Russian Revolution PowerPoint presentation (.pdf)

Russian Revolution PowerPoint presentation (.pdf)

The Russian


(lesson 5)


Table of Contents

Long Term Causes of Revolution

• Czarist Rule

• Peasant Unrest

• Problems of Urban Workers

• Diversity and Nationalism

Pre-revolutionary Russia

• Russia still ruled by Czars

• Romanov dynasty still in


• Czar Nicholas II, the last

Russian Czar, tried to

industrialize and modernize


• Czar Nicholas resisted

political reform and tried to

suppress the ideals of selfrule

and democracy (French


• Used harsh tactics and secret

police to keep power


Who is unhappy with the rule of Nicholas II

- Working class: terrible living and working conditions

and low wages, unions are outlawed. Socialists spread

ideas about reform among these workers.

- Minorities- ethnic and religious minorities

discriminated against

- Middle-class liberals- want self-rule

- Peasants- rigid class system. no ownership of land

and high taxes. Angry and fearful at industrialization

because of fear of change

Revolution of 1905

• Defeat in war with

Japan in 1904

resulted in low spirits

• This combined with

peasant unhappiness

leads to “Bloody


• In January 1905,

peaceful protesters

marched in St.

Petersburg to

influence Czar for


• Czar Nicholas calls

in soldiers and 1,000

deaths result

• Destroyed people’s

faith/trust in czar


• After Bloody Sunday, violence breaks out

throughout Russia

• Czar Nicholas promises some reforms

• Freedom of Speech

- Establishment of Duma, elected national legislature

Duma had limited powers and did little to relieve

peasant and worker discontent. It was dissolved

when it criticized the Czar

World War I

• Russia member of Allied powers

• Russia not ready for industrialized war

Russian soldiers not adequately prepared

Russian people lacked confidence in Russia’s

military strength

• Russia suffered many defeats at the hands of the

Germans on the Eastern Front

The March Revolution

• Military defeats and food shortages culminated in a

revolution in March 1917

• Rioters in St. Petersburg demanded bread

• Soldiers sympathized and refused to fire on them

• With no control of his troops and facing anarchy in his

country, Czar Nicholas abdicated (gave up) his throne

in March 1917

• Provisional (temporary) government set up, promised

to write constitution

• Unpopular decision to remain in WWI

In Slow Motion

• Provision government slow to bring change

Revolutionary socialists set up soviets, councils

of workers and soldiers, in Russian cities

• Worked within the system that was set up

• Taken over by a radical socialist party

The Rise of Lenin

• Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky headed a

revolutionary socialist party, the Bolsheviks

• Based on ideas of Karl Marx

• An elite group of reformers, the Bolsheviks,

would guide the revolution in Russia

• Promises of “Peace, Land and Bread”

• Promised an end to Russia in WWI

• Promised land reform and an end to food


Petrograd, 4 July 1917. Street demonstration on Nevsky Prospekt

just after troops of the Provisional Government have opened fire with machine guns

• Nov. 1917, the

Bolsheviks led

soldiers, sailors and

factory workers.




• Bolsheviks


• Distributed land to

peasants and gave

workers control of




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Lenin in Charge

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• Withdraws from WWI

• Treaty of Brest Litovsk – costly, but knew that needed to

make peace with Germany at any price so could deal with

enemies at home


Civil War

• 1918-1921 Lenin’s Red Army vs. the Whites (those

loyal to czar)

• Nationalist groups rebelled. Independence for Estonia,

Latvia, Lithuania and Poland

• Brutal tactics: Whites slaughtered communists.

• Communists used secret police to root out enemies

• Thousands executed by Communists who were

SUSPECTED of opposing revolution

• Executed Czar Nicholas and his entire family, the


The Romanov Girls

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• GB, France and the US sent troops to help the Whites

• Foreign intervention stirred Russian nationalism

• Inspired the Red Army, and they defeated enemies by 1921.



One Party System

• Lenin’s new government did not have a

constitution and an elected legislature

• Communist Party, not the people, had power

• Only legal party

• Only its members could run for office

• Enforced will through military and secret police

The Economy

• Bolshevik leaders during the civil war had taken

over banks, mines, factories and RR’s.

• Led to economic disaster!

• New Economic Policy (NEP) adopted by Lenin,


• Government owned banks, large industry, foreign


• Allowed for private ownership of businesses

• Allowed economy to recover, peasants flourished

1922 – Lenin and Communists

had gained control over much

of Russian empire

Created the Union of Soviet

Socialist Republics (USSR).

(Soviet Union)

Russia controlled the other



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Stalin and Communist Dictatorship

• Lenin dies, 1924

• Joseph Stalin, new

Communist leader

• He won the power struggle to

lead the party edging out Leon


• Rules via terror and brutality

• Great Purge – 1930s –

accused thousands of crimes

against the government.

Fearful other Communists

plotting against him

• Executions and prison camps

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Stalin’s Paranoia

• “It’s necessary for those feared by the many to

fear the many” –Publicius Syrus

• Purge: to remove (usually with force or by

killing) opponents or people considered

undesirable from a state or organization

• Many high officials in the communist party

were killed, ie Kamenev and Zinoviev

• Journey Into The Whirlwind by Eugenia Ginzburg

Key Terms

• One party Rule: you are free to vote for anyone

in the communist party, began with Lenin

• Totalitarianism: Government that exercises

absolute and centralized control over all aspects

of life (i.e. dictators)

• Russification: Stalin continued Czars hatred

forced assassination of ethnic minorites. Now

assimilation includes becoming a communist.

Russians hold most key positions

• Stalin was not even Russian, He was from Georgia!

The Economy Under Stalin

• Command Economy: Synonym for

communism, the gov’t takes control/commands

the economy

• Five Year Plans: Stalin ends Lenin’s NEP and

goes to command economic plan to set

industrial, agricultural, and social goals

• Heavy Industry, the creation of towns such as

Magnitagorsk Behind the Urals by John Scott

• Consumer goods decreased


• Land is pooled into large farms and people work

and live together

• All receive the same amount of benefits

• Often production quotas are forced

• People running the farms often do not know the

first thing about agriculture, Execution by Hunger

by Miron Dolot

• Kulak: “a rich peasant” a peasant who gained

economic status from Lenin’s NEP era, and was

targeted by Stalin

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