Filter Media - Filtration News

Filter Media - Filtration News




January/February 2010

Volume 29 No. 1

Your Global Source

Sparklefilter ®

by SpinTek

Automatic Backpulse

Removes Bacteria


Industry Analysis:

Filtration & Separation

Industry Will Remain

Vibrant and Grow

Filter Media:

Selecting a Nonwoven

Filter Medium That Is Right

for Your Application


January/February 2010, Volume 29, No. 1

Industry | Analysis

Filtration & Separation Industry Will Remain Vibrant and Grow 4

Ceramic Fiber | Filter Media

A Breakthrough in “In-Situ” Filter Cleaning 8

Cover Story | SpinTek Filtration

Automatic Backpulse - Safer Water Quality 12

Filter Media | Nonwoven

Selecting a Nonwoven Filter Medium That Is Right

for Your Application 14

Adsorption | Activated Carbons

Removing PCBs From Groundwater Utilizing

Activated Carbon 18

Test Methods | Name Change

GRPD Becomes GAED Sorbent Test Method 22

Crossflow | Membranes

Koch Membrane Systems Introduces New Lees

Treatment in Wineries 24

Waste | Recycling

Turning Waste Oil Into Profit 28

Industry | News

TIGG Corporation Meets Methyl Bromide

Recapture Standards Established by USA-QPS 30

Racor Provides Replacement Elements for

Blue Bird’s Cooper Air Cleaner 30

Industrial Water Filters 31

Sealant’s New See-Flo 1100 Improves Meter-Mix Dispense 33

Industry | Events

Emphasis on Liquids and Separations at AFSS Conference 32



January/February 2010

Volume 29 No. 1


Your Global Source

Sparklefilter ®

by SpinTek

Automatic Backpulse

Removes Bacteria


Industry Analysis:

Filtration & Separation

Industry Will Remain

Vibrant and Grow

Filter Media:

Selecting a Nonwoven

Filter Medium That Is Right

for Your Application

Cover courtesy of


Design by Ken Norberg

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2 • February 2010 •

Editorial Advisory Board

Editorial Board Chairman

Edward C. Gregor, Chairman

E.C. Gregor & Assoc. LLC

Tel: 1 704 442 1940

Fax: 1 704 442 1778

M&A, Filtration Media

Haluk Alper, President

MyCelx Technologies Corp.

Tel: 770.534.3118

Fax: 770.534.3117

Oil Removal – Water and Air

Peter S. Cartwright, PE

Cartwright Consulting Co.

Membranes, RO,


Wu Chen

The Dow Chemical Company

Tel: 1 979 238 9943

Fax: 1 979 238 0651

Process Filtration (liquid/gas)

Equipment and Media

Peter R. Johnston, PE

Tel/Fax: 1 919 942 9092

Test procedures

Jim Joseph

Joseph Marketing

Tel/Fax: 1 757 565 1549

Coolant Filtration

Gerard J. Lynch, PE

Sigma Design Co., LLC

Tel: 1 973 912 7922

Fax: 1 973 912 5244

Filtration Machinery &

Product Design

Dr. Ernest Mayer

DuPont Co.

Tel: 1 302 368 0021

Fax: 1 302 368 1474

General Solid/Liquid Separations

in All Areas

Robert W. Mcilvaine

Tel: 1 847 272 0010

Fax: 1 847 272 9673


Mkt. Research & Tech. Analysis

Henry Nowicki, Ph.D. MBA

Tel: 1 724 457 6576

Fax: 1 724 457 1214

Absorbent Testing

and Training

Brandon Ost, CEO

Filtration Group

High Purity Prod. Div.

Tel: 1 630 723 2900

Air Filters, Pharmaceutical

and Micro-Electronic

Dr. Graham Rideal

Whitehouse Scientific Ltd.

Tel: +44 1244 33 26 26

Fax: +44 1244 33 50 98


Filter and Media Validation

Andy Rosol

Global Filtration Products Mgr.

FLSmidth Minerals

Tel: 1 800 826 6461/1 801 526 2005

Precoat/Bodyfeed Filter Aids

Gregg Poppe

The Dow Chemical Company

Tel: 1 952 897 4317

Fax: 1 942 835 4996

Industrial Water, Power,

and Membrane Technology

Tony Shucosky

Pall Microelectronics

Tel: 1 410 252-0800

Fax: 1 410 252-6027

Cartridges, Filter Media,


Scott P. Yaeger

Filtration and Separation

Technology LLC

Tel/Fax: 219-324-3786

Mobile: 805-377-5082

Membranes, New Techn.

Wells Shoemaker

Advisory Board

Member Emeritus

Dr. Bob Baumann

Advisory Board

Member Emeritus • February 2010 • 3

Industry | Analysis

Filtration & Separation Industry

Will Remain Vibrant and Grow

By Wu Chen, Ph.D., Dow Chemical, Freeport, Texas, U.S.A.


iltration technology is used in

all industries and households

and is an important part of

human life. The filtration and separation

industry provides services and devices

to meet these filtration needs.

Since it covers such a wide applications

spectrum, it is natural that this industry

is very diversified, segmented and not

well understood. Most of the work and

industry analyses are focusing on certain

market segments or technology. It

is very difficult and seldom attempted

to have a sensible analysis of the whole

filtration and separation industry.


Very often when people talk about

filtration, they have filter media in

mind. Although this thought is true in

many cases, a lot can be missed. Filter

media is crucial in a filtration process

but there are also many separations carried

without a filter medium. Even in

true filtration processes, often the filter

medium is only part of the whole unit.

There are more components than just

the filter media to make the filter work.

Figure 1. Fluid/Particle Separation Technology

When discussing the filtration industry,

one needs to be aware of what is really

in the so-called filtration world, and

this needs to be discussed from three

different aspects; technology, market

segments and value chain.


It is customarily to use the term filtration

to refer to the process of separating

particles from a fluid stream. It

is further divided into two distinct

areas, air filtration and liquid filtration.

Since a filter medium is not always

used in separating particles from a fluid

stream, the term of filtration is really

limited to separation processes involving

the use of separation septa. A better

term, fluid/particle separation, should

be used. Within fluid/particle separations,

there are solid/liquid separations

and solid/gas separations and each of

them includes different technologies 1 ,


(Figure 1).

Solid/Gas Separation

Solid/gas separation can be further

divided into two major areas – filtration

4 • February 2010 •

and separation depending on whether a

filter medium is used. As filtration is the

dominant mechanism in solid/gas separation

and most applications involve air,

the term “air filtration” is often used to

refer to this whole industry.

There are two key filtration mechanisms,

direct sieving and indirect interceptions.

In direct sieving, the particles

are larger than the openings of the filter

medium and get filtered out. The more

commonly encountered filtration

mechanism in gas filtration is indirect

interception where the particles are collected

by the filter media by inertial impaction,

diffusion (Brownian motion),

interception, and electrostatic effects.

In addition to filtration, there are also

separation methods without filter

media. These methods utilize inertia,

electrostatic or centrifugal forces to

achieve solid/gas separation.

Solid/Liquid Separation

Solid/liquid separation technology

can also be divided into filtration and

separation. Depending on the filtration

mechanism, there are four sub-categories

in liquid filtration.

The simplest filtration

mechanism is

straining where particles

are caught on the

medium by direct sieving.

Particles larger

than the medium

openings are filtered

out. The second mechanism

is cake filtration

where the number of

particles is high

enough to form a particle

bed called the filter

cake. This cake

becomes the primary

filter septum and the original filter

medium is not as important in the particle

capture. Sometimes the filter media

are thick so the particles are caught inside

the filter media. This type of filtration

is called depth filtration. Very fine

particles tend to form a dense cake and

retard the filtration rate, in these cases

cross flow filtrations are commonly

used to keep the particles from forming

a cake. This technique is used by most

membrane filters since they are used to

separate very fine particles.

Beside filtration, solid/liquid separation

can also be accomplished by gravitational

or centrifugal forces where the

particles are separated due to their density

differences from the liquid phase.

Different equipment and design considerations

are used for these two mechanisms.

Flotation, also utilizes

gravitational force but the particles are

made lighter than the liquid phase so

they float to the top and are separated.

There are other field-forces like magnetic

and electrostatic forces used for

separating particles from liquid streams.

Unlike solid/gas separtion, the mechanisms

of filtration and separation are

equally used and none of the applications

dominate solid/liquid separation.

Therefore, the commonly used term of

“liquid filtration” is not a good representative

term for solid/liquid separation.

The above brief discussion provides

high lever overview of technologies

used in the filtration and separation industry

today. It can be seen that this industry

covers a broad technology

spectrum. Therefore, it is very difficult

for any participant to engage in more

than one technology area. Almost all of

the companies in this industry focus

on one or part of one technology area.

In North America, very few companies

are able to participate in multiple technology

areas. One example is Pall,

which is strong in straining type of liquid

filtration technology but also participate

in businesses involving cake

filtration, cross flow filtration and gas

filtration technologies.

The trend will continue as large

companies like Pall continue to expand

their technology envelope. There will

also be smaller companies who focus

on part of a technology area and excel

in that specific market. An example is

the Oberlin Filter Company who focuses

on one type of cake filters.


With broad application coverages in

filtration and separation, it is not surprising

that this industry is highly segmented.

These market segments are

most often categorized by applications.

The detailed name and number of segments

vary from analyst to analyst. The

major commonly used segments will be

briefly reviewed.

Solid/Gas Separation (Air Filtration)

This area involves removal of particulates

from a gas stream. As air filtration

has the most number of

applications and highest volumes of

sales, the term air filtration is commonly

used by this industry. Its primary

segments include:

• HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and

Air Conditioning)

• HEPA/ULPA (High Efficiency

Particulate Air/Ultra Low

Penetration Air)

• Power generation

• Transportation (filtration for • February 2010 • 5

Industry | Analysis

engine intake, exhaust and cabin air)

• Vacuum cleaners

• Medical

• Military

• Industrial dust control

• Others

The applications above are predominantly

accomplished through filter

media. Therefore, filter media plays the

key role in the solid/gas separation

arena. Although each segment has its

own opportunity and development

trend, the emphasis on filter media is

universal among all segments. The common

needs are to increase efficiency in

particle removal, reduce pressure drop,

and in the meantime, lower the cost.

This trend has been in the past and will

continue in the future.

The use of membrane media is a

major approach toward high efficiency

filters. New material (like PTFE) gradually

finds its place in the media market

with its better performance in pore size

control and chemical compatibility. Due

to the high cost of membranes, meltblown

technology is continually being

improved to provide low-cost high efficiency

media. The use of nano fibers are

now on the rise and this may provide a

proper middle point between meltblown

and membrane media in terms of cost

and filtration efficiency.

Solid/Liquid Separation

In solid/liquid separation applications,

filtration is not the dominant

mechanism. The utilization of filtration

or separation (non-filtration) is about

the same. The major industrial segments


• Water treatment

• Petro-chemicals

• Food and beverage

• Biopharmaceutical

• Fuel

• Electronics

• Medical

• Marine

• Military

• Transportation

• Mining & Minerals

• Others

Figure 2. Value chain in

the filtration and

separation industry

Similar to air filtration, the major development

area in the liquid filtration

arena is the media. The opportunities

and trends are very similar to those in

air filtration. One of the key differences

between solid/liquid separation and

solid/gas separation is that equipment

and mechanical design are much more

emphasized in solid/liquid separation

arena. For example, in the biopharmaceutical

and food & beverage industries,

CIP (clean-in-place) is a must and

effort is spent in improving that capability.

This trend will continue. In membrane

filtration, not only the membrane

itself is the subject of improvement, but

the module design to increase surface

area, the vessel design to improve the

controllability of crossflow and transmembrane

pressure, and the seal design

for different chemicals all present challenges

and opportunities.

Evaluation by Value Chain

The size of the filtration and separation

market is at least $20 - $30 billion 3 ,


depending on how one analyzes the

market and could be much larger if a

broader value chain scope is considered.

The fact that many market segments

exist causes some discrepancies in the

market analyses. The major confusion

is probably coming from how one defines

this industry’s boundary. Figure 2

shows the value chain involved in the

filtration and separation industry. A sensible

market evaluation needs to have a

clear definition of the scope included in

the analyses. Many times, people only

6 • February 2010 •

consider media producers and filter fabricators

as the “filtration industry”,

which is sufficient if interests are only

in the fiber or media business. For a better

understanding of this whole industry,

it is worth while to look at the value

chain in a bigger picture.

The value chain starts with material

supplies. This alone is a very large industry,

which includes plastics

(polypropylene, polyester, nylon, PTFE,

etc.), metals (steel, stainless steel or

other metals), adhesives (epoxy,

polyurethane, etc.), and more. The filtration

industry has not been putting a

lot of effort into the improvement in

this area since it may be quite involved

to introduce a new material to the manufacturing

process or market. It can also

be due to a lack of awareness of the advances

and opportunities in raw materials.

With today’s progress in the

chemical industry, there are great opportunities

in plastic materials alone.

There are technologies that allow plastics

to have improved properties like

higher temperature resistance, better

chemical resistance, higher tensile

strength, better removal efficiency for

special substances like fine particles or

allergens and lower melt viscosity to

allow for order of magnitude faster

speed in the media manufacturing.

The next step in the value chain is

the media producers, filter component

producers or equipment parts producers.

These are all essential parts of a filter

or a separator. In the filtration and

separation industry, the attention has

een in the media production as it is

considered the core of the filtration. The

industry for filter media itself has many

segments and it takes a book to discuss

them individually. Besides the general

trend of developing higher efficiency,

lower pressure drop and lower cost

media, custom tailored media for specific

applications to catch a niche market

is also on the rise. One example is

multifunctional media which can remove

volatile organic compounds and

odor as well as particulates. This kind

of medium is especially useful in the automotive

cabin air filter segment.

Filter fabricators and equipment fabricators

take the filter media and make

the filter. While filters with different

configurations can be made from the

same media, the drive is to maximize the

filtration area within the space constrain

but maintain filtration efficiencies and

operation capability. Frequently used approaches

include the use of pleated

media, multi-layer media, graded depth

media structure and other innovative

designs. For improving filtration efficiency,

finer fibers or surface treatments

are the general direction. For equipment

fabricators (either for filters or separators),

improvement in equipment design

is focusing on material handling (like

cake discharge, leak-by prevention) as

well as better separation efficiency

(higher electrostatic charge, longer lived

electrostatic charge, higher centrifugal

force, lower turbulences, etc.).

Another important driver for more

efficient filter media is government

regulations. In the U.S., regulation has

tightened the emission specifications

from PM10 to PM2.5 (Particulate Matter

smaller than 10 or 2.5 microns).

This has impacted the emission filter

design for power generation and created

challenges and opportunities for

filter bag suppliers.

System integrators put ancillaries

(pump, pipe, valves, controllers, etc.)

together so the filter can function. In

many applications, the “standard” system

is provided. With the increasing

demand in the market, especially in

the solid/liquid separation market,

suppliers need to be able to respond

quickly and design systems for new or

specific applications.

Distributors play an important role

between the end user and suppliers.

Traditionally, they just distribute or sell

but the trend in the past decade and for

sure in the future is that the distributors

will have a larger role as the field

support for the filter suppliers and

VOC (voice of customers) for the customers.

They can even influence or

control the trend of future development.

Good examples are Walmart and

Home Depot, with their high sales volumes;

they set the standard and are influential

in the Test Method definition.

The end users are the actual consumers

of the filter or separators.

There are industrial users who normally

place orders in large dollar

amounts. There are also household

users. Although the individual purchased

quantity is small, the total

number of domestic users outweighs

any industrial users.

None of the filters last forever and

sooner or later they need to be replaced.

The disposal of spent filter or

related materials was seldom considered

in the value chain since it is mixed

with other waste/trash. With the growing

awareness of environmental protection

globally, there is a need to

address the waste from spent filters or

separators. This is already true in the

industrial filtration processes. One of

the major drives in the filtration industry

today is to design longer life filters

but there will still be plenty of

waste to be disposed. Businesses relating

to spent filter disposal will have

opportunities in the future.


Some examples of challenges and

opportunities in this industry can also

be seen from the American Filtration &

Separation Society Conference. This

conference is devoted to the infrastructure

and sustainability in the filtration’s

growth markets. Key topics that have

been discusses are:

• Water - our lifeline and nature’s

greatest resource

• Water Reuse - saving precious


• Ultrapure Air - commercial and

industrial challenges

• Health and the Environment • February 2010 • 7

• Reusable and Extended Life Filters

– eliminating/reducing waste

• Challenges in Transportation

• Energy and Power Generation

Filtration in Defense and

International Security Issues

These subjects may not be all inclusive

but definitely provide a good view

of the industrial trend in people’s mind.


There is no doubt the filtration and

separation industry will remain a vibrant

and growing4 industry. The challenges

remain in its highly segmented markets

and the difficulties in getting complete

appreciation of its opportunities. An understanding

from a bigger picture view

of the whole industry will be a good start


to get ahead in this industry.


1. American Filtration & Separation Society,

Filtration Basic Course - Basic Solid/Liquid

Separation”, course note, Ann Arbor, MI (2007).

2. American Filtration & Separation Society,

Filtration Basic Course - Basic Air Filtration”,

course note, Ann Arbor, MI (2007).

3. Rideal, G., “Filtration: the Marketplace,”

Filtration & Separation, Sept. (2005)

4. Sutherland, K., “Defining the Filtration

Market,” Filtration & Separation, Mar. (2005)

Ceramic Fiber | Filter Media

A Breakthrough in “In-Situ” Filter Cleaning

By Dick Nixdorf, President & CEO, Industrial Ceramic Solutions, LLC

Figure 1. All ceramic fiber

media at 300X magnification

8 • February 2010 •


oday’s global economy has

placed industry in developed

countries at a competitive

disadvantage with developing countries

in the areas of labor costs and

environmental regulations. The answer

to maintaining market share and

reasonable profit margins is reducing

manufacturing costs and minimizing

environmental compliance expense.

Industrial process efficiency improvements

usually require higher operating

temperatures. Lower emission

control expenses require a need to replace

outdated pollution control systems

with innovative filtration technologies.

Temperature dependent industrial

manufacturing requires

increasing the process exhaust temperature

beyond the limits of the current

cellulosic or polymeric filtration

equipment. The standard solution in

moving to a higher temperature exhaust

is a thermal oxidizer system.

This technology is similar to a catalytic

converter on a car. A ceramic or

metal honeycomb is coated with a

precious metal catalyst that converts

emissions to harmless gas products at

a temperature above the catalyst reaction

temperature. Most industrial

process exhausts do not reach this

catalyst reaction temperature. Therefore,

additional heat must be added

by burning large volumes of natural

gas to increase the process exhaust

stream to the catalyst reaction temperature

as it passes through the ceramic

honeycomb. These costs for

natural gas can range from $100,000

to $5 million/year, depending on the

size of the exhaust stream. An additional

penalty is high CO2 emissions.

One answer to these high operating

costs is a patented, dual-layer, wet-laid,

nonwoven ceramic fiber filtration

media trademarked ThermoPore TM .


This alternative, commercially

available, ceramic fiber filter media

and its ceramic frame components

will operate to temperatures up to

1,200˚C to accommodate high processing

and exhaust temperatures.

The filter media shown in Figure 1 is

95% efficient at removing organic and

carbonaceous particles down to 0.1

microns. The ceramic filter media can,

further, be coated with a precious

metal catalyst to destroy all combustible

hydrocarbons and VOC’s at

temperatures above 400˚C. In circumstances

where industrial exhaust

steams operate below this temperature

at the filtration equipment location,

the ceramic fiber media can

capture the particulate over a period

of time, regardless of the exhaust temperature.

When the filter cartridge(s)

reach a designed particulate loading,

as determined by backpressure measurements,

the filter cartridge(s) are

cleaned in a periodic mode to combust

the captured particulate to a

harmless CO2 and H2O gasses at an

elevated temperature. The clean filter

is then returned to its filtering task in

the process stream. In many cases the

filter cartridges can be individually

cleaned, in place, without moving to a

separate filter cleaning station. The

natural gas expense required for this

cleaning is less than 5% of that consumed

by a thermal oxidizer.

The preferred concept is to trap

particulate over a long period of time

without applying auxiliary heat to the

exhaust stream, followed by cleaning

at a high temperature for a short period.

A typical operating sequence for

a ceramic fiber cartridge emission system

is filtration for eight hours, followed

by a 30 minute high

temperature cleaning cycle. The filter

systems are designed to trap a given

quantity of particulate to reach a designated

backpressure. Upon reaching

the selected backpressure, the cartridge

assembly is exposed to a hightemperature

cleaning cycle. During

the cleaning cycle, the temperature of

the filter cartridges is raised to the

particulate oxidation state. The filter

is cleaned. Any pollutant exhaust

gases evolved from the filter system,

during this cleaning cycle, are directed

through an auxillary catalyst

coated ceramic fiber exhaust chimney

filter to assure that no hydrocarbons

or VOC’s escape to the atmosphere.


The ceramic fiber filter media is

very efficient at removing particulate

from the exhaust stream. There usually

is no visible smoke from the plant

exhaust. Figure 2 shows the efficiency

of a filter cartridge servicing a

high particulate diesel engine application.

The light color bar is the particle

count prior to the filter and the

dark bars represent the particle count • February 2010 • 9

Ceramic Fiber | Filter Media

Figure 2. 98% particle removal efficiency in diesel exhaust based on particle diameter.

after the ceramic fiber filter. 95% to

99% particle removal efficiency is

typical. Figure 3 illustrates the degrees

of freedom in filter cartridge

shapes. Ceramic fiber filter cartridges

can be fabricated into any shape

available to polymer fiber media cartridges,

e.g. flat or round pleats. Filter

systems can be designed to accommodate

exhaust streams from 10 to

250,000 cfm, with clean filter media

backpressure at 0.3 inches of water.

Therefore, ceramic fiber media can

accommodate exhaust systems that

demand a low backpressure from the

filtration system. The weight of the

filter cartridge is approximately 1/3rd

that of competing ceramic honeycomb

products. The weight benefit is

a meaningful cost reduction of large

systems. A complementary option is

a secondary polymer fiber filter

coated with a special organic absorbent

material that will remove

VOC’s after the ceramic fiber filter.


The US EPA Clean Air Act of 1990

and the emerging regulations from the

California Air Resources Board are

changing the requirements for commercial,

industrial and vehicle exhaust

emissions. The transition from

PM10 to PM2.5 regulations will leave

many exhaust emissions in a noncompliance

situation. If the current

Cap and Trade regulations become

law, the established practice of using

gas burners and thermal oxidizers will

become more expensive. An energy

efficient technology is needed to overcome

these issues. The ceramic fiber

filter media will comply with the

PM2.5 regulations. It will reduce the

operating expense of gas burner thermal

oxidizers to less than 5% of their

current operating costs.

The following are four common enduse

applications for in-situ cleaning:

Figure 3. Pleated ceramic fiber filter cartridge size and shape is flexible.

10 • February 2010 •

Thermal Oxidizers are used in

most smoke, odor and VOC control

applications in industry today. The ceramic

fiber filter media can provide a

cost-effective replacement for many of

these units.

Coal-Fire Steam Plants currently

comply with PM10 emission regulations.

The existing equipment, such

as scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators,

need to be replaced to comply

with PM2.5. Ceramic fiber filters provide

PM2.5 filtration efficiency at

lower capital and operating costs.

Restaurant, Coffee Roaster and

Volume Food Cooking Emissions are

facing smoke and odor regulations in

California and subsequently across

the US. There is no reliable low-cost

emission control system to bring these

applications into compliance.

Wood-Burning Boilers and Waste

Oil Incinerators are a rapidly growing

industry in colder climates in the

Northeast and Midwest. Their emissions

are a nuisance to the environment.

However, their cost savings on

energy bills is significant. Ceramic

fiber filtration may provide a solution

to their pollution problems.


High-temperature ceramic fiber filtration

products are now commercially

available due to processing breakthroughs

in binders, pleating and filter

cartridge manufacturing technology.

This product technology provides advantages

in many existing manufacturing

and new processing applications.

The use of ceramic fiber filter systems

opens previously unavailable hightemperature

filter system design opportunities

to application and process

development engineers. The ceramic

fiber filter technology also offers significant

energy cost savings compared

to existing emission control systems

with high operating costs.


Mr. Nixdorf is a material scientist at Industrial

Ceramic Solutions experienced in converting

new materials ideas to commercial products

in exhaust emissions control systems.

For more information contact: Dick Nixdorf

Tel: 1-865-482-7552 Ext.2



Visit our website and online buyers’ guide: • February 2010 • 11

Cover Story | SpinTek Filtration

Automatic Backpulse - Safer Water Quality

By William A. Greene, President, SpinTek Filtration Inc.

One of the most effective ways

to clean a membrane drinking

water system is to backflush

the filter by sending the clean

filtrate produced by the filter back

through the membrane layer at a higher

pressure than the feed pressure.

Conventional filters use a resilient

bladder configuration whose collapsible

bladder can never produce more

pressure than the feed pressure. This

limiting factor prevents the constant

pressure necessary for continual cleaning

of bio-solids.

Sparklefilter® is a high-flux yet compact

proprietary drinking water system

with an automatic backpulser that

sends filtered water through the hollow

fibers in reverse, flushing away all solids

and biological contaminants. Its innovative

anti-fouling technology uses

“outside-in” hollow fiber membranes

engineered for durability and burst

strength to allow rigorous backflushing.


In the service mode, feed water enters

the Sparkle system and passes

through the prefilter and the hollow

fibers; fills the filtrate chamber and

exits as clean, fresh drinking water. In

the backflush mode, the feed water

pushes the “backpulser cup” and with

the drain open, cleans the membrane

module by reversing the filtrate flow.

Sparkle’s anti-fouling technology creates

reverse flow pressure that remains

constant during the cleaning cycle because

of the unique design of dual nonresilient

collapsible chambers (DNC2).

12 • February 2010 •

This ability to produce amplified pressure

provides a distinct advantage over

conventional resilient bladder filters by

allowing consistent backflushing every

time. The integral prefilter reduces

fouling, simplifying the system and

eliminating additional plumbing. And,

for added water storage, a pressurized

bladder can be added.

While Sparkle will remove all bacteria

and suspended solids that are

very small in size, the performance of

the filter is enhanced by an integral

pre-filter for solids removal. In addition,

other filters or absorbers can be

added for specific contaminant removal

such as arsenic, chlorine, mercury,

etc., depending upon location

and feed water make-up.

The system is versatile and price

competitive and can be used effectively

anywhere in the world: residential

drinking water, whole-house

filtration, industrial applications, or

as a stand-alone in rural areas and developing

countries with no external

power source.


The backflush side of the system’s

pressure amplifier has a 150-

percent-larger area than

the filtrate side, so

when a water pressure

of 40 psig is applied to

the backflush side it creates

a backflush pressure

of 60 psig. The ratio in

the chambers can be tailored

to specific membranes

and specific

applications. The feed

water pressure creates a continuous

force applied to the

backflush side of the pressure

‘cup’ and stays constant, so the pressure

of water driven backward through the

membrane stays constant. This continues

until the entire volume of backflush

water has been completely used and the

feed chamber is completely collapsed or

the cycle is stopped.

Sparkle’s pressure amplifier design

eliminates the problem of feed water

pressure variances–the membrane is

continually provided with enough

backflush pressure. The backflush pressure

is always at a fixed ratio greater

than the feed water based upon the sizing

of the filtrate and backflush areas of

the cup. While the backpulse design

provides specific amounts of water

each time, additional backflush water

is available on demand.


When reverse backflush pressure is

constant and greater than feed pressure,

membrane filters clean more efficiently

and last longer. With backflush

pressure always lower than feed pressure,

conventional resilient bladder

configurations lack the pressure

needed for continuous cleaning of biosolids.

Sparkle’s proprietary pressure

amplifier design solves this problem

with a larger surface area backflush

chamber than the filtrate chamber,

plus a backpulser “cup” providing consistent

flow of backflush water during

the entire cleaning cycle. The result is

steady backflush pressure

throughout the entire cleaning

cycle, providing constant

and efficient

contaminant removal.

Sparklefilter is manufactured

by SpinTek

Filtration Inc., specializing

in engineered solutions

for industrial,

commercial and oily

wastewater applications.

The company offers ultrafiltration

(UF) tubular

membrane modules and systems

and compact rotary membrane

systems (ST-II) using

stainless steel membranes for

harsh nuclear or wastewater applications.

The company designs and

manufactures solvent extraction (SX)

media filters and CoMatrix® coalescers

for copper, nickel and zinc mining operations,

as well as oil field and refinery

applications worldwide.


For more information contact:

SpinTek Filtration Inc.

10863 Portal Drive • Los Alamitos, CA 90720

Tel: 1-714- 236-9190

Website: • February 2010 • 13

Filter Media | Nonwoven

Selecting a Nonwoven Filter Medium

That Is Right for Your Application

By Raj Shah, Global Marketing Leader, Polymers, Pall Corporation


onwoven filter media is a

generic term that includes a

wide variety of filtration and

separation media. It can include all

media based on various separation

properties such as electrostatic media,

coalescing media, adsorptive media,

and antimicrobial media. It can also include

media based on various raw materials

such as natural plant and animal

fiber forms, polymers, metals, binders,

or additives, to name a few.

For the purpose of this article, the

nonwoven filter media discussed is

solely sintered metal random fiber

media. Sintered metal random fiber

media is used extensively in a variety of

liquid and gas service applications

where high strength, high temperature

resistance, corrosion resistance, noncompressibility,

and cleanability are desired.

This article is focused on

discussing the sintered metal random

fiber media used in high-viscosity polymer

melt filtration applications.

The primary purpose for polymermelt

filtration is to remove hard contamination

as well as soft particles such

as gels or undissolved polymer. The

particle size distribution for both the

hard and soft contamination is largely

unknown and depends on many factors

such as feedstock quality, feedstock filtration,

catalyst, additives, process stability,

etc. In the case of soft particles

such as gels, the size may not only vary

widely, but can also change continuously

as polymer shearing and gel

shearing occur with the rise in differential

pressure across the filter system.

Thus, there is a need for a filter

medium that is not classifying in nature

and can remove a wide range of contaminants

(both size and type) in most

polymer melt filtration applications.

The filter medium should be able to not

only remove but also retain the removed

contamination in its depth matrix

without shedding as differential

pressure rises. A multi-layered random

fiber-type nonwoven filter medium is

best suited to achieve this (Figure 1).

Identifying and selecting the right

media from the many choices that are

available is critical to matching the right

filter to the application. This article aims

to address this important media selection

process. While selecting a nonwoven

medium appears to be an art, there

is a scientific and methodical approach

that can be applied with the proper understanding

of the following:

1) The manufacturing process

involved in making a nonwoven

filter medium

2) Various properties required from

a typical medium (output)

3) Parameters available to the filter

medium designer (inputs)


The manufacturing of a sintered

metal random fiber media begins with

the drawing of wires of various diameters.

Wires of different sizes are first

drawn from a metal rod and then

processed to turn them into fibers of

different sizes. These fibers are then airlaid

to form a web layer. Depending on

the formulation, multiple layers of fiber

webs consisting of the same or different

fiber sizes are laid on top of one another

to form a multi-layer matrix. This

matrix is then sintered multiple times

at high temperatures in different types

of furnaces. Frequent checks during the

manufacturing process are made to ensure

a media of consistent quality and

target properties is produced. Media

made from the same size fibers has a

symmetric pore structure, while media

made from varying fiber sizes has an

asymmetric pore structure (Figures 2

and 3). For most polymer applications,

an asymmetric filter media with a reducing

pore structure is preferred as it

provides the highest possibility of retaining

soft contamination like gels.

Figure 1. Removal efficiency of woven vs. non-woven media


A few of the key properties (outputs)

for random fiber-type filter media include:

14 • February 2010 •

their removal rating and the test conditions (single pass

vs. multiple pass), as well as the retention efficiency at various

percentages. The removal rating is directly related not

only to the end quality of the fluid being filtered, but also

to how the medium interacts with the catalysts and various


Figure 2. Nonwoven filter

media made with different size

fibers resulting in an asymmetric

pore geometry

Figure 3. Nonwoven filter

media made from same size

microscopic fibers resulting in

symmetrical pore geometry

Efficiency – “Efficiency” is the most critical performance

data to consider when comparing two different filter media. Efficiency

data clearly identifies the capability of the medium to

remove and retain particulate, under specified test conditions.

It is a common practice to compare filter media based on micron

ratings instead of removal efficiency. However, such practice

is flawed as it does not indicate the degree of efficiency for

the rating and allows for wide variance in filter performance of

different filters having the same micron rating.

Ideally, filter media should be compared according to

Permeability - Simply put, “permeability” is the ease with

which the fluid will pass through a porous medium. The

pressure drop is inversely proportional to the permeability

of the filter medium. A medium with high permeability is,

therefore, desirable.

Porosity - “Porosity” (commonly confused with permeability)

is the ratio of the void volume in a filter medium to

its total volume. It relates to the dirt-holding capacity of a

filter medium. Pressure drop is inversely proportional to the

porosity of the filter medium.

Dirt-holding Capacity - “Dirt-holding capacity” is the

mass of contamination that a filter can hold before reaching

the maximum allowable pressure drop. It is directly proportional

to the porosity. A medium with high dirt-holding capacity

is desirable, as it will stay onstream longer.

Strength - All metal media is expected to withstand rigorous

cyclical conditions during process and cleaning stages. • February 2010 • 15

Filter Media | Nonwoven

All sintered metal-type random fiber

media is porous and, therefore, compressible

to a certain extent. However,

the compressibility between two nonwoven

fiber media of different suppliers

can vary greatly. The reason for this

difference is a result of the fiber design,

media design, and manufacturing technique,

which can greatly influence the

compression resistance over the life of

the filter media.

16 • February 2010 •


Fiber sizes - When fibers are laid

over each other, they are randomly dispersed

in a plane parallel to the

medium surface and form pores of irregular

shapes. Smaller pores are

formed when a nonwoven media is

made from fibers of smaller diameters.

An asymmetrical media (made from

different-sized fibers) will have more

fibers of a smaller diameter than a symmetrical

media (made from fibers of the

same size), given that the basis weight

and porosity of the two mediums are

the same. Thus, a smaller pore size is

achievable by manipulating the fiber

sizes in the formulation.

Fiber layers - If the fiber geometry

and fiber dispersion are uniform, then

the number of fiber layers is directly related

to the medium basis weight. A

medium of higher basis weight or more

fiber layers will typically have a smaller

effective pore size and, thus, more resistance

to flow. This is because the irregularly

shaped pores offset each other

in position and orientation among different

fiber layers. Thus, the higher the

number of fiber layers, the higher the

basis weight and the lower the permeability.

As a result, pore size and permeability

can be manipulated by

controlling fiber layers and basis weight

at the design stage.

Tortuosity - Fluid “tortuosity” is defined

as the length of the fluid flow

path divided by the thickness of the filter

media. The higher tortuosity in random

fiber media is a result of the high

porosity and the tapered-pore geometry

unlike other nonwoven medium,

where either the porosity is reduced or

thickness is increased to achieve high

tortuosity. Designing higher tortuosity

without having to reduce the porosity

or increase the media thickness eliminates

the possibility of polymer shearing

while it flows through the filter


Manufacturing techniques - There

are many parameters involved in the

various steps of fiber drawing, webbing,

sintering, calendaring, and testing

of filter media. Controlling these parameters

is critical to influencing the

properties of the required fiber media.


To select the best nonwoven media

for an application, an understanding

of the properties of the filter material

is necessary. With an understanding

Figure 4.


pleated filter

element construction

Figure 5. Uniform

flow distribution

of an

Ultipleat filter

of the various media properties, it becomes

easier to define the target

properties (output) required in a

nonwoven filter medium. These

properties can be translated into specific

parameters (inputs) only when

a producer has the ability to understand

the science, and the capability

to successfully manufacture the basic

building blocks such as fiber design,

fiber manufacturing, and formulation

design. Thus selecting the proper

nonwoven fiber media requires one

to look beyond the traditional micron

rating and into the various

properties of the media, as well as

the manufacturing capability and experience

of the media producer. A

company like Pall that is dedicated

strictly to filtration and separation

solutions and which makes its own

fibers, formulations, medium, elements,

and systems is best suited to

custom engineer a nonwoven media

for the unique filtration applications

required in polymer melt processes.

Pall’s sintered metal fiber media is

available in flat sheet form as well as

in many geometries such as flat

packs, pleated packs, leaf discs, and

pleated candle filters that are used

extensively in polymer production

processes. Using metal fiber medium

in a pleated candle form remains the

most common filtration method for

various synthetic fiber producers in

the world. Pall has combined its custom-engineered,

nonwoven media

with its revolutionary Ultipleat®

candles (featuring wave-shaped

pleats) to deliver the most cost-effective

filtration solution to date

(Figures 4 and 5). Ultipleat candles

offer up to a 50% increase in filter

area over conventional candles,

which reduces operation costs by extending

the on-stream life of the candle

and reducing the size of the filter

system. Challenging applications

such as dope-dyed yarns, where a

master batch typically causes rapid

plugging of filters and greatly reduces

on-stream filter life, is one of

many applications where Pall’s custom-engineered

media and Ultipleat

candles are effectively used.

Pall Corporation offers a wide

range of metal fiber and other nonwoven

metal filter media that caters • February 2010 • 17

to numerous applications in both liquid

and gas environments. Its sintered

metal random fiber-type media

is available in various grades of stainless

steel as well as many exotic alloys

such as Hastelloy, Inconel,


and Monel, to name a few.

For more information contact:

Pall Corporation

25 Harbor Park Drive

Port Washington, NY 11050

Tel: +1 516 484 3600

Tel: (toll free U.S.) +1 888 873 7255

Adsorption | Activated Carbons

Removing PCBs From Groundwater

Utilizing Activated Carbon

By Jeff Marmarelli and John Sherbondy, TIGG Corporation, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.


or about 50 years polychlorinated

biphenyls (PCBs) were

commonly used in industrial

materials including, caulking, cutting

oils, inks, paints and as dielectric fluids

in electrical equipment such as transformers

and capacitors. Concerns over

health effects lead to a North American

ban of manufacturing PCBs in 1977. By

the mid 1980’s an initiative was started

to clean up contaminated areas and to

phase out PCB containing equipment

and products that were still in use. This

cleanup effort continues today.

Careless disposal practices and accidental

discharges in the past contribute

to the present amount of PCBs in

groundwater and in sediments of rivers

and lakes. Growing public and government

concern over health hazards has

lead to new practices to safely remove

and dispose of PCBs. Residual contamination

has been effectively treated

using systems utilizing activated carbon

adsorption media.

Activated carbon is widely used for

the adsorption of many contaminants

from liquid, air streams. The activated

carbon is produced from carbonaceous

organic substances including bituminous

coal, coconut shell, lignite, bone,

wood and other materials. It is used in

many applications including the production

of foods, decolorization of liquids

such as recycling of glycol, and

trace contamination removal from air.

Adsorption results from a physical

process in which layers of atoms or

molecules of one substance are attracted

on to the surface structure of

another substance. Activated carbon’s

extremely high surface area within its

extensive pore structure makes it an

ideal adsorbent. One pound of activated

carbon has the surface area equivalent

to six football fields.

Activated carbon exhibits a graphitic

plate structure, and one may liken the

formation of adsorption surfaces to a

box of peanut brittle, with the highest

energy adsorption sites formed at the

18 • February 2010 •

intersections of the plates (Figure 1).

The iodine number is used as a general

measurement of the surface area of the

activated carbon. These numbers generally

range from 900-1100 for higher

quality carbons.

Activated carbons tend to adsorb organic

compounds with increasing affinity

as adsorbate (the material being

adsorbed) molecular weight, boiling

point, and refractive index increase and

as solubility decreases. Thus, activated

carbon has a high affinity for PCBs due

to their high molecular weight, high indices

of refraction, and very low solubilities.

PCBs have a very large

molecular structure and for effective

adsorption will require an activated carbon

with a compatible pore size. Different

base materials will yield different

pore structures. For example, coalbased

carbon has a pore structure that

will better accommodate these types of

molecules as compared to coconutbased

carbon. Coconut-based carbons

are more suited to smaller molecular

weight compounds with low boiling

points and, therefore, are not as effec-

Figure 1: Carbon plates • February 2010 • 19

Adsorption | Activated Carbons

Figure 2: Isotherm for PCB molecule

tive in this application compared to a

quality coal-based carbon.

The surface loading of adsorbate on

activated carbon varies with the concentration

and conditions in the fluid

stream. In order to evaluate the economic

potential of an application, the

activated carbon isotherms can be developed

for the particular


at a given set of

conditions. Many

isotherms are already

available for

various compounds

including PCBs.

They can be obtained

from carbon

manufacturers, purifications


and EPA

literature. They can

also be developed

in the lab using

simple procedures.

Figure 2 illustrates

an isotherm

for a PCB molecule

with one chlorine

atom on TIGG 5D

1240 coal-based activated

carbon. As

with any testing,

these isotherms are

performed under

controlled laboratory


20 • February 2010 •

Actual performance in the field can be

affected by any number of factors associated

with the treatment system.

When dealing with PCB contaminated

groundwater, the solubility of the

PCB isomers molecules in the water can

typically range 20-60ppb with solubilities

generally below 1 ppm. Above these

levels the PCB’s will be found as free

product. As illustrated by the isotherm,

PCBs are readily adsorbed by activated

carbon, with the example of the PCB isomer

with only one chlorine atom (the

lowest affinity for all PCB isomers) showing

excellent loading on the carbon, even

at 1 ppb levels. The result is that effluent

levels below 1ppb are achievable.

Treatment of this water is dependant

not only on keeping the carbon “clean”

for proper kinetic transference of the molecules,

but also the contact time allowed

for the adsorption to take place. Field experiences

has shown that often under turbid

conditions the PCB levels in the

effluent after the carbon adsorbers can be

as high as 3-5ppb. The reason for the

higher than expected levels in the effluent

is that the PCBs will attach themselves

to colloidal material in the water or any

carbon fines and pass through the bed

without being adsorbed. In order to decrease

these residual levels upstream and

downstream filtration is required. Typi-

Figure 3: Typical PCB removal system. (Varies according to specific applications.)

cally a 5-10 micron bagfilter is installed

prior to the carbon bed and a 0.5-micron

bag filter is installed after the carbon bed,

prior to discharge. These processes remove

most suspended solids that may be

entering the carbon and essentially “plugging”

the bed of the carbon thus limiting

adsorption, and capturing any solids that

may be making their way through to the

effluent. In addition to the pre- and postfiltration

of the carbon bed, the carbon

bed needs to be properly sized. Both the

bed surface area and the carbon bed depth

affect the efficiency of removal. About

seven to eight minutes empty-bed contact

time (EBCT, or time to pass fluid through

a give actual volume of carbon present as

a theoretically open volume) is optimal

for proper adsorption. Typically, a minimum

of three feet carbon bed depth is required.

The surface area is typically

designed to promote a superficial velocity

of four to six gallons per minute per

square foot. Slower velocities can be used

but very low velocities should be avoided

as this may promote the occurrence of

channeling, or the liquid seeking a path

of least resistance through the carbon bed,

resulting in poor distribution (Figure 3).

Overall, activated carbon adsorption is

an effective way of reducing PCB contamination

in groundwater. Successful results

can be achieved with a properly

designed system that addresses both prefiltration

and post-filtration, along with

proper carbon selection and bed design

parameters including bed surface area,

depth and contact time.


For more information contact: TIGG Corporation

1 Willow Avenue, Oakdale, PA 15071

Tel: 1-800-925-0011 x101 or 1-724-703-3020 x101

Fax: 1-724-703-3026

Websites: or • February 2010 • 21

Test Methods | Name Change

GRPD Becomes GAED Sorbent Test Method

By Henry Nowicki, George Nowicki and Barbara Sherma, PACS


nalytical test methods are

used to evaluate sorbents before

purchase, monitor their

performance for regulatory compliance

to determine when they need to be

changed and develop new sorbents and

applications. The world of analytical

chemistry has had major advancements

over the last two decades, which are

beneficial for activated carbon users and

manufacturers. Measurements are now

routinely provided at (PPB) micrograms

per liter instead of (PPM) milligrams

per liter. With available lower quantitative

detection level measurements,

greater demands have been placed on

the sorbents used to treat water and air

streams to reduce contaminants.

Perhaps the best analytical instrument

to come along for sorbent evaluations

has been put together by Dr.

Mick Greenbank. This instrumental

method provides the sorbents

isotherms for organic compounds,

which are physically adsorbed.

Isotherms is a plot of the compounds

equilibrium concentration on the x-

axis, in water or air, against the compounds

adsorption loading on the

sorbent in grams per 100 grams or

100 milliliter of volume of the sorbent

on the y-axis.

Choosing a name for a product, disease,

service, or child is an important

task. Just consider the recent billiondollar

loss to the pork industry by calling

H1N1 the

swine flue.

Pork industry


lobbied for a

name change to

H1N1, on the

grounds that

there is no evidence


the spread from

pigs to humans

and also to prevent

a misconception


pork products

could transmit

the disease.

One consideration

for a

brand name is

that it should

be reflective

and understandable


the targeted

market users.

This is why we

have chosen to

rename “Gravimetric


22 • February 2010 •

Pore Size Distribution” to “Gravimetric

Adsorption Energy Distribution.”

The basis for the GRPD to GAED

name change include:

• Users of the test method are not

easily understanding the testing


• Its full value opportunity for users

is not being applied method name

is not reflective of current market


• Use of the word “pore” whereas

original developer used adsorption


• New name better positions us to

do the homework on the 1914

article celebrating the 100th

anniversary of the original Polanyi

heterogeneous adsorption model.

One more name change is expected

when this testing technology is fully

commercialized with an advanced instrument

for the sorbent industry.

Presently there are only three of these

instruments in the world.

The authors have previously published

here [International Filtration

News] to demonstrate the practical applications

for the testing technology. A

series of new applications for GAED instrumentation

will be presented at upcoming

technical conferences and the

plan is to publish these articles here

again later in 2010.

Presently PACS Laboratories and the

testing community provide many more

Iodine and Butane activity test runs

than GAED full characterization test

runs. Even though the Iodine and Butane

tests provide limited information

they are still the most requested test

methods. A major limitation of these

popular tests for activated carbons

users is that these two tests are conducted

with the challenge chemical

near its water and air saturation concentrations.

Iodine activity for water

applications is tested near its water saturation

and Butane for vapor-phase applications

is near its saturation level.

Challenging activated carbon with a

contaminant near its saturation concentration

does not represent most activated

carbon user applications.

Most modern activated carbon user

problems consist of contaminants in

water or air at much lower than their

saturation concentration. When contaminants

are near saturation nearly all

of the carbon’s adsorption energy sites

will satisfy and fill-up with the contaminant.

However, when the contaminants

are well below saturation

concentration only the activated carbons

high adsorption energy sites with

sufficient adsorption energy will takeup

and hold contaminant. The lower

adsorption energy sites will not take-up

contaminant. Since all activated carbons

are not the same users need to

purchase those with the highest number

of adsorption energy sites needed

for their application.

GAED runs provide sorbent adsorbate

challenge over seven orders of

concentrations, ranging from trace

level to near saturation. Thus, GAED

provides activated carbon users critical

information about activated carbon

performance at the users real-world

problem concentrations. GAED provides

the users needed isotherms to determine

contaminant loading capacity

and how much activated carbon will be

needed to solve the problem.

Historically GAED (when it was

named GRPD) has been used to provide

the best activated carbons for users.

Prior work has shown that 9 carbons

provided essentially the same Iodine

number and BET surface areas, but

GAED revealed the two best carbons to

solve the activated carbon users municipal

drinking water plants problem.

They were also the lower cost suppliers.

Typically drinking water plants have

a few regulated compounds, or some

taste and odor compounds problems,

which need to be removed. GAED is

designed to facilitate these kinds of low

level compound problems. The ASTM

and GAED test methods are complimentary.

Both need to be used.

Users of activated carbons are now

putting GAED test requirements into

their purchasing specifications as well

as ASTM test methods. Most manufacturers

have run their product-line

through GAED test runs. So users can

request information from their suppliers

to help make decisions.

We are now convinced there are

firms who would purchase GAED instruments.

The basis for this opinion is

requested quotations and other levels

of interest to have available GAED instruments

and service providers. Providing

GAED instruments on a global

basis is expected to help manufacturers

to better produce sorbent media products

to solve modern problems, now

waiting for appropriate sorbents.

The future projection is that advancements

in analytical chemistry will

continue to play a large role in the continuation

of providing highly purified

drinking water from municipal plants

to point-of-use applications.


For more information contact:

Professional Analytical and Consulting

Services, Inc. (PACS)

Tel: 1-724-457-6576

Website: • February 2010 • 23

Crossflow | Membranes

Koch Membrane Systems Introduces

New Lees Treatment in Wineries

By David Akin, Salvatore Napodano and Kamla Jevons, Koch Membrane Systems


reatment and product recovery

from wine lees, the sludge-like

sediment left behind when wine

or juice is transferred from one tank to another,

is one of the biggest challenges facing

the wine industry. The desire to

minimize winery waste volume, coupled

with legislation that limits the disposal of

unwanted by-products, has made the lees

issue even more important to producers.

Koch Membrane Systems (KMS)

crossflow membrane filtration (CMF)

technology has led to an improved

method for recovering valuable wine and

juice from lees. This novel process entirely

eliminates the need for diatomaceous

earth (DE) and other filter aids currently

used with traditional recovery techniques.

Crossflow microfiltration membranes

configured in a multi-tube modular

geometry are ideal for clarifying lees. The

tubular design is well suited for processing

streams that contain high levels of suspended

solids such as juice and wine lees.

Wineries using CMF systems are recovering

wine of higher quality and therefore

higher value when compared to

traditional systems. Higher value wine

plus significant annual operating cost savings

are providing wineries with an attractive

return on their investment.

During the winemaking process, insoluble

solids are generated that have to

be removed before bottling. These solids

include fine fruit particles, tartrate salts,

spent yeast, bacteria and soil, and debris

carried over with

the fruit. Also, fining

agents are frequently

added to

the wine, and contribute

to the volume

of settled

solids. Fining

agents may include


gelatin, silicasol,

albumin, activated

carbon, and



All of these

solids eventually

settle by gravity

into a sludge-like

material that is

generically called

lees. Wine producers


classify lees into

two categories:

“sweet lees,” also

commonly called

“must lees;” and

24 • February 2010 •

“fermented lees,” also known as “wine

clarifier lees.” Sweet lees are the settled

solids typically found in white grape juice

and often are further processed to gain

higher yields, while fermentation lees

consist of all sediment remaining after fermentation

and fining. On average, about

10 percent of the initial volume is removed

as lees, which still contain a high

percentage of recoverable juice or wine.

Wine recovered from lees using traditional

techniques – rotary vacuum or

plate filters – often is of low quality and

may require further processing before

being blended into a usable product.

Lees are often accumulated from several

batches of wine before being clarified in

order to maximize the efficiency of traditional

recovery. These older processes

can result in oxidation of wine and yield

loss and higher operating costs.

When using newer crossflow membrane

filtration technology, producers

can efficiently recover quality wine from

the lees that is comparable to wine filtered

on the main wine crossflow filtration

system. The automated or manual

CMF equipment is simple to use, less

labor intensive, and increases yield while

reducing by-product disposal costs.

Most wineries employ some means to

get the maximum recovery from juice

“must.” The typical methods of separation

include rotary vacuum drum filters,

centrifugation, and plate and frame filters.

The recovered juice is unfermented and is

usually recombined with the racked juice

without affecting the must quality.

Once the must is fermented into

wine, microbiological activity ceases and

sediment collects on the tank bottom. If

there is sufficient time, a very clear wine

will result with very compact lees. However,

this is seldom the case because

wineries usually need to use the tanks

for other batches and the wine is typically

racked prematurely, resulting in

elatively low-solids lees that contain a

significant amount of valuable wine.

This wine is difficult to recover from the

lees, and is frequently discarded by small

wineries. Larger wineries seeking to

maximize yield normally use the same

DE filtration devices that are used for

must lees for further recovery.

In most cases, wines recovered using

these filters are of inferior quality and

can, at best, be used to blend into low

quality, low priced wines. This is due to

the long contact time with oxygen and

the flavors imparted by DE, as well as

some of the “yeasty” characteristics

from fermentation. Much of this wine

requires further processing, and ends

up as a base for products such as wine

coolers and flavored wine products.

Crossflow membrane technology

uses highly engineered, semi-permeable

physical barriers that permit the

passage of desired constituents based

on size, shape or character. Membranes

are available in a variety of

configurations, materials and sizes.

With crossflow membrane technology,

a feed stream is introduced into the

membrane module under pressure

and flows over the membrane surface

in a controlled operating mode. The

selective barrier of the membrane separates

the feed into a permeate and a

retentate stream, both of which may

be of value. While used for numerous

purposes in many industries, membrane

filtration in wine production is

most commonly used to remove suspended

solids and turbidity while allowing

the passage of color, ethanol,

flavor and aroma components. Other

membrane applications for wine and

juice include sugar concentration in

must, volatile acid (VA) and alcohol

adjustment, and color concentration

and standardization.

Polymeric crossflow membranes,

the types most often used in wine applications,

vary depending upon the

separation requirement and are provided

in a number of different configurations

including hollow fiber, spiral

wound and tubular. Membrane porosity

also varies with the application; the

tightest is reverse osmosis (RO),

through nanofiltration (NF), then ultrafiltration

(UF) and finally, the most

open, microfiltration (MF)

CMF, while relatively new, is an industry-accepted

technology for wine

filtration. However, until recently, the

only method for wine and juice recovery

from lees has been the use of traditional

DE filtration techniques.

Polymeric tubular membranes are often

used for fluids with very high concentrations

of particulate matter and, when

constructed in a sanitary geometry, are

ideal for lees processing. When CMF • February 2010 • 25

for wine clarification and recovery of

wine and juice from lees are used together

in a winery, the result is higher

quality wine and higher yields. Figure

1 shows an example of a typical crossflow

microfiltration process for wine

and lees filtration. All steps are lowpressure

(10-100 psig) processes that

retain the suspended solids and pass

all dissolved material below an average

pore size range of 0.3 microns.

The CMF process for recovery of

Crossflow | Membranes

Figure 2. Pilot KMS Crossflow Filtration System for Lees

wine from lees has been used successfully

by producers of both red and white

wines and continues to gain in popularity.

First and foremost, under normal circumstances,

CMF maintains the wine’s

important qualities, including acidity,

aroma, color, flavor and clarity, with little

or no


pickup or


rise. Figure 2 shows a photograph of a

pilot KMS lees recovery system now in

use at a large producer of red and white


The economics of the membrane filtration

system are very favorable when compared

to DE filtration. Table 1 illustrates

the relative costs for crossflow membrane

filtration versus traditional DE filtration of

lees.1 Recovery of high quality wine with

the membrane-based lees filter gives an

enhanced return-on-investment (ROI)

mainly due to the increased value of the

wine recovered using CMF.


Lees filtration with crossflow membrane

technology offers a number of

26 • February 2010 •

enefits to the wine producer, including:

• Increased product yields

• Reduced costs and fewer problems

with disposal of organic

by-products and waste

• Lower operating and labor costs

when using the automated or

manual CMF equipment

• Recovery of a product that is

comparable to the original wine or

juice quality

• Enhanced return on investment

• Elimination of filter aids that may

pose health risks to the workforce

during handling and use

The finished characteristics of the

wine – color, aroma and flavor – are typically

unaffected by the crossflow microfiltration

process. Wine recovered from

lees using crossflow membrane filtration


maintains its desirable characteristics.

For more information contact:

Koch Membrane Systems, 850 Main Street

Wilmington, Massachusetts 01887-3388

Tel: 1-888-677-KOCH (5624) or 1-978-694-7000

Fax: 1-978-657-5208

Table 1 provides a hypothetical example of the relative costs of CMF versus traditional

DE filtration based on KMS’ past experience. The costs provided are based on

today’s costs at a given location and may vary according to changes in market conditions,

location and operating conditions. The information provided herein is not intended

nor should it be construed as a guarantee of a given return on investment.

Back Your Filters Better

Extensive Range of Expanded Metals & Polymers

Perfect for membrane support & backing

Assures media integrity & pleat

spacing even under dynamic flow

Materials laminate for co-expansion/


Openings down to

25 micron

Thickness: 0.001”

to 0.2”

Dexmet Engineers

welcome the challenge

of your unique materials

and applications


Materials from • February 2010 • 27

203 294 4440

Waste | Recycling

Turning Waste Oil Into Profit

By Del Williams

To produce a cleaner, higher-grade fuel

oil from waste oil and to streamline

production, Global Recuperation

turned to a state-of-the-art, self-cleaning

filter system from Russel Finex of

Pineville, North Carolina.

In the United States alone, an estimated

200 million gallons of used

motor oil are improperly disposed

of by being dumped on the ground,

tossed in the trash (ending up in landfills),

and poured down storm sewers

and drains,” according to the EPA document

titled, “Collecting Used Oil for


“If all of the used oil that is improperly

disposed of were properly

managed, the United States could

save thousands of barrels of oil each

day,” the EPA document continues.

“Used oil that is properly handled

can be re-refined into lubricants,

processed into fuel oils, and used as

raw materials for the refining and

petrochemical industries.”

Through waste oil recovery and

reuse programs, pro-active nations

such as the U.S. and Canada, as well as

many municipalities are looking to

turn the hazard of improper waste oil

disposal into a valuable resource. In

this effort, savvy companies are taking

advantage of a new generation of selfcleaning

filter technology that can

process waste oil into quality products

more effectively, with less downtime

and labor than possible with traditional



Global Recuperation, a waste management

recycling company based in

Quebec, Canada, reclaims used motor

oil and filters, along with other industrial

commodities. Though waste oil is

mandated for reuse in much of Canada,

Eric Poisson, the company’s president,

wanted to capture an underserved market

niche for a higher grade of fuel oil,

made from processed waste oil.

“A number of industrial clients required

a simpler, cleaner burning fuel

oil than the market offered from filtered

waste oil,” said Mr. Poisson. “Before

burning, typical filtered waste oil

has to be pre-screened by the user in

several steps, and it leaves more

residue than desired.”

28 • February 2010 •

Traditionally, Global Recuperation,

and other processors in the Quebecarea,

filtered waste oil with static filter

cartridges at 20-mesh (900 micron).

But there were production challenges

with this approach.

“The waste oil contained a variable

percentage of solids that rapidly

clogged our static filters,” said Mr.

Poisson. “A dedicated operator had to

manually clean the filters every 10 to

60 minutes, depending on the concentration

of solids. Each time, they

had to remove the filter cartridge,

clean and replace it, then restart production.

It was too slow, labor intensive,

and costly.”

To produce a cleaner, higher-grade

fuel oil from waste oil and to streamline

production, Global Recuperation

turned to a state-of-the-art, self-cleaning

filtration system from Russell

Finex ( of

Pineville, North Carolina.

“With the self-cleaning filter screening

at 150-microns, our process removes

more foreign particulate from

waste oil, including tiny ice crystals

that can form in winter, resulting in a

cleaner burning fuel oil with less

residue,” said Mr. Poisson. “Because

there are fewer particulates, our highgrade

fuel product only needs to be prescreened

once before use, unlike

inferior fuel oil, which needs to be prescreened

several times.

Fuel pumps last longer too, due to

the better filtration.”

“My customers pay for fuel oil, not

impurities or water, and that’s what

they get,” added Mr. Poisson.

Since the Self-Cleaning Russell Eco

Filterâ system integrates directly into

the pipeline, it eliminates labor-intensive

manual cleaning tasks such as

changing filter bags or cleaning filtra-

tion baskets. The filter element is kept

continuously clean via a unique spiral

wiper design, ensuring optimum filtration

efficiency. Because of its design,

cleaning the filter between batch

runs is quick and easy with minimal

disruption during production

changeovers. Additionally, a unique Q-

Tap valve allows the sampling of

freshly filtered material so quality can

be easily monitored on the fly without

interrupting production.

Compared to previous manuallycleaned

filters, the new filter system is

saving the company a substantial

amount of labor and downtime.

“The automatic wiper removes all

solids that stick to the filter so it’s always

clean,” said Mr. Poisson. “An operator

just keeps an eye on the system

and can spend time on other shop

tasks. Eliminating the downtime of cartridge

cleaning and replacement has

dramatically improved production

workflow. We’ve reduced labor by 75%

and cut maintenance by 50%.”

As companies like Global Recuperation

are discovering, the Self-Cleaning

Russell Eco Filter fits neatly into

existing production lines, in many instances

adding significant capacity

without requiring excessive space.

“The self-cleaning filter takes up 60%

less space than our old static filters,”

said Mr. Poisson. “This has freed up

production space that will help us expand

within our existing facilities as

business grows.”

Because the self-cleaning filter is

totally enclosed, it also prevents outside

pollutants from contaminating

product and protects operators from

any spillage or fumes. Users see substantial

improvement in product purity,

throughput and waste

elimination; and a choice of easily

swapped filter elements can give additional

flexibility to meet the quality

demands of customers.

“Since my operators don’t need to

remove filter cartridges, they don’t expose

themselves to vapors or waste oil

contaminants,” said Mr. Poisson. “My

operators are happier, and there’s no

smell of waste oil in the shop.”

He summed up the benefit of

switching to the self-cleaning filter: a

safer environment for operators and

business, as well as for society.

“With higher margins on a higherquality

fuel oil product, along with significantly

lower labor costs, we’ll

achieve ROI on the Eco Filter within a

year,” Mr. Poisson added.

For over 75 years Russell Finex has

manufactured and supplied filters,

screeners, and separators to improve

product quality, enhance productivity,

safeguard worker health, and ensure

powders and liquids are contamination-free.

Throughout the world, Russell

Finex serves a variety of industries

with applications, including: coatings,

food, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, adhesives,

plastisols, paint, metal powders

and ceramics.


For more information contact:

Russell Finex, Inc.,

625 Eagleton Downs Dr.

Pineville, NC 28134

Tel: 1-704-588-9808

Fax: 1-704-588-0738


Website: • February 2010 • 29

Industry | News

TIGG Corporation Meets Methyl Bromide

Recapture Standards Established by USA-QPS


IGG Corporation announced

in December last year that the

TIGG Methyl Bromide Recapture

System meets and in some installations

exceeds the specification set by


For several years, the USDA-ARS has

directed research toward the development

of methyl bromide alternatives and

methyl bromide recapture systems. Recently,

the “Methyl Bromide Quarantine

and Preshipment Interim National Management

Strategy” was presented by the

United States at the Twenty-first Meeting

of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on

Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

in early November 2009. The Management

Strategy, on the United Nations Environment

Programme website, gives

USDA-APHIS requirements for methyl

bromide recapture systems.

The TIGG Methyl Bromide Recapture

System complies with these requirements

by reducing emissions by at

least 80%, retaining approved fumigation

and aeration times mandated by

the PPQ treatment manual and reducing

the methyl bromide concentration

in emissions to under 500 ppm.

TIGG Corporation engineered and

manufactured the TIGG Methyl Bromide

Recapture System through a cooperative

program between GFK Consulting LTD,

USDA-ARS and Great Lakes Corporation

(now Chemtura). During development,

the Methyl Bromide Recapture System

30 • February 2010 •

was proven in laboratory and pilot scale

tests and has since operated successfully

in commercial installations throughout

the United States.

Current commercial installations in

the United States include the Dallas/Fort

Worth Airport, GW Bush Intercontinental

Airport in Houston, a

cargo facility in Mississippi and a major

California packer and shipper for airfreighting

berries to Japan.

TIGG Corporation, headquartered in

Oakdale, PA (near Pittsburgh), designs

and fabricates systems that use activated

carbon and other purification media to

treat water, wastewater, air and process

streams. They are also manufacturers of

steel tanks and pressure vessels. TIGG

Corporation is a certified Woman


Owned Small Business.

For more information contact:

Anthony Mazzoni Tel: 1-724-703-3020



Racor Provides Replacement

Elements for Blue Bird’s

Cooper Air Cleaner


he Racor Division of Parker

Hannifin Corporation, the

global leader in motion and

control technologies, recently announced

the ECO Series Replacement

Element 80097001 for Blue Bird conventional

style buses manufactured before

mid 2005.

With its state-of-the-art design, the

Racor replacement for Blue Bird’s

Cooper air cleaner offers superior and

reliable performance. The high efficiency

replacement element features

tool-less installation and superior

media that keeps the dirt out and exceeds

OEM performance specifications.

With annual sales exceeding $10


Water Filters

Good stewards reuse and recycle

water whenever possible.

Industry can no longer afford

to dump large quantities of water down

the drain. The makeup is too expensive

or even not available. ORIVAL Water

Filters makes used water reusable by

removing unwanted organic and inorganic

suspended solids. With models

from ¾” to 24” and filtration degrees

from 5 to 3,000 microns, ORIVAL Automatic

Self-Cleaning Filters are available

in many configurations and

construction materials. ORIVAL filters

stay on-line during the rinse cycle providing

uninterrupted flow of clean

water. And some models are designed

with water conservation in mind.

Orival Water Filters for making used water reusable.

For more information contact: ORIVAL

Tel: 1-800-567-9767


ECO Series filter for Blue Bird buses

billion, Parker Hannifin is the world's

leading diversified manufacturer of motion

and control technologies and systems,

providing precision-engineered

solutions for a wide variety of mobile,

industrial and aerospace markets. The

company employs approximately

52,000 people in 48 countries around

the world. Parker has increased its annual

dividends paid to shareholders for

53 consecutive years, among the top

five longest-running dividend-increase

records in the S&P 500 index.


For more information visit: • February 2010 • 31

Industry | Events

Emphasis on Liquids and

Separations at AFSS Conference

By Ken Norberg, Editor


he American Filtration and

Separations Society will hold

its 23rd Annual Technical

Conference & Exhibition on March 22-

25, 2010 at the Grand Hyatt Hotel in San

Antonio, Texas. To further impact the

separation society and reach out to even

more experts in the field, the 2010 AFS

Annual Technical Conference will be colocated

with the 2010 AIChE Spring National

Meeting in San Antonio, Texas.

The co-location with the AIChE will

give excellent opportunity to approach

an outstandingly large audience of

more than 500 technical and academic

experts, since the sessions of both organizations

will be fully accessible to all

attendees at no additional charge.

Strong emphasis is given to both liquid

and gas separations. Within these

fields are areas of interest involving the

hardware, the appropriate filter media, the

overall system and its operation, product

evaluation and monitoring, instrumentation,

ancillary products such as supports,

resins and adhesives, requirements for

specific applications, safety and health aspects,

selection protocols, and particle science

and characterization. Understanding

the basic aspects of the processes and the

mathematical modeling of these operations

will play an important role in improved

design and operation.

The current economic climate results

in significant pressure on most industries.

Production rates are down,

capital spending is reduced, cost control

efforts take over and morale is low.

In difficult times like these we should

remind ourselves that filtration and

separation can play a key role in approaching

these challenges. Recent

signs of economic stabilization also require

an even stronger effort on market

evaluation and preparation to increased

demand. In the past year resources

were concentrated on product and

process development, which promises

to have generated important novelties

for the separation society.

The AFS provides an important platform

to keep companies updated on the

new opportunities. The vision of the

2010 Annual Conference is to discuss

the challenges and the opportunities in

separations, to address energy and environmental

issues, and to prepare for

the growth in the area of biotechnology.


Research and development efforts in

the field of biotechnology produce exciting

novelties nearly everyday. Novel

products and novel ways of processing

improve everybody’s life and enable

sustainability, growth and cost efficiency.

This track is presenting the

downstream bio processing novelties,

their application and process integration

and will focus on:

• Novel Separation Technology

• Membrane Separation

• Downstream Bioprocessing and

Process Integration

• Selective Separation

• Pretreatment in Bioseparation

• In Situ Product Recovery

• Chromatography

• Impact of upstream processing on

separation performance

Fundamentals and Applications

Advances in Fluid/Particle separations

rely upon fundamental understanding

and application of the basic physics.

Proper models and simulations are essential

as are well-designed experiments

and observations. This track has

sessions for paper presentations on

model development, computer simulations

and practical applications. Separate

sessions are provided for

separations of nanomaterials, media design,

equipment design, and testing.

This track will focus on:

32 • February 2010 •

• Theory and Simulations I and II

• Nanoscale/Nanoparticle Separations

• Solids Liquid Separation In The

Chemical Industry

• New Methods in Fluid/Particle


• Gas/Liquid and Liquid/Liquid

Separat ions

Filter Media Design

• Cross Flow Filtration

• Modeling of Media Structure


The theme for this track is filtration

and separations impact and role past,

present and future on energy generation

and conservation, and environment

preservation from many points of view.

The impact and role of filtration and separations

is quite implicit and is widely interpreted

depending on specific

applications. Fundamentally, however, its

role is encompassing more and more what

impact on energy and environment it affects,

while performing its basic function

of maintaining and extending equipment

service life and protecting larger and

larger investments. Topics include:

• Emission Control Future &


• Water Treatment and Recycle

Including Policy (2 sessions)

• Biofuels

• Alternative Energy

• Low-Energy Separations

– Application of Membranes

• Nanofibers

• Baghouse Filtration

The conference offers companies the

opportunity to promote their products

and services through conference sponsorships

and tabletop exhibits. This

conference will be the largest gathering

of filtration and separation experts in

North America in 2010.

The conference begins on Monday,

March 22nd with eleven short courses

eing offered. These courses include:

• Fundamentals of Liquid Filtration

• Fundamentals of Air/Gas Filtration

• Microfiltration Membranes

• Ultrafiltration Membranes

• Gas Solid Separation with

Fabric Filters

Sealant’s New See-Flo 1100

Improves Meter-Mix Dispense

• Gas Solid Separation with Cyclones

• Nonwoven Air Filtration

• Electrostatic Charging and Electrets

for Air Filter Media

• Dewatering in Wastewater Treatment

• Liquid Filtration Testing Basics

• Reverse Osmosis System Design

See-Flo 1100

Sealant Equipment & Engineering,

Inc.’s new See-Flo®

1100 is a new and improved

fixed-ratio, positive displacement,

meter-mix dispense system ideal for

manual and automated adhesive and

sealant applications in the production

and assembly of glass, metal, plastic

and composite materials.

The See-Flo 1100 Meter-Mix Dispense

System is ideal for potting transformers,

sealing insulating glass,

bonding solar panel modules, bonding

wind blades, product assembly bonding

or sealing applications and self-contained

mobile dispensing units.

The system accurately meters low- to

high-viscosity two-component materials

such as epoxies, urethanes, silicones and

acrylics supplied by pumps or pressure

tanks. The See-Flo 1100 meter and supply

assemblies can be floor-mounted,

mobile-cart mounted and may be

process integrated by Sealant Equipment

with a dispensing robot assembly.

For more information contact:

Suzanne Sower, Executive Manager

American Filtration and Separations Society

7608 Emerson Avenue South

Richfield, MN 55423

Tel: 612-861-1277 Fax: 612-861-7959




The See-Flo 1100 is ideal when dispensing

continuous precision beads or

large volumes of high viscosity 2-part

materials. The fixed ratio, rod displacement

meter ensures the correct ratio and

flow rate is dispensed onto the product

being assembled. The basic See-Flo 1100

meter has no control panel and is allpneumatic

operated. Advanced assemblies

have electronic panels for

controlling the dispensing system. FN

For more information contact:

Sealant Equipment & Engineering, Inc.

45677 Helm Street, Plymouth, MI 48170.

Tel: 1-734-459-8600


Website: • February 2010 • 33

Mini Mart Ads

34 • February 2010 •

To place your

Mini Mart Ad


Mini Mart Ads • February 2010 • 35

Advertiser Index



A2Z Filtration Specialities 5

Air Filter, Inc. 15

Ashby Cross Co. 30

Clack Corporation 31

Contract Pleating Services 19

Dexmet Corporation 27

Filter-Mart 21

Filtration Technology Sys. 9

GL Capital, LLC 36

Industrial Netting 27

Jadtis Industries 15


Lawrence Industries, Inc 20

Magnetool Inc. 24

Metalex 22

Metcom Inc. 33


Orival Inc. 17

PerCor Mfg. 7

Perforated Tubes 18

Rosedale Products 1

Sealant Equipment 25

Solent Technology Inc. 26

Sonobond Ultrasonic 11

Spati Industries, Inc. 16

Spin Tek Filtration Back Cover

Xinxiang Tiancheng Aviation 29


Mergers, Acquisitions

and Divestures

GL Capital, LLC

We understand the nuances of

the domestic and international

filtration industry and bring

over 70 years of combined

business, technical and financial

expertise. The current economic

climate is an ideal time

for sellers to locate buyers

seeking to diversify and for

buyers to identify growth opportunities

through acquisition.

March/April Issue of

Don’t miss the next issue of Filtration News

Special Reports include:

• Membrane Filtration Media

• Indoor Air Quality

• Testing and Instrumentation

• Technical Textile in Filtration

(monofilament and glass fabrics)

For a confidential conversation contact:

To be part of our editorial coverage email:

To advertise email:,,

36 • February 2010 •

Edward C. Gregor


P. John Lovell



Buyers’ Guide

Early Bird Rates

Up to May 31, 2010


First Category $ 99.00

Each Additional Category $ 75.00


First Category $115.00

Each Additional Category $ 80.00

Logos (1 time charge) $ 50.00

After May 31, 2010


First Category $115.00

Each Additional Category $ 80.00


First Category $145.00

Each Additional Category $ 85.00

Logos (1 time charge) $ 50.00

Take Advantage of this Special Offer...

For more information contact Joan Oakley:

Phone: 248-347-3486 - Email:

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