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Superconductivity as observed by Magnetic Resonance - F9 - IJS

Superconductivity as observed by Magnetic Resonance - F9 - IJS

Superconductivity as observed by Magnetic Resonance - F9 -

Superconductivity as observed by Magnetic Resonance Author: Anton Potočnik Mentor: izr. prof. dr. Denis Arčon April 9, 2010 Abstract Magnetic resonance techniques proved numerous times in the past to be a powerful tool in the investigation of the microscopic structure of the superconductors. NMR measurements of the superconducting state were the first to observe the divergences in the density of states on the edge of the energy gap, which is one of the main results of the BCS theory. Furthermore, NMR together with the ultrasound absorption measurements provided the first experimental prove for the existence of the Cooper pairs. After the discovery of the high-temperature superconductors NMR measurements still played a major role in the investigation of the microscopic superconductor structure, allowing for the determination of the wave-vector dependence of the energy gap, different pairing states and the effect of the strong electron-electron interaction, especially in the high-T c superconductors. 1 Introduction Superconductivity is today already widely used in many superconducting devices, namely high-field magnets, SQUID magnetometers, mass spectrometers and beam steering magnets in the particle accelerators [1]. Despite their wide use the theory of high-temperature superconductivity is still not entirely developed. Superconductivity was discovered in the 1911 by Kamerlingh Onnes, while studying the electrical resistivity of the mercury at the liquid helium temperatures. He observed that below critical temperature (T c ) the electrical resistivity of the material suddenly dropped to zero, within the experimental accuracy. Later it was found that the resistivity of the superconductors is absolute zero, meaning that the current in the insulated superconductor will flow indefinitely. Soon after the discovery of absolute zero resistivity, more non-intuitive phenomena were discovered in superconductors. Meissner and Ochsenfeld (1933) observed that applied magnetic field is expelled from the superconductor, which is now called the Meissner effect. Fritz London (1948) pointed out that the magnetic flux, surrounded by the superconducting material, is quantized and Josephson (1962) realized that in superconductors the interference effects span 1

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