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Applicant's Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning in Barbados

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

Applicant’s

Handbook and

Guide to Coastal

Planning in

Barbados

COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT UNIT

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, WATER RESOURCES AND DRAINAGE

March, 2010


The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

Applicant’s Handbook and

Guide to Coastal Planning in

Barbados

COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT UNIT

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, WATER RESOURCES AND DRAINAGE

MARCH, 2010


The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

FOREWORD

It is well recognized and accepted that the coastline of Barbados is central to the

lives of all Barbadians. The island’s coastal fringe supports several sectors –

tourism, commercial and industrial - and has a high recreational use value. More

importantly, there is considerable pressure placed on the natural assets and

resources therein. The integrated physical development of the coastline is therefore

complex, and requires the unique capabilities of several government organizations.

This document presents the process followed by the Coastal Zone Management

Unit (CZMU) in the assessment of Town and Country Development Planning

applications which are found on, or can have direct or indirect impact on the

coastline. The CZMU performs this function as one of the key developmental

advisors to the Town and Country Development Planning Office (TCDPO). The

information is presented in an easy to understand format which should assist all

developers in the complete submission of coastal development application to the

TCDPO. Readers are reminded that the sole authority for the granting of

permission for all development on the island is the TCDPO.

This is a dynamic document, and will be periodically updated as new initiatives of

developmental planning are implemented by the CZMU. I hope that it reaches the

widest possible audience and encourages new and determined action to ensure

Barbados’ coastline is developed in a sustainable way, which results in Barbados

continuing to have a coast to be proud of.

Leo F. S. Brewster Ph.D. (Cardiff)

Director

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

CONTENTS

Forward.……………………………………………………………………………………………i

Contents ..................................................................................................................................... ii

1 Introduction .........................................................................................................................1

2 What constitutes coastal development ................................................................................2

3 The Application Process for Coastal Development ..............................................................4

3.1 Requirements for Application Assessment ....................................................................5

3.2 Application Review.......................................................................................................7

4 Coastal Development Policies .............................................................................................7

4.1 Agency Responsibility ................................................................................................ 10

4.2 Guidance for defence structures/modeling ................................................................... 12

4.2.1 Structures ............................................................................................................. 12

4.2.2 Modeling ............................................................................................................. 13

4.2.3 Monitoring ........................................................................................................... 14

5 Reasons for setbacks & other restrictions ........................................................................... 16

5.1 Protection from coastal hazards ................................................................................... 16

5.2 Beach stability ............................................................................................................ 18

5.3 Protection of critical coastal ecosystems ...................................................................... 18

5.4 Preservation of public accesses ................................................................................... 20

6 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 20

Appendix 1: Criteria for Sea Turtle Lighting Plan approval (Barbados SeaTurtle Project) ......... 21

Glossary .................................................................................................................................... 23

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

1 INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this handbook is to inform the public about the process of coastal

development control and also to highlight the basis of recommendations and advice

to the Chief Town Planner made by the Coastal Zone Management Unit (CZMU).

The legal guidance comes in the form of the Coastal Zone Management Act,

1998 which mandated the creation of a Coastal Zone Management Policy that

comprises policies, strategies and standards for coastal structures, environmental

impact assessments (EIA), beach use and beach access among others. This is

encompassed in an over-arching goal of the CZMU and in turn the Government of

Barbados to practice ongoing Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)

which is defined by the European Commission as follows:

“ICZM is a dynamic, multidisciplinary and iterative process to promote

sustainable management of coastal zones. It covers the full cycle of

information collection, planning (in its broadest sense), decision making,

management and monitoring of implementation. ICZM uses the informed

participation and cooperation of all stakeholders to assess the societal goals in

a given coastal area, and to take actions towards meeting these objectives.

ICZM seeks, over the long-term, to balance environmental, economic, social,

cultural and recreational objectives, all within the limits set by natural

dynamics. 'Integrated' in ICZM refers to the integration of objectives and

also to the integration of the many instruments needed to meet these

objectives. It means integration of all relevant policy areas, sectors, and levels

of administration. It means integration of the terrestrial and marine

components of the target territory, in both time and space.”

Likewise the Coastal Zone Management Plan’s main purpose is to provide detailed

guidance for the management of coastal uses, development and regulation along

the coast of Barbados.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

2 WHAT CONSTITUTES COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

In order to understand what is coastal development the term coastal zone needs to

be defined. This is defined as the transition area between the land and sea. This

interface is dynamic by nature and in constant change and evolution. It has always

been an important resource area, hence historically why most of human civilization

established settlements in the coastal zone. It must be managed sustainably.

The Coastal Zone Management Area (Figure 1) will be legally defined by the CZM

Act. The landward boundary of the Caribbean coast follows the main coastal road

or the limit of the predicted 100m storm surge flooding, whichever is further

inland. A similar approach is taken for the Atlantic coast.

The seaward boundary lies along the 100m depth contour. On the Caribbean coast,

which is protected by bank reefs, the offshore boundary is 200m seaward of the

outer edge of these reefs if this is further offshore than the 100m depth contour.

Based on the variations in the coastline and hence different management priorities,

the CZM Area has been divided into sub-areas (Figure 1) determined by physical

boundaries, land use patterns and terrestrial and marine ecology.

The Town and Country Planning Act, Cap. 240, defines development as “The

carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operations in, on, over

or under any land, the making of any material change in the use of any

buildings, or other land or the sub-division of land”. This includes the limits of

the country (200 nautical miles). Therefore any development application that lies

within the physical boundaries of the proposed Coastal Zone Management Area is

forwarded to the CZMU and assessed. Recommendations are returned to the Chief

Town Planner. Developments that CZMU assesses include, but are not limited to:

Residences (new/renovations/additions);

Subdivisions of land;

Tourism structures (hotel/condominiums/villas);

Marinas and ports;

Coastal engineering structures (jetties/groynes/breakwaters/revetments/sea

walls)

Sea structures (underwater pipelines, sub-sea cables, oil rig platforms);

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

Figure 1.

Boundaries of the Coastal Zone Management Area and associated

sub-areas.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

Moorings, buoyed swimming areas, & recreational structures (e.g. icebergs,

trampolines etc);

Commercial buildings;

Industrial buildings.

Beach creation and nourishment projects.

3 THE APPLICATION PROCESS FOR COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

The planning legislation makes provision for a process of consultation with

agencies/bodies or persons with specialized knowledge. Some consultations are

mandatory – the Ministry of Transport and Works, the Ministry of Health and the

Ministry of the Environment, Water Resources and Drainage. Other agencies

consulted include the Ministry of Agriculture (Soil Conservation Unit – regarding

the stability of land within the Scotland District area; Fisheries Division -

regarding fisheries and aquaculture/mariculture projects) the Barbados Water

Authority, the Ministry of Tourism and the Coastal Zone Management Unit

(regarding all coastal properties).

These consultations are critical in providing much of the technical information

used in arriving at “an informed final decision,” on the application. Decisions are

issued either by the Chief Town Planner or the Minister responsible for planning

under Section 18 of the Town and Country Planning Act Cap 240. At the moment

ministerial permission is given for all beach-front developments, while the Chief

Town Planner issues permissions for cliff-top development. Most applications are

approved with conditions attached and developers must ensure that these

conditions are discharged satisfactorily as part of their development effort. In

cases where an application is recommended for refusal by the Chief Town Planner

the applicant has the right to a review of that decision by the Minister responsible

for planning through an approved panel hearing process.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

3.1 Requirements for Application Assessment

The Coastal Zone Management Unit receives copies of all coastal related

applications directly from the Town Planning Department. The application

package usually consists of the following:

Location Plan – illustrates exact location of site with clear landmarks and the

nearest road junction to the site.

Elevation Plans – illustrates a 2-Dimentional view of the building. Two views

need to be shown. These are namely the front and side views.

Floor Plans – illustrates size and shape of the overall building, the layout of all

rooms (including door and window openings) in the building and their

dimensions.

Site Plan – illustrates the shape and dimensions of the land on which the

building will be built together with road reserves, building line distances, other

buildings on the site, construction setback, position relative to the high water

mark (HWM), access to the site drainage and parking if appropriate.

Sworn Surveyor’s Plot – drawn by a land surveyor which accurately shows the

location, size and shape of the land on which the building is to be erected or

improved. This plan should also clearly identify and date the position of the

HWM for beach front properties and the location of cliff lines and extent of

cliff undercut for cliff top properties.

N.B.: Surveyor’s plots older than two years are not accepted by the CZMU as

recent surveyor’s plots.

Orientation of Plans – should show the northern point of the site by the use of

a “North Arrow”.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

Map Scales – should be clearly presented on the plans and acceptable to the

Town and Country Development Planning Office.

Site Plan: 1/100 &1/200 minimum

Location Plan: 1/2500 minimum

Depending on the nature of the proposed development, the CZMU may

requirements additional information in the form of the following:

Geotechnical Survey – should be conducted for cliff-top development

applications, where cliff integrity is questionable, to ensure that the cliff is

capable of supporting the expected bearing loads of the development. The

survey also provides a description of the subsurface integrity of the site.

Engineering Drawings – must be provided for all coastal structures inter alia

shoreline stabilizing structures, shoreline defense structures, jetties and marinas.

Hydrographic Surveys – these are required to determine bathymetric

characteristics of the sea floor and in the assessment/production of coastal

engineering designs.

Numerical & Physical Models – aid in the assessment of engineering

structures, as determined by the CZMU.

Benthic Surveys – must be provided for development applications in the

marine environment such as jetties, groins, offshore breakwaters and marinas

etc.

Water Quality Analyses – must be presented for all marine applications.

Environmental Impact Assessments – are required by TCPO for certain

development and at the Chief Town Planner’s discretion

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

3.2 Application Review

Upon receipt of the application file from the TCDPO, the CZMU conducts an

assessment of the application according to the following procedures:

a) Review submitted application to determine whether the plans meet the

requirements for coastal development.

b) Review planning history and determine if accretion/erosion occurred to gain

a sense of the previous activities on the site as well as the previous

development conditions and recommendations.

c) Visit site to determine existing site conditions such as presence of existing

structures, building setbacks and vegetation types. Setbacks are measured

relative to the location of the high water mark (HWM). A similar evaluation

of development adjacent to the site of proposed development is also

conducted.

d) Determine the location of the mean HWM at the time of the site visit.

e) Ensure that the submitted HWM has been surveyed within the last 2 years.

f) Submit written recommendations to the Chief Town Planner.

4 COASTAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES

Policies and guidelines are summarised from the ICZM Plan and presented below.

These guidelines are site specific based on the sub-areas illustrated earlier but are

presented here according to the entire coastal stretch.

1. On a lowland sandy coast, where the land in the back beach consists of a low

sand terrace, and where the beach is either stable, accreting, or eroding, a

minimum landward setback of 30m is recommended, unless otherwise

specified by the CZMU (taking into consideration the building line, existing

building footprint, and availability of land), for:

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

All new structures including pools, gazebos and all additional floors to

existing buildings etc)

All additions to structures that take up additional land space.

2. On a limestone cliff coastline, all new structures, including all additions to

existing structures should be at least 10m from the toe of cliff undercut,

unless otherwise specified by the CZMU (taking into consideration the

building line, existing building footprint, cliff stability and availability of

land).

3. On clay and sandy cliffs/bluffs such as those on the east coast, all new

structures, including all additions to existing structures, should be at least

20m from the toe of the cliff undercut, unless otherwise specified by the

ICMP.

4. When the land adjacent to the sea consists of a low rock platform, less than

3m above datum, all structures and additions should be a minimum of 15m

from the HWM. Where the rock platform approaches sea level, the setback

applied to beaches (30m) must be applied.

5. Where the land adjacent to the sea consists of rock, which rises, in an inland

direction, such as occurs along the west coast at Prospect, these conditions

are treated in the same way as cliffs. Consequently the same conditions as in

criterion No. 4 above are utilized.

6. Where the developer either has or proposes to reduce the height of the cliff

to that which approaches sea level, the proposed development must have a

setback of 30m from the HWM. Therefore, if during construction, cliff

lands have to be excavated due to unsuitable substrate, then setbacks must be

revised accordingly.

7. All new fences or any other means of enclosure should be at least 10m from

the HWM.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

Reclaimed Lands Associated with the Holetown and Rockley to Coconut

Court Waterfront Improvement Project

8. Any land determined by the Director to be reclaimed land under the Coastal

Infrastructure Programme (CIP) is vested in the Crown.

9. All private lands fronted by reclaimed lands are not required to submit a

HWM in accordance with section 3.2e. The pre-construction HWM, as

determined by the Chief Surveyor, Lands and Surveys Department, defines

the seaward property boundary.

10. All new structures must have a minimum landward setback of 15m from the

seaward property boundary, associated with reclaimed lands.

11. Where existing structures have a setback, which is less than 15m from the

seaward property boundary, there must be no further seaward encroachment

of any new structures.

12. Where existing fence lines or other means of enclosure are found, there is to

be no seaward encroachment of these structures onto any new reclaimed

lands.

13. All new fences or any other means of enclosure should be a minimum of 5m

from the seaward property boundary.

Some of the reasons for these conditions are as follows:

To ensure a buffer zone between public domain and private property.

To ensure an adequate setback in the event that the reclaimed lands are

lost/eroded. It is expected that storm events would erode reclaimed lands

(e.g. beaches). However, erosion is expected to stop at the hardline provided

by structures such as the footing of the Coastal Infrastructure Programme

(CIP) Boardwalk or walkway, thereby ensuring a minimum 15m zone of

lands not expected to retreat landward fronting properties.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

To ensure an adequate setback in the event of storm surge events.

To prevent developers from reducing the increased protection conferred onto

them, from coastal hazards (i.e. storm waves), by the reclaimed lands.

To facilitate maintenance of the infrastructure associated with the reclaimed

lands.

14. Existing access must be maintained and even enhanced to facilitate public

beach access to the reclaimed lands and to facilitate maintenance of any

structures that sustain/stabilise reclaimed lands.

15. New vehicular accesses may need to be identified to facilitate maintenance

of coastal structures

4.1 Agency Responsibilities

Issues & likely implementation

difficulties

Action

Responsible agencies

Setback

Access to and along coastal

road

Beach management

Coastal Engineering

Conservation of coastal

ecosystems & wildlife

Minimum distance 30m from

mean high water mark adjacent

to beaches or a minimum of 10m

landward of the undercut at the

base of cliff

Use setback provisions to

maintain good access along the

coast

Beach profile monitoring

Re-vegetation of beach areas

Installation of beach facilities

and amenities or their upgrade

Review and reassess existing

shoreline engineering structures

as well as reviewing designs for

future structures

Implement turtle conservation

measures (Appendix 1)

Protect remaining mangroves and

native vegetation

Enforce the Tree Preservation

Act

CZMU

TCPO

CZMU

TCPO

CZMU

NCC

CZMU

TCPO

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

Conservation of marine

ecosystems & wildlife

Coastal development (including

marinas, harbours & ports)

Establish coral reef monitoring

sites

Ensure protection of marine

ecosystems form coastal

development

Enforce the overall CZM Plan

along with the Physical

Development Plan with its

specific community plans

Resource extraction Monitor dust emissions of

quarries and cement factory

affecting the Caribbean coast

Water quality

Global and regional coastal

change

Monitor sand mining from

Walkers sand quarry and

establish extraction limits

Monitor marine and terrestrial

organism extraction for bioprospecting

Monitor water quality along the

Caribbean coast

Implement measures of

improving water quality and

reduce foul odours, particularly

in areas of high mixed used

development and water courses

fed by ground water

Establish meteorological an

oceanographic stations along the

Caribbean and Atlantic coasts to

record accurate micro-climatic

conditions in said area.

CZMU

CZMU

CZMU,TCPO

EPD

NHD

CZMU, NHD

EPD,CZMU

CZMU, EPD, Drainage Division

CZMU

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

4.2 Guidance for defence structures/modelling

4.2.1 Structures

Groynes

The application for the construction of a groyne or groyne field must be

accompanied by the following:

o Models of shoreline morphological response of the beach within the zone of

influence of the structure during both operational conditions and specific

extreme events relating to design conditions

o Engineering drawings including inter alia:

o Crest height relevant to Lamont datum

o Cross-section detail indicating stone sizes in layers

o Length of the structure and encroachment into the nearshore

o Assessment of the effects of the structure on lateral access

o Construction methodology including the need for causeway construction,

traversing of adjacent beach area and measures to protect any adjacent reefs

o Assessment of benthic community within footprint of the proposed structure

Breakwaters

The application for a breakwater must be accompanied by the following:

o Models of shoreline morphological response of the beach within the zone of

influence of the structure during both operational conditions and specific

extreme events relating to design conditions

o Models of nearshore hydrodynamics and the effects of the structure on

existing currents and waves

o Engineering drawings including inter alia:

o Crest height relevant to Lamont datum

o Cross-section detail indicating stone sizes in layers

o Construction methodology including the potential need for causeway

construction, the use of a marine barge, traversing of adjacent beach area

and measures to protect any adjacent reefs

o Analysis of armour layer stability under design conditions

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

o Assessment of benthic community within footprint of the proposed structure

Seawalls

The application for a seawall must be accompanied by the following:

Engineering drawings including inter alia:

o Scour protection

o Wall dimensions

o Crest height relevant to Lamont datum

o Existing level of sediment fronting seawall

o Construction methodology including the need for causeway construction,

traversing of adjacent beach area and measures to protect any adjacent reefs

Revetments

The application for a revetment must be accompanied by the following:

o Analysis of armour layer stability under design conditions

o Engineering drawings including inter alia:

o Crest height relevant to Lamont datum

o Cross-section detail indicating stone sizes in layers

o Existing level of sediment fronting seawall

4.2.2 Modeling

The requirement for numerical and physical modeling will be determined by the

CZMU. While the CZMU will indicate the model outputs necessary for their

assessment, the applicant must submit details of the proposed models for review

and approval.

Physical Models

Physical modeling will be required for all projects which may have a potentially

significant impact on the longshore sediment budget and current processes of the

coastline. Full analyses of model results of the shoreline morphological response of

the beaches within the zone of influence of the proposed structure(s) during both

operational conditions and specific extreme events relating to design conditions

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

need to be presented. All final physical model designs have to be observed in

operation by members of staff of the CZMU.

Sediment Transport Models

When analyzing the effects of structures on longshore sediment transport models

the

Applicant must submit the following:

o Limitations of the model

o Calibration Process

o Summary of model inputs

o A time-step analysis of the shoreline response to the structures until

equilibrium of the study area is achieved.

It is of paramount importance that the zone of influence of the structures be clearly

delineated based on the model outputs.

Wave Hindcasting Models

The outputs of such models should be calibrated using deepwater wave recorders.

Wave Transformation Models

When it is deemed necessary by the CZMU the developer must seek to verify

model results with in situ wave monitoring. Alternatively, nearshore wave data can

be sourced from the CZMU along specific reaches of the shoreline

4.2.3 Monitoring

The applicant must submit a proposed monitoring program which is adequate to

assess the shoreline morphological response to the works within predicted zone of

influence of the structures and the adjacent stretches of shoreline.

The following detail must be included in the monitoring programme:

o Location of survey area (hydrographic survey, beach profile locations etc.)

o Frequency of monitoring

o Proposed duration of monitoring

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

In the event that equilibrium is not attained by the proposed date of completion of

the monitoring programme the CZMU will request an extension of the programme.

In the event that the shoreline response significantly varies from the model

predictions and there are negative effects associated with the variations, the CZMU

will instruct the Chief Town Planner that modifications to the structure are

necessary.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

5 REASONS FOR SETBACKS & OTHER POLICIES

The main reasons for setbacks and related policies are presented below. It is

important to appreciate that these reasons are in the greater national interest in

terms of public rights, safety, and the preservation of our natural and cultural

heritage.

5.1 Protection from coastal hazards

The coast acts as a buffer between land and sea and should remain as such.

Natural phenomena such as regular winter swells, storm surge and tsunamis can

have serious impacts on the physical infrastructure of the coast, and thus on public

safety and the Barbadian economy.

Figure 2. The

familiarly wide

Brown’s beach in

Carlisle Bay was

severely eroded

after Hurricane

Ivan in 2004.

Many properties

all along the

coastline suffered

some degree of

damage.

Therefore, the CZMU makes recommendations to the Chief Town Planner upon

assessment, and enforces the setbacks from the high water mark in order to help

reduce the vulnerability of developments on the coastline to coastal hazards.

Typical development setbacks as required in the ICMP are illustration in Figure 3

below.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

NOTE: Increase size of figure and page to a fold out chart. E.g. 11 x 17.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

5.2 Beach stability

The beach is a dynamic area of unconsolidated materials (sand, pebbles etc).

Tides, currents and wave action move sand on and off-shore as well as along the

shoreline. Physical infrastructure such as guard walls, steps and beach decks act as

obstructions to the dynamism of beach material. Therefore one can find countless

examples of beach erosion on the West coast at the bases of seawalls and other

structures built too close to the water’s edge.

Figure 4. Development

on the west coast and

south coast has led to

unstable beaches in some

instances where sea walls

and other structures

prevent sand building up

on the beach.

5.3 Protection of critical coastal ecosystems

Ecosystems are complex interactions between organisms in an area and their

habitat. Coastal ecosystems in Barbados are in danger from human development

but their functions and their natural value are still critical. For example, mangrove

swamps have been decimated locally but are very important in flood mitigation, as

spawning grounds for important fish species and are natural filters of surface water

going into the sea. Likewise, sand dune ecosystems and coastal forests are

important for coastal protection against storm waves and play a vital role in the

stabilization of beaches.

In order to ensure these ecosystems continue to perform these functions to benefit

us as present day citizens, as well as future generations, the CZMU institutes

restrictions to protect coastal ecosystems. For example the Coastal Zone

Management Act makes it illegal to remove vegetation from the beaches of

Barbados. Also, minimum setbacks are larger where there are remaining sand

dune ecosystems and coastal forests.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

Figure 5. A typical

fringing reef along

the west coast of

Barbados.

Ecosystems such as

these are constantly

impacted by coastal

development

Nearshore habitats such as coral reefs and seagrass beds are also very susceptible

to physical development. Disposal of municipal waste and sewage into the marine

environment has devastating effects on coral reef ecosystems, in turn seriously

impacting tourism, fisheries, and beach stability. Likewise, storm water runoff

delivers harmful chemicals and solid waste to the marine environment. The

CZMU and the Environmental Protection Department put forward measures to

reduce the impact of pollution on nearshore habitats. For example, the use of

septic tanks on west coast developments is stipulated to manage municipal and

sewage waste.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

5.4 Preservation of public accesses

The historical and traditional uses of the coast are sought to be preserved in

legislation by mandating that no beaches on the island are to become private

beaches. In this way the CZMU always makes recommendations to introduce

measures for preserving and maintaining safe public accesses to beaches wherever

possible.

Figure 6. Coastal

rights-of-way such as

this one at Foul Bay, St.

Philip are reserved by

the regulation of MTW,

TCPO and CZMU. All

beaches on the island

must remain accessible

to the public.

6 CONCLUSION

This book is intended to educate the general public and specific stakeholders in

coastal development about the process of planning and development control in

Barbados as it relates to the CZMU. Our role in aiding the Chief Town Planner

in decision making has been outlined. The requirements for thorough and timely

assessments of applications have been highlighted to help the developer play

his/her role in the planning process by providing the necessary, timely and

accurate information along with the development application. Equally as

important, the rational behind the setbacks, guidance and restrictions that the

CZMU recommends should be made known to the general public. All

recommendations are made with the sustainable development of Barbados’s

coast at the core of our reasoning.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

APPENDIX 1: CRITERIA FOR SEA TURTLE LIGHTING PLAN (STLP)

APPROVAL (SOURCE: BARBADOS SEA TURTLE PROJECT)

A STLP approval may be issued when the applicant can provide reasonable

assurance to CZMU that the following criteria will be met to ensure that there shall

be no adverse impacts on sea turtles and sea turtle habitat.

a. Any and all light fixtures shall be designed to be the minimum level

necessary for safety and security, and

b. Will be positioned such that they minimise illumination (direct or indirect)

of the beach

The standards for lighting to comply with turtle conservation measures are as

follows:

a. Any and all light fixtures shall be designed and/or positioned such that the

source of light is not directly visible from the beach, and indirect light cast

from the fixture is shielded from the beach.

b. All essential exterior lights that cannot be positioned such that they do not

cause direct illumination of the beach must be low pressure sodium vapour

lights (producing wavelengths between 589 and 590 nanometres or fitted

with amber filters and casting an amber light). Modifications using low

pressure sodium lighting shall be coordinated with CZMU and the Barbados

Sea Turtle Project. Techniques and/or materials used are recommended to be

consistent with current lighting reference manuals.

c. All lights on balconies shall be eliminated or shielded from the beach.

Straight cylinder down lights, fitted with recessed 50 watt amber bulbs are a

good example.

d. Artificial lighting solely for decorative or accent purposes and uplights shall

not be authorized within the restricted area.

e. Lighting used in parking lots within the restricted area shall be: Set on a

base which raises the source of light no higher than forty-eight (48) inches

off the ground, or positioned and/or shielded that the source of the light is

not visible from the beach.

f. Tinted glass or any window film applied to window glass that meets the

defined criteria for tinted glass, or any window treatment appropriate for

minimizing lighting of the beach shall be installed on all windows and doors

within line of sight of the beach.

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The Applicant’s Handbook and Guide to Coastal Planning 2010

g. The turning out of all unnecessary interior lights during the nesting season

shall be strongly encouraged as a component of the visitor education

programme for all hotels.

h. The installation of ground level barriers especially dense native vegetation

or shade cloth (used by plant nurseries) shall be strongly encouraged and

may reduce the amount of indirect light striking the beach.

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GLOSSARY

This glossary is intended to provide the reader with definitions of some coastal

terminologies which may have been encountered in this website, or which may be

useful for coastal zone management research purposes.

• Accretion

The deposition of sediment, sometimes indicated by the seaward advance of

a shoreline indicator such as the water line, the berm crest, or the vegetation

line.

• Beach

An accumulation of loose sediment (usually sand or gravel) along the coast.

• Breakwater

A man-made structure protecting a shore area, harbour, anchorage, or basin

from waves.

• Building Setback

The County required seaward limit of major construction for a coastal

property. Building setbacks in Barbados are set at 30m (100 feet) from the

high water mark for beaches and 10m (30 feet) for cliffs measured from the

landward point of under cut.

Coastal Defence

General term used to encompass both coast protection against erosion and

sea defence against flooding.

Coastal Dunes

Dunes within the coastal upland, immediately landward of the active beach.

Coastal Erosion

The wearing away of coastal lands, usually by wave attack, tidal or littoral

currents, or wind. Coastal erosion is synonymous with shoreline (vegetation

line) retreat.

Coastal Zone

The transition zone where the land meets water; the region that is directly

influenced by marine hydrodynamic processes. Extends offshore to the

continental shelf break and onshore to the first major change in topography

above the reach of major storm waves.

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Coastal Zone Management

The integrated and general development of the coastal zone. Coastal Zone

Management is not restricted to coastal defence works, but includes also

coastal development in economical, ecological and social terms.

• Coastline

The line that forms the boundary between the coast and the shore.

Commonly referred to as the line that forms the boundary between the land

and the water (especially the water of a sea or ocean, also called the

shoreline).

Coral Reef

A coral-algal mound or ridge of in-place coral colonies and skeletal

fragments, carbonate sand, and organically-secreted calcium carbonate. A

coral reef is built up around a wave-resistant framework, usually of older

coral colonies.

Extensive limestone structures built largely by corals. They occur primarily

in shallow tropical and provide habitat for a large variety of other marine life

forms.

• Dune

A landform characterized by an accumulation of wind-blown sand, often

vegetated.

• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

A process by which the consequences of planned development projects are

evaluated as an integral part of planning the project.

The analysis of biological, physical, social and economic factors to

determine the environmental and social consequences of a proposed

development action. The goal of the EIA is to provide policy makers with

the best available information in order to minimize economic costs and

maximize benefits associated with a proposed development.

• Erosion

The loss of sediment, sometimes indicated by the landward retreat of a

shoreline indicator such as the water line, the berm crest, or the vegetation

line.

• Fringing Reef

A coral reef attached directly to an insular or continental shore. There may

be a shallow channel or lagoon between the reef and the adjacent mainland.

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• Gabion

Structures composed of masses of rocks, rubble or masonry held tightly

together usually by wire mesh so as to form blocks or walls. Sometimes used

(although not recommended) on heavy erosion coastal areas to retard wave

action.

• Groyne

Narrow, roughly shore-normal structure built to reduce longshore currents,

and/or to trap and retain littoral material. Most groynes are of rock and

extend from the backshore, well onto the foreshore and rarely even further

offshore.

• Groyne Field

A series of groynes acting together to protect a section of beach. Also called

a groyne system.

• High Water Mark

A reference mark on a structure or natural object, indicating the maximum

stage of tide or flood.

• Integrated Coastal Management (ICM)

The management of sectoral components (e.g., fisheries, forestry,

agriculture, tourism, urban development) as part of a functional whole (a

holistic approach to management). In ICM the focus is on the users of

natural resources, not on the stock per se of these resources. Frequently used

synonyms for ICM are integrated coastal area management (ICAM) and

integrated coastal zone management (ICZM).

• Mean High Water (MHW)

The average height of the high water over a 19-year period. For shorter

periods of observations, corrections are applied to eliminate known

variations and reduce the results to the equivalent of a mean 19-year value.

All high water heights are included in the average where the type of tide is

either semi-diurnal or mixed.

• Nourishment

The process of replenishing a beach. It may occur naturally by longshore

transport, or be brought about artificially by the deposition of dredged

material or materials trucked in from upland sites.

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• Offshore Breakwater

A breakwater built towards the seaward limit of the littoral zone, parallel (or

nearly parallel) to the shore.

• Pier

A structure, usually of open construction, extending out into the water from

the shore, to serve as a landing place, recreational facility, etc., rather than to

afford coastal protection or affect the movement of water. A term sometimes

improperly applied to jetties.

• Scarp

An almost vertical slope along the beach caused by erosion by wave action.

It may vary in height from a few cm to a metre or so, depending on wave

action and the nature and composition of the beach.

A steep slope, usually along the foreshore and/or at the vegetation line

formed by wave attack.

• Seawall

A structure, often concrete or stone, built along a portion of a coast to

prevent erosion and other damage by wave action. Often it retains earth

against its shoreward face.

A structure separating land and water areas to alleviate the risk of flooding

by the sea. Generally shore-parallel, although some reclamation seawalls

may include lengths that are normal or oblique to the (original) shoreline.

A vertical or near-vertical type of shoreline armouring characterised by a

smooth surface.

• Undercutting

Erosion of material at the foot of a cliff or bank, e.g. a sea cliff, or river bank

on the outside of a meander. Ultimately, the overhang collapses, and the

process is repeated.

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COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT UNIT

Bay Street, St. Michael

Printed by Cole’s Printery Ltd.

March 2010

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