Chapt 5 _ 6 Review

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Chapt 5 _ 6 Review

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Pass in your sheets


Prospered because

1) increased trade

during the Middle

Ages,

2) supplies demanded

for Crusades,

3) increased demand

for Eastern goods


• Wrote The Prince

• The ends justify the

means (Do whatever

it takes to attain and

hold on to power)

• Rulers should be

pragmatic, not

necessarily moral


• Humanism - intellectual movement based on the

ability of humans to better themselves and their

environment (Petrarch, father of humanism)

• Education - secular, liberal (wide-ranging) studies

History, rhetoric, grammar, poetry, mathematics,

astronomy, music

Physical education- training for war and hunting


Took hold in the North

and was focused on

becoming better

Christian humans

• Erasmus

• Sought reform from

WITHIN the Catholic

church


• Attacked Church corruption

• Man is saved by faith alone,

not good works

• Charles V (Holy Roman

Emperor) makes Luther an

outlaw


Charles V vs.

• Charles V signs Peace of Augsburg with

German princes (to save his hide!!!)

• Religious Freedom!!! (kinda)

• Only in H.R.E. (Germany)

France, Ottoman Empire &

pesky Lutheran princes

• Only free to choose between Catholicism and

Lutheranism

• Princes choose the religion of their people

• Princes choose Lutheranism so that they can take

Church lands


Founder of Calvinism:

• Salvation is gained by faith

alone (like Lutheranism)

• Predestination - God had

already chosen those going

to heaven (elect) and those

damned (reprobate)


• Focused on a voluntary

community of equal

adults

• Separation of church

and state

• Persecuted as

dangerous radicals by

both Protestants and

Catholics

At least we can both

agree that those

Anabaptists have

got to go,… right!

Oh, yeah…

totally!


St. Ignatius of Loyola

• founded the Jesuits,

who acted as Catholic

missionaries in

Protestant areas

Council of Trent

• Acknowledged the need

for reform but…

• Catholic doctrine

affirmed


Motives and Means

of Colonization

• Economic: Access to new markets of trade


Motives and Means

• Fame: Travel the world like

Marco Polo


Motives and Means

• Missionary work: Convert

the heathens!


God, Gold, and Glory!


Portuguese Exploration

Vasco de Gama

• Sold spices from

East Indies in

Europe for

several

thousand

percent profit


Circumnavigation

Magellan - First person to circumnavigate

the globe (though dead for 1/3 of the trip)


New Lands to Explore

Treaty of Tordesillas

• Split the Americas

between Portugal

and Spain

• Everything to the

West was Spanish,

to the East was

Portugal


Cycle of Conquest

& Colonization

Explorers

(Find the

native people)

Conquistadors

(Conquer the

native people)

Missionaries

(Convert the

native people)

Permanent

Settlements

(Enslave the

native people)

Official

European

Colony!


The prosperity of a nation is

linked to its supply of gold

and silver

Nations need a favorable

“balance of trade” in order to

be successful

Nations set up colonies as

sources of raw materials and

new markets for trade


• Parent nations export more than they import

• Place tariffs (taxes) on imports… preventing

foreign goods for being sold

• PROFITS!


EUROPE

CARIBBEAN

ISLANDS

AFRICA


The journey made by enslaved

Africans to the Americas


• Depopulation of some areas of Africa

• Youngest and strongest Africans are removed

from their communities

• Increased warfare in Africa

Benin: A vibrant African

cultural center before the

slave trade, afterward it

is a brutal, corrupt nation


• While Portugal only

dominated Brazil,

Spain established a

large colonial empire

• Central and South

America, with a blend

of Spanish and Native

American culture

became known as

“Latin America”


Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

• Highest Social class, composed of Spanish and

Portuguese officials

• Descended from Europeans but born in Latin

America (Controlled businesses)

• Offspring of Europeans and Native Americans

Other Social

Classes

• Intermarriage was permitted, so various other

classes / racial designations existed

• Mulattoes were the offspring of Europeans

and Africans

• Other terms for unions of mestizos and

mulattoes, and between Native Americans

and Africans


Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulattoes

Native Americans

Black Slaves


Natural Resources:

• Gold and Silver

deposits were found,

which were used to

fund Spain’s war and

colonial efforts

• Very dangerous and

damaging to the

environment


• Landowners formed large estates to create sustained

wealth after mines depleted

• Still damaged the environment through deforestation

and overgrazing of livestock

• Encomienda system

was still used

• Sugar, tobacco, and

animal hides were

sold of Europe


• French settlements were temporary

• British settlements were more permanent

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