

MARCH 2010 43

MS9041 George III, Shilling, 1816, laureate head (ESC 1228; S.3790), brilliance

on obverse, good EF £75

MS9047 George IV, Shilling, 1826, 6 over 2 or 8 (?), second head, third reverse

(cf. ESC 1257A R3; S.3812), dark tone, VF, a very unusual date £250

SNC, August 2002, MS3238

MS9042 George III, Shilling, 1817, laureate head, E over R in GEOR (ESC 1232A

R3; S.3790), toned, about uncirculated, very rare £750

MS9048 William IV (1830-37), Shilling, 1836 (ESC 1273; S.3835), toned, good

EF £250

MS9043 George III, Shilling, 1820, laureate head, I of HONI over S (ESC 1236A

R3; S.3790), uncirculated and very rare £450

SNC, December 1997, 5901

MS9049 Victoria (1837-1901), Shilling, 1839, first young head type A1, WW

(ESC 1280; S.3902), good EF £250

MS9044 George IV, Shilling, 1825, first head, second reverse (ESC 1253;

S.3811), toned, good EF £275

MS9050 Victoria, proof Shilling, 1839, young head type A3, no WW, plain edge

(ESC 1284; S.3904), most attractively toned, as struck £600

Bonhams, 6 March 2002, lot 338

MS9045 George IV, proof Shilling, 1825, first head, second reverse (ESC 1253A

R4; S.3811), edge nick on reverse, slightly impaired, good EF, very rare £1,500

SNC, October 2003, MS5504A

MS9051 Victoria, Shilling, 1858, second 8 over 6, young head type A3, no WW

(ESC -; S.3904), toned good EF, very rare £375

SNC, December 1998, 7421

MS9046 George IV, Shilling, 1825, second head, third reverse (ESC 1254;

S.3812), toned, good EF £175

SNC, April 1999, 1578

MS9052 Victoria, Shilling, 1863, 3 over 1, young head type A3, no WW

(ESC 1311A R4; S.3904), almost EF, very rare £550


MS9053 Victoria, Shilling, 1866, young head type A4, die number 50

(ESC 1314; S.3905), light surface marks, good EF £175

MS9059 Victoria, Shilling, 1894, old head (ESC 1363; S.3940), about

uncirculated £90

MS9054 Victoria, Shilling, 1879, young head type A7, no die number

(ESC 1334; S.3907), almost EF £75

Bought Spink

MS9060 Edward VII (1901-10), matt proof Shilling, 1902 (ESC 1411; S.3982),

reverse struck off centre, good EF, curious £70

MS9055 Victoria, Shilling, 1887, Jubilee head (ESC 1351; S.3926), toned with

underlying brilliance, uncirculated £35

SNC, December 1998, 7428

MS9061 Edward VII, Shilling, 1903 (ESC 1412; S.3982), a really good EF £250

MS9056 Victoria, Shilling, 1889, large Jubilee head (ESC 1355; S.3927), much

brilliance, good EF £50

MS9062 George V (1910-36), first coinage, proof Shilling, 1911 (ESC 1421;

S.4013), attractively toned, as struck £100

MS9057 Victoria, proof Shilling, 1889, large Jubilee head (ESC 1356 R3;

S.3927), some light surface marks in fields, toned, almost as struck, very

rare £1,350

SNC, November 1994, 7358

MS9063 George V, first coinage, Shilling, 1913 (ESC 1423; S.4013), almost

uncirculated £100

Bought Spink (4244)

MS9064 George V, second coinage, Shilling, 1923 (ESC 1433; S.4023A),

uncirculated £50

SNC, August 2002, MS3319

MS9058 Victoria, Shilling, 1893, old head, small lettering (ESC 1361A;

S.3940), toned, good EF £60

Bought Spink, February 1996

MARCH 2010 45

MS9065 George V, second coinage, proof or trial Shilling, 1923, struck in nickel

(ESC 1433A R4; S.4023A), uncirculated and extremely rare £1,250

SNC, October 1993, 7238

MS9071 James II, Sixpence, 1687, later shields (ESC 1526B; S.3413), some light

haymarks on reverse, toned, almost EF, scarce £750

SNC, April 2001, MS0857

MS9072 William and Mary (1688-94), Sixpence, 1693 (ESC 1529; S.3438),

toned, pleasing VF £450

MS9066 George V, third coinage, Shilling, 1927, modified effigy (ESC 1438;

S.4033), uncirculated £60

SNC, February 2001, MS5075

MS9073 William III (1694-1702), Sixpence, 1696, first bust, early harp, large

crowns (ESC 1533; S.3520), toned, good EF £250

Bought Spink

MS9067 George V, fourth coinage, Shilling, 1927 (ESC 1439; S.4039), good

EF £25


MS9074 William III, Sixpence, 1696 y, York, first bust, early harp, large crowns

(ESC 1539; S.3525), light haymarks, toned, EF £250

MS9068 Charles II (1660-85), Sixpence, 1674 (ESC 1512; S.3382), toned,

EF £700

SNC, July 1993, 4433

MS9069 Charles II, Sixpence, 1677 (ESC 1516; S.3382), almost EF £500

S & B, 1 June 2001, G181

MS9075 William III, Sixpence, 1696 Y, York, first bust, early harp, no stops on

obverse, large crowns (ESC 1541; S.3526), light adjustment marks on top of

bust, toned, EF, rare £375

Bought Spink

MS9070 James II (1685-88), Sixpence, 1686, early shields (ESC 1525; S.3412),

lightly hay marked, toned, good EF, scarce £1,000

Glendining, 30 April 1999, lot 263

MS9076 William III, Sixpence, 1697, first bust, later harp, small crowns, Arms

of France and Ireland transposed (ESC 1552B R5; S.3531), bold fine,

extremely rare £450


MS9077 William III, Sixpence, 1697 B, Bristol, first bust, later harp, small

crowns (ESC 1555; S.3552), toned, EF £275

SNC, April 1999, 1233

MS9083 William III, Sixpence, 1697 C, Chester, third bust, later harp, small

crowns (ESC 1570; S.3543), toned, good VF £225

Bought Spink (3738)

MS9078 William III, Sixpence, 1697 N, Norwich, first bust, later harp, small

crowns (ESC 1561; S.3535), toned, about EF £325

SNC, May 1991, 2771

MS9084 William III, Sixpence, 1698, third bust, later harp, large crowns,

plumes (ESC 1575; S.3546), toned, EF, rare £500

SNC, November 1994, 7394

MS9079 William III, Sixpence, 1697, third bust, later harp, large crowns (ESC

1566; S.3538), toned, EF £225

MS9085 William III, Sixpence, 1699, third bust, later harp, large crowns, plain

(ESC 1576; S.3538), toned, about EF, rare £500

SNC, June 1991, 2775

MS9080 William III, Sixpence, 1697, third bust, inverted A in GVLIELMVS, later

harp, large crowns (ESC 1566B R4; S.3538), the inverted A probably a die flaw,

VF £90

MS9086 William III, Sixpence, 1699, third bust, later harp, large crowns,

plumes (ESC 1577; S.3546), toned, EF, rare £500

SNC, December 1990, 7765

MS9081 William III, Sixpence, 1697, third bust, later harp, small crowns

(ESC 1567; S.3542), EF £250

SNC, August 2001, 2010

MS9087 William III, Sixpence, 1700, third bust, later harp, large crowns, plain

(ESC 1579; S.3538), EF £250

Bought Spink (4220)

MS9082 William III, Sixpence, 1697 B, Bristol, third bust, D over M in DEI (?), R

over F in GRA (?), later harp, large crowns (ESC 1568; S.3539), the over

punched letters probably the result of a flawed rusty die, EF £250

SNC, December 2003, 5674

MS9088 Anne (1702-14), before Union, Sixpence, 1703 VIGO (ESC 1582;

S.3590), small scratch on reverse, toned, almost EF £275

Bought Spink, April 1993

MARCH 2010 47

MS9089 Anne, before Union, Sixpence, 1705, late shields, plumes (ESC 1584A;

S.3593), toned, EF £475

Ex Lockett, Jackson Kent and Pearce collections

MS9095 George I, Sixpence, 1723 SSC, small letters (ESC 1600; S.3652), light

tone, about EF £225

Spink, 15 April 2004, lot 273

MS9090 Anne, after Union, Sixpence, 1707, plain (ESC 1587; S.3619), toned,

good VF £200

Seaby, 1981

MS9096 George I, Sixpence, 1726, small roses and plumes (ESC 1602; S.3653),

good VF / EF, rare £375

Ex Hamilton, Pegg, Seaby

MS9091 Anne, after Union, Sixpence, 1707, plumes (ESC 1590; S.3623), lightly

hay marked, soft in centre, otherwise toned, EF £350

MS9097 George II, Sixpence, 1728, young head, roses and plumes (ESC 1606;

S.3707), toned, good EF £450

SNC, June 1990, 3556

MS9092 Anne, after Union, Sixpence, 1710, roses and plumes (ESC 1595;

S.3624), weak in parts, toned, nearly EF, scarce £400

Ex Lord Hamilton collection

MS9098 George II, Sixpence, 1739, young head, roses (ESC 1612; S.3708), light

tone, nearly EF £300

Baldwin, Auction 5, lot 410

MS9093 Anne, after Union, Sixpence, 1711, plain, large lis (ESC 1596A;

S.3619), toned, some brilliance, EF £250

SNC, April 2000, 1608

MS9099 George II, Sixpence, 1739, young head, roses, O in GEORGIVS over R (ESC

1612A R3; S.3708), light tone, nearly EF, rare £350

SNC, September 1995, 5070

MS9094 George I (1714-27), Sixpence, 1717, roses and plumes (ESC 1597;

S.3651), attractive light tone, some brilliance, EF, rare £600

SNC, July 1993, 4438

MS9100 George II, Sixpence, 1743, old head, roses (ESC 1614; S.3709), toned,

EF £275


MS9101 George II, Sixpence, 1745, 5 over 3, old head, roses (ESC 1616 R2;

S.3709), dark tone, EF, rare £300

Ex Martin Hughes collection

Spink, Auction 139, lot 401

MS9108 George IV, proof Sixpence, 1821, first head, first reverse (ESC 1655 R2;

S.3813), some very light cabinet friction, otherwise toned, almost as struck £500

Bought Spink

MS9102 George II, Sixpence, 1745 LIMA, old head, plain (ESC 1617; S.3710),

light tone, nearly EF £200

MS9109 George IV, Sixpence, 1821, first head, first reverse, reads BBITANNIAR

(ESC 1656 R3; S.3813), some light surface marks, good EF, very rare £800

SNC, November 1998, 6986

MS9103 George II, Sixpence, 1758, 8 over 7, old head, plain (ESC 1624;

S.3711), nearly EF £90

SNC, December 1998, 7446

MS9110 George IV, Sixpence, 1828, second head, third reverse (ESC 1665;

S.3815), softly struck in centre, EF £150

Bought Spink

MS9104 George III (1760-1820), Sixpence, 1787, without semée of hearts (ESC

1626; S.3748), toned, EF £60

MS9111 William IV (1830-37), proof Sixpence, 1831, plain edge, inverted die

axis (ESC 1671 R2; S.3836), toned, almost as struck £300

MS9105 George III, new coinage, Sixpence, 1816 (ESC 1630; S.3791), about

uncirculated £90

SNC, September 1998, 5821

MS9112 William IV, Sixpence, 1834, large date (ESC 1674A; S.3836), EF £125

SNC, August 2002, MS3375

MS9106 George III, Sixpence, 1820, inverted 1 in date (ESC 1639A R4;

S.3791), good EF, rare £475

Glendining, Sale 30891, 30 November 2000, lot 175

MS9113 Victoria (1837-1901), Sixpence, 1844, small 44, first young head type

A1 (ESC 1690; S.3908), mark on neck, otherwise about uncirculated £175

SNC, June 1993, 3568

MS9107 George IV (1820-30), Sixpence, 1821, first head, first reverse

(ESC 1654; S.3813), light tone, good EF £175

SNC, November 1995, 6467

MARCH 2010 49

MS9114 Victoria, Sixpence, 1848, 8 over 7, first young head type A1

(ESC 1693B R3; S.3908), die flaws, good EF, very rare £500

MS9121 Victoria, Sixpence, 1887, Jubilee head, “withdrawn” type (ESC 1752;

S.3928), good EF £15

SNC, April 1998, 2106

MS9115 Victoria, Sixpence, 1850, 5 over 3, first young head type A1

(ESC 1695A R2; S.3908), light tone, EF, rare £200

Bought Spink (2602)

MS9122 Victoria, Sixpence, 1887, Jubilee head, “withdrawn” type, JEB on

truncation (ESC 1752B R3; S.3928), from a half-sovereign obverse die, EF and

rare £125

SNC, December 1997, 5965

MS9116 Victoria, Sixpence, 1859, first young head type A1 (ESC 1708;

S.3908), good EF £125

MS9123 Victoria, proof Sixpence, 1887, Jubilee head, “withdrawn” type

(ESC 1753; S.3928), hairlines, good EF £80

MS9117 Victoria, Sixpence, 1859, 9 over 8, first young head type A1

(ESC 1708A; S.3908), toned, nearly EF £60

MS9124 Victoria, Sixpence, 1887, Jubilee head (ESC 1754; S.3929), about

uncirculated £25

MS9118 Victoria, Sixpence, 1872, second young head type A3, die number 71

(ESC 1726; S.3910), surface marks, nearly EF £50

MS9125 Victoria, Sixpence, 1893, old head (ESC 1762; S.3941), toned, good EF


MS9119 Victoria, Sixpence, 1878, second young head type A3, D over B: reads

DRITANNIAR, die number 6 (ESC 1735 R3; S.3910), light bag marks, a really

good EF, very rare £850

Glendining, 1 October 1997, lot 436

MS9126 Edward VII (1901-10), matt proof Sixpence, 1902 (ESC 1786; S.3983),

good EF £55

MS9120 Victoria, Sixpence, 1881, third young head type A5 (ESC 1740;

S.3912), EF £50

Seaby, May 1981

MS9127 George V (1910-36), first coinage, Sixpence, 1911 (ESC 1795; S.4014),

light cabinet friction, uncirculated £35

SNC, February 2001, MS0597



MS9128 George V, first coinage, proof Sixpence, 1911 (ESC 1796; S.4014),

toned, as struck £75

SNC, August 2001, MS2282

MS9129 No lot

MS9136 William IV (1830-37), Groat, 1836 (ESC 1918; S.3837), good EF £50

MS9137 Victoria (1837-1901), Groat, 1855, young head (ESC 1953; S.3913),

about EF £30


MS9130 George V, second coinage, Sixpence, 1925, new rim (ESC 1812;

S.4025), good EF £25

SNC, February 2001, MS0613

MS9138 George III (1760-1820), Threepence, 1762, young head (ESC 2033;

S.3753), colourful tone, uncirculated £85

SNC, June 2003, MS5024

MS9131 George V, third coinage, Sixpence, 1927 (ESC 1815; S.4034),

uncirculated £35

SNC, February 2001, MS0616

MS9139 Victoria (1837-1901), Threepence, 1879, young head type A4

(ESC 2085; S.3914C), toned, good EF £50

Bought Spink

MS9132 George V, fourth coinage, proof Sixpence, 1927 (ESC 1816; S.4040),

cleaned, good EF £35

SNC, August 2002, MS2294

MS9140 Victoria, proof Threepence, 1887, Jubilee head (ESC 2097; S.3931),

toned, as struck £75

Bought Spink

MS9133 George V, fourth coinage, Sixpence, 1928 (ESC 1817; S.4040),

uncirculated £22

MS9141 Victoria, Threepence, 1893, Jubilee head (ESC 2103 R2; S.3931),

toned, almost EF, rare £125

MS9134 No lot

MS9142 Victoria, proof Threepence, 1893, old head (ESC 2105; S.3942), toned,

as struck £85

Bought Spink

MS9135 George VI (1936-52), proof Sixpence, 1937 (ESC 1827; S.4084),

as struck £10

MS9143 Victoria, Threepence, 1901, old head (ESC 2113; S.3942), good EF £25

MARCH 2010 51

Irish Coins

IR374 Hiberno-Norse, Phase II, Penny, 1.02g, Group A.3/h, blundered legends,

as Long cross type, cross pattée on neck, cross pommée behind head, rev. no

pellets in angles (DF 23; S.6125), good VF £750

IR368 Hiberno-Norse, Phase I, Penny, 1.53g, Group B.2/a, in name of

Aethelred II, as Long cross type of Aethelred II, Dublin mint signature,


S.6106), peck marked, otherwise good VF, rare £2,000

IR375 Hiberno-Norse, Phase II, Penny, 1.25g, Group A.3/c, blundered legends,

as Long cross type, inverted crozier behind neck, rev. pellets in angles (SCBI

BM, 74; DF 23; S.6125A), most attractively toned, almost EF, rare £1,200

Bought Baldwin 2004, Ex VM Brand collection

IR369 Hiberno-Norse, Phase I, Penny, 1.05g, Group B.3/a, in name of Thymn,

as Long cross type of Aethelred II, Dublin mint signature, Feamien, ĐYMN

ROEX MNEGMI, rev. FÆMIEN MN·O ĐIEN (SCBI BM 29; DF 9; S.6109), heavily peck

marked, otherwise toned, nearly VF, very rare £1,500

IR376 Hiberno-Norse, Phase III, Penny, 0.93g, Group A/b, Long cross and

hands type, rev. large pellet in second quarter (SCBI BM, 96-7; DF 24;

S.6132), most attractively toned, EF, rare £750

Bought Baldwin 2004, Ex VM Brand collection

IR370 Hiberno-Norse, Phase I, Penny, 1.13g, Group D.1/b, in name of Sihtric,

as Last small cross type of Aethelred II, London mint signature, Dgdoan,

SIHTRC REX DYFLIM, rev. DGDO·ANO LVNDR (SCBI BM, 55; DF 19; S.6118), peck

marked, good Fine, very rare £1,500

Bought Baldwin 2006, ex Russian hoard

IR377 Hiberno-Norse, Phase IV, Penny, 0.82g, Scratched die issue, Group A/b,

as Long cross type, pellets in front, on and behind bust, rev. hand in one

angle, and pellets in others with cross scratched in one (SCBI Ulster, 313;

DF 25; S.6134), toned, good VF, rare £1,000

IR371 Hiberno-Norse, Phase I, Penny, 0.81g, Group E.1/a, with blundered

name of Cnut, as Quatrefoil type of Cnut, blundered mint signature, NVRTEIX

ANGLOBYH, rev. HEHEHHIOHEH (Blackburn BNJ 1996, IS21 obv. / HN 3 + 9 rev.;

cf. DF 22; cf. S.121A), pierced, minor edge loss, otherwise toned, good VF and

extremely rare £2,000

Baldwin sale 31, lot 152 (described as Scandinavian imitation)

A die duplicate for this piece in the Glenfaba Hoard - 105, discovered on the Isle of Man in 2003 confirms

this piece as a Hiberno-Norse production from the mint at Dublin.

IR378 Hiberno-Norse, Phase IV, Penny, 1.06g, Scratched die issue, Group A/b,

as Long cross type, pellets in front, on and behind bust, rev. hand in one

angle, and pellets in other angles with cross scratched in one (DF 25;

S.6134), toned, bold VF, rare £800

Bonhams, 24 February 2004, lot 105

IR372 Hiberno-Norse, Phase II, Penny, 1.06g, Group A.1/a, in name of Sihtric,

as Long cross type, cross behind head, Dublin mint signature, Steng?, SIHTRC

REX DYFL, rev. pellets in angles, SEIIEII O DIILINR (DF 23; S.6122), toned, nearly

VF £750

Bonhams, 24 February 2004, lot 90

IR379 Hiberno-Norse, Phase V, Penny, 0.90g, Group A/b, crude bust, derived

from Long cross type, cross on neck, two pellets before face, pellet and wedge

behind head, rev. opposed anchor and annulet and pellets in angles (SCBI BM

157-161; DF 28; S.6138), toned, VF, rare £950

IR373 Hiberno-Norse, Phase II, Penny, 0.69g, Group A.3/e, blundered obverse

legend, as Long cross type, E on neck, pellet in annulet behind head,

blundered Worcester mint signature, Wulfric, rev. E in 4th angle, pellets in

others, PVLFRIC ON PIIHN MOIHI (SCBI BM 111; SCBI Ulster 115; DF 23;

S.6126 / 6123), toned, nearly EF very rare and interesting £2,250

The reverse of this coin is from a die which is imitative of a Phase I coin with a Worcester mint signature,

see Hildebrand 1603, and articles by Dolley and Butler and Dolley, SNC March 1961and February 1968

IR380 Hiberno-Norse, Phase V, Penny, 0.83g, Group A/i, crude bust derived

from Long cross type, rev. derived from Facing bust / small cross type of

Edward the Confessor with cross pattée with pellets around (cf. SCBI BM 219;

DF 28/29; S.6148), weakly struck in parts, otherwise toned, nearly VF, very rare


SNC February 2005, item IH0516, Ex Glendining, 24 January 1996, lot 74


IR381 Hiberno-Norse, Phase V, Penny, 0.78g, Group J/b, abstract ‘Ringerike’

style, rev. derived from Long cross type, with annulet, hand and pellets in

angles (SCBI BM 211-214; DF 30; S.6182), weakly struck in parts, otherwise

toned, nearly VF, very rare £1,250

Ex Mabbot collection, Schulman, 26-28 May 1970, lot 1137 and Spink sale 191 lot 209

SC0795 Alexander III, Penny, 1.46g, first coinage, type III, ‘Dun’, Walter,

rev. W[ALTE]R ONDVN(SCBI 35, 110 same dies; B 60a, fig 131A, same dies;

S.5043), struck off centre, weak in parts otherwise toned, about VF, scarce £275

IR382 Hiberno-Norse, Phase VI, Penny, 1.14g, Group A/a, crude bust derived

from Long cross type, crozier in front of bust, rev. opposed sceptres and pellets

in angles (SCBI BM 232-249; DF 32; S.6187), some ghosting, good Fine, rare,

very heavy for issue £600

Bought Baldwin 2003, Ex VM Brand collection

SC0796 Alexander III, Penny, 1.28g, first coinage, type III, Roxburgh, Adam,

rev. ADAM ON RO[KESB] (SCBI 35, 129-30; B 30, fig. 136, same dies; S.5043),

slightly crimped, toned, VF £225

SC0797 Alexander III, cut Halfpenny, 0.65g, first coinage, type III, Dun, Walter

(S.5043), toned, about VF £95

IR383 Hiberno-Norse, Phase VI, Penny, 0.40g, Group A/a, crude bust derived

from Long cross type, crozier in front of bust, rev. opposed sceptres and

trefoils in angles (SCBI BM 241; DF 32; S.6187), a little porous, otherwise dark

tone, about VF, rare £750

DNW 17 March 2004, lot 797

SC0798 Alexander III, Penny, 1.40g, second coinage, class Mb, REX SCOTORVM,

24 points to mullets (S.5052), toned, good VF £150

IR384 Hiberno-Norse, Phase VII, Double Bracteate, 0.83g, Group A/b,

crude bust derived from Long cross type, rev. long cross over quatrefoil

(SCBI BM 252; DF 33; S.6191), light tone, VF, very rare £2,000

SNC February 2005, item IH0162, Ex Chown collection, lot 1150

SC0799 John Baliol (1292-96), Penny, 1.46g, first ‘rough’ coinage, four mullets

of 6 points (B 1ff, fig. 210ff; S.5065), bold VF, good portrait £350

Scottish Coins

SC0800 John Baliol, Halfpenny, 0.63g, second coinage, mullets in two quarters

(B.1, Fig. 222; S.5074), weak on face otherwise, VF, toned, scarce £350

Ex Murdoch collection, 11 May 1903, lot 41

SC0792 Alexander III (1249-86), Penny, 1.25g, first coinage, type III, Aberdeen,

Ion, rev. ION ON ABER (S.5043), toned, VF £250

SC0801 Robert the Bruce (1306-29), Halfpenny, 0.55g, single pellet after GRA

(Holmes/Stewarby -D; cf. Burns 1, fig. 227; S.5077), attractive tone, good VF

with a handsome portrait, very rare £3,250

Ex G. C. Drabble, part II (1188); A Distinguished Collection of Scottish Coins and Medals, Spink sale 20

(118) and R. MacPherson (3976).

SC0793 Alexander III, Penny, 1.36g, first coinage, type III, Perth, Ion, rev. ION ON

PERTE: (S.5043), almost VF £175

SC0794 Alexander III, Penny, 1.30g, first coinage, type III, Aberdeen, Alisander,

rev. ALISAND ON A (S.5043), weak in parts, otherwise toned, bold VF £250

SC0802 David II (1329-71), Groat, 4.17g, second coinage, class A, Edinburgh,

tressure of 6 arcs, nothing in spandrels, crosslet stops, lis at end of legend,

reads COTOROM (SCBI 35, 374, same obv. die ; B 15, fig.262; S.5091), good VF


MARCH 2010 53

SC0803 David II, Groat, 4.31g, second coinage, class A4, Edinburgh, pellets in

spandrels (S.5094), full flan, toned, VF, rare £400

SC0809 David II, Halfgroat, 2.22g, second coinage, class A, Aberdeen, (cf. SCBI

35, 401; B 6, fig. 265; S.5112), VF and very rare £800

SC0804 David II, Groat, 4.16g, second coinage, class B, Edinburgh, (S.5095),

attractive good very fine £400

SC0810 Robert III (1390-1406), Groat, 2.47g, Heavy coinage, second issue,

Edinburgh, neat bust, trefoils at cusps, pellets and annulets in spandrels

(S.5167), edge split, nearly VF £250

SC0811 James I (1406-37), ¡ Demy, 3.07g, type II, saltire cross, lis either side,

within a fleured tressure of six arches each with a large open quatrefoil,

m.m. crown (B.8, fig. 454; St.79ii; S.5190), bold VF and rare £2,750

SC0805 David II, Groat, 4.14g, third coinage, Edinburgh, as second

coinage class C with older bust, star behind head, rev. star between

E and D of EDINBVRGH (SCBI 35, 390; B vol.I p.257; S.5123), nearly VF

and very rare £650

Struck to the weight standard of the second coinage

SC0812 James II (1437-60), Groat, 3.30g, second coinage, first issue, Edinburgh,

crowns and three pellets in alternate angles, m.m. cross (S.5231), good Fine

to nearly VF for issue and very rare £650

SC0806 David II, Groat, 3.46g, third coinage, as class D, Edinburgh, large head,

pellet eyes, with star on sceptre, trefoils in arcs (S.5125), nearly VF £250

SC0813 James II, Halfgroat, 1.73g, second coinage, second issue, Edinburgh, lis

to right of crown, rev. three pellets in first and fourth quarters, crown in

second and third quarters, m.m. cross fourchée on obv., crown on rev.

(SCBI 35, -; B 2a, fig.551A; S.5243), two edge splits but VF and

excessively rare £1,350

SC0807 David II, Groat, 3.35g, third coinage, as class D, Edinburgh, large head,

pellets eyes, with star on sceptre, trefoils in arcs (S.5125), toned VF £250

SC0808 David II, Halfgroat,2.13g, second coinage, class A, Edinburgh (S.5105),

weak in parts, otherwise toned nearly EF and rare thus £475

SC0814 James III (1460-88), Groat, 2.24g, light issue of 1482, Edinburgh, small

bust with low crown of five fleurs, reads EDENBEOVRGE m.m. cross fleury,

(S.5280), metal flaw above crown, a handsome VF £650


SC0815 James III, Groat, 1.88g, base silver issue, Edinburgh, bust half right,

m.m. cross pattée (SCBI 35, 479ff; B 7, fig.578; S.5270), clear portrait, good

fine and rare £650

SC0822 James III, Halfgroat, 1.40g, main issue, Edinburgh, m.m. plain cross

(Cf. SCBI 35, 789-90; B 10, fig.648; S.5292), nearly fine and excessively

rare £380

Mauchline (Ayrshire) Hoard 1971

SC0816 James III, Halfgroat, 0.93g, base silver issue, Edinburgh, bust half right,

m.m. cross pattée (SCBI 35, 753; B 3, fig. 585; S.5272), about fine and very

rare £850

SC0823 James III, Ecclesiastical Farthing, 0.54g, class II, rev. MONEPAVP, cross

with crowns and mullets (SCBI 35, 805; S.5314), flan flaw on obverse,

otherwise about VF and very rare £425

SC0817 James III, Groat, 2.31g, light issue of 1475, Edinburgh, crown of three

tall fleurs, m.m. cross pattée (B 20, fig.592; S.5274), striking split at 3 o’clock,

nearly VF for issue and very rare £350

SC0824 James IV (1488-1531), Groat, 2.39g, light coinage, Edinburgh, stars by

neck, IIII at end of legend, m.m. crown on obv. only (SCBI 35, 851; B 15a,

fig.675A; S.5342), good VF and rare £1,250

SC0818 James III, Halfgroat, 1.07g, light issue of 1475, Berwick, crown of

three tall fleurs, rev. pellets in first and fourth, mullets in second and third

quarters, m.m. cross pattée (SCBI 35, -; B 5, fig.594; S.5278), dark tone,

slightly creased fine and extremely rare £1,100

SC0825 James IV, billon Penny, 0.42g, Edinburgh, first issue, facing crowned

bust, annulets by neck, rev. long cross, pellets in angles (B.2, fig 655;

S.5357), nearly VF for issue, scarce £160

SC0819 James III, Halfgroat, 1.08g, light issue of c. 1467, Edinburgh, saltires by

neck, pellets with extra saltire in second and third quarters, m.m. cross

(SCBI 35, -; B -; S.5268), ragged edge, about fine, excessively rare - one of only

two known £1,350

SC0826 James V (1513-42), ¡ Crown, 3.44g, second coinage, type III, crowned

arms, rounded base to shield, rev. cross fleury, thistles in angles, trefoil stops,

m.m. star / crown (B.6; S.5370), good VF £5,250

SC0820 No lot

SC0827 James V, Groat, 2.50g, second coinage, type III, Edinburgh, open

mantle, OPPIDV EDINBVRGI (S.5378), attractive portrait, bold VF £575

SC0821 James III, Groat, 2.86g, main issue, Edinburgh, bust half-left, annulet

on inner circle before face, m.m. cross fleury (S.5287), slightly double struck,

otherwise on a full flan, about VF £850

MARCH 2010 55

SC0828 James V, One-third Groat, 0.74g, second coinage, type IV (S.5380),

about VF and very rare £750

Ex: ‘Ridgemount’ collection; Spink sale 69, 20 April 1989, lot 255.

SC0834 James VI, after Accession, ¡ Unit, 9.94g, Tenth coinage, Scottish arms

in 1st and 4th quarters, m.m. thistle (St. p. 155, XVI/204; S.5464), graffiti

before Kings face, slightly buckled otherwise about VF and rare £1,750

SC0829 Mary (1542-67), Two-Thirds of Ryal, 20.30g, fourth period with Henry

Darnley, crowned shield, rev. tortoise climbing a palm tree, EXVRGAT legend

(S.5426), sometime cleaned but good very fine and rare thus £1,100

SC0835 James VI, before Accession to English Throne, Twenty Shillings, 14.50g,

1582, Fourth coinage (S.5489), an attractive bold VF and scarce thus £1,450

SC0830 Mary, Testoon, 6.00g, 1558, first period before marriage, type IIIb,

interior of crown above shield hatched, no annulets, m.m. crown on rev. only

(B27; S.5406), good VF £700

SC0836 James VI, before Accession, Balance Half-Merk, 4.34g, 1591, Sixth

coinage (B 1, fig.937; S.5491), toned, VF £675

SC0831 Mary, Bawbee, 1.59g, first period, Stirling (SCBI 58, 450-1; S.5434),

about VF, scarce £275

SC0837 James VI, after Accession, Eightpenny Billon Groat, 2.65g, crowned

shield, rev. crowned thistle, no inner circle (S.5511), good VF or better and rare

thus £195

SC0832 Mary, ‘Nonsunt’ Groat, 1.86g, second period, 1559, left facing dolphin

(SCBI 35, 1106-8; B 8, fig.891; S.5448), nearly VF £200

SC0838 Charles I (1625-49), ¡ Half-Unit, 4.91g, Third coinage, Briot’s issue,

King wears English crown (S.5534), softness of strike at centre, otherwise a

lustrous EF and rare £4,250

SC0833 James VI (1567-1625), before Accession to English Throne, Sword and

Sceptre piece, 4.84g, 1602, Eighth coinage (S.5460), VF £1,750


Islamic Coins

I0808 Umayyad, temp. ‘Abd al-Malik (685-705), ¡ Dinar, 4.27g, AH84, mintless

type (Damascus) (Walker 194; A.125), small oberse die crack at 10 o’clock,

otherwise EF £385

I0815 Umayyad, temp. Sulayman (715-17), ¡ Dinar, 4.22g, AH98, mintless

type (Damascus), (Walker 213; A.130), good VF £425

I0809 Umayyad, temp. al-Walid I (705-15), ¡ Dinar, 4.25g, AH87, mintless

type (Damascus) (A.127), obverse a little dirty, EF £385

I0816 Umayyad, temp. Hisham (724-43), ¡ Dinar, 4.15g, AH111, mintless type

(Damascus) (Walker 231; A.136), EF £425

I0810 Umayyad, temp. al-Walid I, ¡ Dinar, 4.24g, AH88, mintless type

(Damascus) (Walker 199; A.127), EF £425

I0817 Umayyad, temp. Marwan II (744-750), ¡ Dinar, 4.22g, AH132, mintless

type (Damascus) (A.141), about VF, rare £5,000

This is the last date for the Umayyad series

I0811 Umayyad, temp. al-Walid I, ¡ Dinar, 4.24g, AH91, mintless type

(Damscus), (Walker 202; A.127), small edge nick at top of reverse edge,

good VF £325

I0818 Spanish Umayyad, Hisham II (first reign 976-1009), ¡ Dinar, 4.02g,

Al-Andalus, AH393 (Miles, Spain 324e; Album 353.1), about EF,

scarce £2,400

I0812 Umayyad, temp. al-Walid I, ¡ Dinar, 4.27g, AH92, mintless type

(Damscus), (Walker 204; A.127), about EF £425

I0819 Murabitid (Almoravid), ‘Ali bin Yusuf (1106-42), ¡ Dinar, 3.96g,

Al-Mariya (Almeria), AH517, no heir cited (Hazard 285; A.466), edge slightly

damaged at 9 o’clock, VF £950

I0813 Umayyad, temp. al-Walid I, ¡ Dinar, 4.27g, AH95, mintless type

(Damascus), (Walker 209; A.127), small scratch on reverse at 12 o’clock, about

EF £415

I0820 Murabitid (Almoravid), ‘Ali bin Yusuf (1106-42), ¡ Dinar, 4.17g,

Al-Mariya (Almeria), AH532, naming heir below obverse (Hazard 359;

Album 466), about EF £1,400

I0814 Umayyad, temp. al-Walid I, ¡ Dinar, 4.24g, AH96, mintless type

(Damscus), (Walker 210; A.127), good VF £400

I0821 Murabitid (Almoravid), ‘Ali bin Yusuf (1106-42), ¡ Dinar, 4.14g,

Al-Mariya (Almeria), AH537 naming Tashfin as heir below obverse (Hazard

403; Album 466), obverse struck from rusty dies, otherwise about EF £1,000

MARCH 2010 57

I0822 Muwahhid (Almohad), Abu Muhammad ‘Abd Al-Mumin (1130-63),

¡ 1 ⁄ 2-Dinar, 2.29g, no mint or date (Hazard 466; A.478), about VF £145

I0828 Afghanistan, Durrani, Ahmad Shah (1735-72), ¡ Mohur, 10.88g,

Shahjahanabad, AH(11)74, ry.14 (KM.766), good VF £625

I0823 Muwahhid (Almohad), Abu Yusuf Ya’qub (1184-99), ¡ Dinar, 4.65g, no

mint or date (Hazard 501; A.484), EF £600

I0829 Afghanistan, Durrani, Mahmud Shah (second reign 1808-17), Rupee,

Peshawar, AH1232, ry.9 (KM.728), good VF, attractive toning £75

I0824 Muwahhid (Almohad), Abu Hafs ‘Umar (1248-66), ¡ Dinar, 4.65g, no

mint or date (Hazard 533; A.491), VF £425

I0830 Uzbekistan, Bukhara, Nasrullah (1826-60), ¡ Tilla, 4.55g, Bukhara,

AH1265 (KM.65), about VF £235

I0825 Mughal Empire, Babur (1526-30), Shahrukhi, mintless type, Kabul

(Rahman 60), good F £145

I0831 Iran, Qajar Dynasty, Fath ‘Ali Shah, (1797-1834), ¡ Toman, 4.60g,

Dar el-Ibadat (Abode of Piety) Yazd, AH1233, type W (KM.753), EF £275

I0826 Mughal Empire, Aurangzeb (1658-1707), ¡ Mohur, 10.92g,

Aurangabad, AH1099, ry.31, mint in lower part of reverse (KM.315.11),

good F/F £275

I0832 Iran, Qajar Dynasty, Fath ‘Ali Shah, ¡ Toman, 4.59g, Dar el-Ibadat

(Abode of Piety) Yazd, AH1235, type W (KM.753), some peripheral weakness,

good VF £265

I0827 Mughal Empire, Aurangzeb (1658-1707), Rupee, Kabul, ry.34

(KM.300.45), VF £35

I0833 Iran, Afsharid, Nadir Shah (1736-47), Rupi, Moqadas Mashhad, AH1155

(KM.385.7), VF £55


ANCIENT, englISh AND foreign coins

and commemorative medals


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