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THE<br />

AlilillCC<br />

IPYXllS<br />

BY<br />

SALLY<br />

RUTHERFURD<br />

ROBERTS<br />

ARES PUBLISHERS<br />

CHICAGO 1978


1/ Rell/ell/bral/ce Of<br />

LUCY TALCOTT<br />

"Alii, Uln,k(jI3"'d 5L'l11p.:d War., unci Olh"r "


Preface<br />

It is a pleasure to express my thanks to the many scholars who<br />

ha~'e kindly permit1ed me to examine and draw vases in their<br />

collections in America and Europe. Many others have sent<br />

pholo8ra phs and measurements and answered questions about<br />

vases in museums and collections which I was unable 10 visit.<br />

I .....ould like to express my gratitude 10 Professor Homer A.<br />

Thompsoll. ProfcSloor and Mrs. T. Lcslie Shear. Jr.. Alison Frantz.<br />

lhe :.taff of lh~ Agor:l Excavations. and particularly to Poly<br />

Dcmoulini who Ilwdc my several periods of ,>Iudy in Athens<br />

mcmnrable. I would like al!>o to thunk Miss Barbara PhiJipp:lki of<br />

Ihe Nalional MUl>cUIl1 fot her kindness and unfailing help.<br />

The Greek Archaeological Service and Lilly Kahil most<br />

generously enabled me to study the importallt material from<br />

Brauroll. It has beell possible to include material relativc to<br />

pottery workshops here.<br />

My dcbt of thanks is great 10 many others besides: Miss Braun<br />

and later Miss Knigge of the Ceramicus Museum. Dr. H. Catling<br />

and Mrs. Brown of the Ashmolean Museum. Mr. D. E. L Haynes<br />

of the British Museum, Mr. Richard Nicholls of the FilzwiJliam<br />

Museum, Cambridge, Mr. Pierre Devambez of the Louvre, Or.<br />

Anna Barbara Follman of the Staatliche Antikensammlungen.<br />

MuniCh. Dr. Guntram Beckel of the Martin von Wagner<br />

Museum. Wiirzburg. Dr. Dietrich von Bothmer of the Metro­<br />

POlitan Museum of Art, Professor Cornelius Vermeule, the<br />

Museum of Fine Arh. Boston, Miss Dorothy Kent Hill. Waiters<br />

Art Gallery, Baltimore. Dr. J*rFrel of the J. Paul Getty Museum,<br />

Malibu. California. Miss Louisa Dresser of the Worcester Art<br />

Museum. Mr. Jack V. Sewell of the Art Institute of Chicago, Kurt<br />

T. luckllcr. Toledo Museum of An. Mrs. N. Leipell of the Royal


iii<br />

Ontario Museum. Toronto. Miss Lucy Turnbull of the University of<br />

Mississippi. Dr. J. H. C. Kern of Ihe Rijksmuseum van Oudheden,<br />

Le)·dcn. Helle Salskov Roberts. National Museum, Copenhagen,<br />

Professor Maria L Bernhard. Instytul ArchCQlogii. Krakow.<br />

Professor Roger Edwards of the Uni\'ersity Museum, Philadelphia.<br />

Miss FranC'Cs F. Jom:s of the Art Museum. Princeton. Mr. Richard<br />

StiJIwell. Miss E\clyn B. Harrison. Institute of Fine Am. Dr. N.<br />

Kuni'ich of the Staatliche Must:cn. Berlin, Dr. Elizabeth Rohde of<br />

the Sla:l.Iliche Muscen. Berlin. Professor Hansjorg Bloesch kindly<br />

sent me photographs of many pyxides. Dr. Klaus Vierneiscl<br />

generously made Ceramicus material known to me. Demelrius<br />

Schilardi kindly showed me material from Ihe Thespian l~oly·<br />

andrion. Helen Bezi drew certain \'ases from the Athenian Agora.<br />

Marion McAllister inked the profile drawings. Professor COOrie<br />

Buuher gave invaluable help in matters of organization and style.<br />

Professor John White and Professor John 1-1. Young IO.crc important<br />

to my work 011 the pyxis during Ihe years at the Johns Hopkins<br />

University.<br />

A Kress Foundation fellowship enabled me to do essential<br />

researeh in Athens and in museums in Germany. France and<br />

England in 1967. Numerous later Irips 10 Europe have helped to<br />

fill in lacunae.<br />

My examination of the pyxis began under the direction of Miss<br />

Lucy Talcolt who was an unending source of encourag~mcnt. wise<br />

counlocl, dirtx:tion and unfailing help over many years. a treasured<br />

friend.<br />

Agnes B. Sherman. Rare Books and Manuscrip~. Princeton.<br />

read the manuscript. and offered many valuable suggestions and<br />

queries. Lynda Hunsucker types the manuscript. Roger Sherman<br />

alosisted with the proofs. Dr. Margaret Mayo edited the last<br />

chapler. Professor A. Oikonomidcs designed the layout of the<br />

plates. the architecture of the book and much besides.<br />

Without the patience and support of my husband, Tom. no book<br />

l'ould have been completed. And Christie. Wayne and Bay have<br />

played an im'aluable part in my education.<br />

s. R. R.<br />

Drcv.' Uni\·ersity. 1976


Contents<br />

Preface. . . . . . . . . . vii<br />

Concordance of Figures and Plates _ J:ii<br />

List of P1ates. . . .. . - zi"<br />

Introduction - - 1<br />

The Origin and Early Development of the Attic<br />

Concave PyIis _ - _.9<br />

11 The First Small OasSts and Singletons 21<br />

111 The Pcothesilea Workshop ..... _..............••. - .45<br />

Class a/Oxford 1961.468: Tran.s;r;onal. . . . . . . 60<br />

PMrhesilea Workshop IJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..62<br />

Cum a/Munich 2120 72<br />

Chus ofWunburg 542..............•......•.•........ 7S<br />

Class ofHarvurd /925.30.30 78<br />

IV The Class or Berlin 3308 .....................••.......95<br />

V Later Fifth Century Pyxides or Type A .....•...•....... 109<br />

The Kuine Class 110<br />

Various Tall Singletull.f<br />

liS<br />

Doubles. . . . . .. . " ,., .. , .. , 116<br />

Miniatures ,. . , .. , ".121<br />

Odd Pyxidf'sjrom ca, 430·420 B.C• . "., .. , .. , ,.,.,125<br />

Dish'Foot Pyxides. . ..... ",." ... "." .. , ...••..... l29<br />

T"",o Pyxides ofSquat Proponio/'u and Tall<br />

Tripartite Foot , " 131<br />

PyxidfS ofEztral'agant Profile. , . .. , ". 132<br />

Various Small Hybn·ds , .. ,., ,.,." 135<br />

VI The Pp:is Trpe C .,., .. , ,143<br />

Precursors, . , , .. . .. , ..• , .. ,., .. ,.', ..•. ,... . 144<br />

The A·C Clau,. . , 146<br />

ClassofAtlrens 1243., . . , .. , .. ,.,.".,."., .. ,., 152<br />

Odd Pyxides . , , , , ' . ' . , . . . . .. . 158<br />

Pyxides Type C "",itlr a Tripartite Foot ,., 161<br />

Tire Chalki Class , , ..•.. ,., 163<br />

Founh Century Pyxides ofType C .. ,., , .. , .. ,., 169<br />

VII Iconography or the Pyxis .. , .. , . , .. , . , ' ..••...... 177<br />

Selected Bibliography ,., .. ,., , .• , , .193<br />

Addenda ,., , , , ...•.,.", .. 197<br />

Profiles "., ,., .. , .. , .. ,., , ...• ,., .... ,199<br />

Index of Collections , , . , .. , .225<br />

Potters. Painters. Groups and Classes ' .. , 2JJ<br />

General Index, .".,., ,.,. , , " .. , , ,.241<br />

Photographic Credits.", ,., .. ,., , .. ,.,.". ,245<br />

Plates , , "", ..•. ,., " following 248


tl~U«<br />

B;,1.."-4.1<br />

~~ I<br />

In" I'lolI.-l<br />

d<br />

Alhe'" 14q()b 18.1<br />

AI""..... l"('r.lIm.C1" 1'*'IJ<br />

,<br />

". AItJ-,,,,, 158b ".1<br />

C""'"..us IlllS<br />

• M.h1.1<br />

London E 172<br />

6J<br />

d L"""" E ~7J .,<br />

< Mlrnkh r..--. _on s..hoC'n ()4J "'J<br />

r Jotu ..... h .,. >"


xi\'<br />

l-rnHli,pi~IT Ath,'n~ II'JO<br />

1'1 1.1 Alh~n, .111><br />

I.! Ldmborl'h 1'1&,.424<br />

2.1 Alh~n'. A~"ra P !0711li<br />

2.2 1J000wn b 1.12St><br />

.1,1 N~.. Y"rk Ub.1II21.1b4<br />

.1.2 Alhcn~ 50!<br />

4.1 Alh~lI'. A~llra I' 12255<br />

~.2 A,hcn


SALLY RI'THERFURD RO.ERTS<br />

504.1 E_dcr 5.l~·5Jtl<br />

504.2 T~ bJ1'1<br />

S4J lbrnnl IQ25.JOJ9<br />

5,S,1 "nf Yort ,)9118<br />

5.U SydlW" 5.l.lJl><br />

5flo aMI 57 AIMM ArT. S09<br />

SII,I AI~Tn 1701<br />

511.2 AIIxTn ACT. 569<br />

SSJ I..tyd~ KVI:l 157<br />

sq.1 Allicin AlT. 569<br />

,W.2 C..rami


xvi<br />

THE ATTIC PVXI$<br />

lUI.2 !llhcn~ IJU7ba<br />

102.1-.' Onl...· L"",h'n ~brkd<br />

10.1.1 London L 773<br />

10.1.2 Alh,,", IS'l7<br />

IlLJ.l l.ondon E 771<br />

11/·1.1 Alh,,", IQJSS Ikk}lhO'>l<br />

Hl4.2 Hr~urnn<br />

Ifl·Ll Ick)lhco.. b} Uo.,uri, in 1'~I"rm"<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Name, Uses, Materials<br />

and Representations<br />

Beazley stated in Potter and Paillter i" Ancient Athens:<br />

Now that the painters of nearly all important Attic vases, and<br />

most of the less important, have been determined, the whole<br />

material mUSI be rc-studied from the point of view of the<br />

potters; and this time we must be prepared 10 hold the<br />

painters at arm's length ... It will not be enough to note the<br />

general proportions. and the features of the shape: the eye<br />

must become accustomed to perceive minute refinenlents of<br />

curve and line. Then it will be possible not only to write the<br />

history of Attic vases from the point of view of the potters,<br />

but, in the long run, to shed fresh light on the painters with<br />

whom they collaborated.<br />

Much wor~ has already been done on certain shapes, including<br />

Emilie Haspels' Attic maCk.-figured Lelcythoi (1936), H. Bloesch's<br />

classic work on the kylix, Formefl auischer Schalen (940), and<br />

recently Barbara Philippaki's The AI/ic Stumflos (1967). Miss<br />

PhiJipp.k',', work' IS 0<br />

f consl'derahi e . Importance...<br />

In provmg agam<br />

and again the connection between a certain class and particular<br />

pattern acco . .<br />

. mpamments as well as the Importance of pro\'enance<br />

.In the inte . .<br />

rprelatlon of subject matter. Athenian Agora Xll Black


2 T.n AT',",€" PYXlS s...u Y RLTHEJlFUIlD RO.EJlTS J<br />

"nd Plain Pottf'r)' by Brian Sparkes and LuC)' Talcott may .....dl be<br />

the most important of the series. A study of the de\"clopment of<br />

these ""ares based on mort" th~n thirty yurs of ucavation in the<br />

Athenian Agora adds greatly to the knOVo'Ied~ of shapes in<br />

general. of names. and of the correspondence: or lack of<br />

correspondence bet.....een the potters of plain and figured wares.<br />

The pyxis as a shape has received little attention. I One should<br />

perhaps commence with the problem of the name used for small<br />

round boxes in antiquity. nJ,toc; means boxwood and from this<br />

comes the Latin Buxus and English box.<br />

The generic term used by writers in the Roman period is pyxis. 1<br />

Ho.....ever it seems highly probable that the Attic word in the<br />

Classical period was kylicbnis on the basis of the evidence<br />

gathered by Miss Milne. J In brier. Athcnaios recounted that the<br />

Athenians called the physician's pyxis a kylichnis.· The frequent<br />

appearance of this word in inventories of the temple of Asklepios<br />

al Athens confirms the evidence given by Athenaios. s Sometimes a<br />

kylichnis is dedicated togelher with a 1001 kno.....n to be used by a<br />

physician such as a probe.'<br />

The "'ord kylichnis also appears in inventory !iSlS otllcr than<br />

those of Asklepios as a container for rings and gems. A painted box<br />

dedicaled by Kleito contained je.....c1ry and among the contents a<br />

gold ring with a seal stone kept in a kylichnis dedicatcd by<br />

Dexilla.' With this reference .....e enter the woman's .... orld and<br />

.....oman·s uses for small boxes. As a parallel Miss Milne cited an<br />

alabaster pyxis found in a fourth-century .....oman·s gra\"e in<br />

Kamiros which contained two gold spools and a gem.-<br />

The kylichnides in the inventory lists are made of various<br />

materials: bronze. ivory. stone. marble. sih'er and wood.' Extant<br />

pyxides may be found in these materials. An Attic grave preserved<br />

a black glaze pyxis of type 0 together with four bronze pyxides of<br />

similar type. III<br />

There are numerous marble pyxides some corresponding to<br />

pallery types and others having a type of their own. Of those<br />

without parallel in pottery is an elegant class of tall·stemmed<br />

marble pyxides. ll More numerous are low broad marble pyxides<br />

with affinities to pottery eJl3mples of type e.U Marble pyxides<br />

C'OfT'CS"p,mding to those of type B in pottery must also OCC'asionally<br />

ba\"e been made. 1J Small concave pyllides have also been found<br />

both 1\ith fttl and 1\·ithout. 14<br />

Siher pyxides are not kno.... n from the fifth «ntury. The<br />

ell.mplcs which remain are of a later period. a<br />

Wooden pyxides have been found in Grette. the Taman and<br />

Kerch peninsulas and Etruria. I ' Scholars have noted resemblances<br />

of certain pottery pyxides to those in woodY Temple inventory<br />

lists do not mention terracotta vases,<br />

The kylichnis also functioned as a container for incense as is<br />

known from Hesychios' and Photios' description of it as a<br />

AI/JavwT((.u Both round and rectangular boxes are represented in<br />

use. 1t It seems significant that there are a number of fifth-century<br />

representations of pyxides being used as incense boxes and in<br />

them the pyxides are of clearly defined and recognizable types.<br />

A stele in Berlin" depicts a young girl dispensing incense. She<br />

holds in the palm of her hand a cylindrical box with a slightly<br />

projecting rim at its base. The cover is placed on the ground<br />

before her. The lid is about as tall as the ball and Io\'ould cover the<br />

whole wall. This factor alone identifies the pyxis as one of<br />

type B.n<br />

In COntrasl, the proportions of the box held in the hand of the<br />

heavily draped .....oman strewing incense on a thymlateriun un the<br />

Lud " Th<br />

OVISI roneU are low and broad. The cover has been<br />

removed: ~e box has an inset nange for the IKl. cylindrical .....alls<br />

and pro~lng Io.....er nange. The pyxis is one of type e.<br />

A PYlllS. type A. sen'es to contain the incense dispensed b)' a<br />

woman depicted on a k<br />

YIX<br />

'"<br />

10<br />

"<br />

t<br />

h<br />

e British<br />

" "<br />

Museum.u A somewhat<br />

hasty depitlion of .<br />

o· h a PYllIS. type A. may be seen on a red-figure<br />

.. ~nocd ne by the Eucharides Painter of ca, 490.480 B.e. A Nike<br />

U'Cn s Over spr' kl' .<br />

hand .,' .In lflg Incense on an altar. The pyxis. in her left<br />

• Stl I retains it I'd<br />

knob SI. contrary to logic--one may make out the<br />

atop the lid.h<br />

Delian Temple' .<br />

Word ltvA. ' ,"ventol')' 1,ISts of the fourth century preserve the<br />

disap 'XVI(. Howc\'er, In the Hellenistic period this .....ord<br />

pears and is repla d bAn '<br />

emplOYed "cc y l,..avwTI(. After 166 B.C. the .....ords<br />

are 1TlJtl( and 1TlJtldiov.u 1 he generic term pyxis. being


4<br />

THE ATTIC Pun<br />

SALLY RUTHERFURO ROI£JlTS<br />

5<br />

more familiar. is used in this stud}',<br />

One of the functions of the pyxis was as a container for<br />

cosmetics. Various pyxides still preserve their contents and<br />

psim)1hion (14I1.,m,IOV}21 and cinnabar H ha"e been identified.<br />

One .....onders how widespread was the use of psimythion among<br />

Greek women and who among them usro cosmetics. Xenophon in<br />

Oikonomikos (IQ. 3m gh'e5 one indication. The fresh loung wife of<br />

Ischomachos had whitened her face with pSim)1hion and used<br />

alkanet


•<br />

THE ATTIC PYxls S,ULY KUTl1ERFLRD Ra.ERn<br />

7<br />

related to them. Documentation and a discussion ~f ~he<br />

iconography of these vases will appear in Lilly, Kahirs pUb~lca~lOn<br />

of Ihe pottery from Brauron. Brauron tn~eed provides a<br />

background of meaning for Ihe study of Ihe pplS.<br />

...0 I I:S INTRODl:Q IO"i<br />

Ludwil CUniU1. "Prnlh~u):' 8f'rl".", W,,,d:l"""lllltll~rogrvm.... 88 (19291 pp.<br />

I '9; H c............ .- "'-mman.<br />

h-x.J.,,, ld""""tatK>n. H~mbul"J !';n"cnll\, l~l<br />

2. Gist:1a M. A. RlthlCr and !rot J Md"". SltllfWJ uNJ /¥UmtJ of A,Irf'lIum VAS"<br />

(New York. 1935110; Dart'mbng aDd Saglio. Vol.•. I, pp. 794-795.<br />

J. Marpir; J. Milne. "Kyhchms," AlA 43 (1939) 247-254.<br />

.. AIMn;tr1ft 1J"il"fUJ,I)plll"~t' 11. 480 C<br />

5. AlA 4J U9J9J 2~_<br />

11 Ibid.<br />

7. Ibul.. 249.<br />

8. s"hch;old in FR III .H1<br />

'I AlA 00 llfj.)y) 249 and Idc~nca.<br />

10. CVA Dnunark 4, C~n~grn 4. tUI to pt lbJ,4.<br />

II FOIra dl>oot"U"lOflof.h"cla~, ~ 1>


8<br />

THE ATTIC PYXlS .<br />

our from a grave in IM Norlh Cemrtery. Corinth, IM othu ftom • growc in AUIC.<br />

(T. Lnlie ShC;lT. "Psimythion," C/lusicil/ StuJi~s prt>srn/I'd I


10<br />

THE ATTIC PvX1S<br />

S.u.l' RUTHERFURD ROil ENT!<br />

IJ<br />

CI'''''It')' Well ill lhe Agoro. Ut.'sfH'ria Supplemc'''' 11. 22·23. fig. 9.<br />

Ca. 600 H.C.<br />

2. Athc"lS316 (CC. 565), from Athens. PI. 1.1.<br />

Lld nllssmg. H. 0.0,;,4, iJ. ill nm u.Ull..<br />

In.....ard-sloping rim, concave.<br />

Black band above and below frieze.<br />

Polos Painter, black-ligure. chain of "omen holdin~ hands;<br />

ABV-. 45. 28; p")llc. Nlfcnx;ur;mhltJ, ISO·191. rur (he chilin of<br />

\Ooomcn cf. the tripod-kothons: AllV 45.24, 26; CVA. Germany 9.<br />

Munich 3. pI. 140.6; CVA. Gernlany 10. Heidelbcrg I. pI. 32.3.<br />

First Quarter Sixth Century.<br />

3. Atht'rls. CeNUfliclIS MllSCUItl. from Athens.<br />

H. 0.09. H. with lid 0.118. D. at rim 0.118. D. of lid 0.115.<br />

Concave, handles at rim. Lid: rays. animals.<br />

Rays above frieze: beloK': rays.<br />

Painter of Berlin 1659. black-figure: siren heNcen panlhers.<br />

S\loan between hens: AnV. 20.2: AA. 1935.296. fig. 21; .4)A 2q<br />

(I93tl)~. li~. 9.<br />

575-550 H.C<br />

4. Rnm,.. Cons,.n·lJton" 305. from Palestrina.<br />

lid missing. H. 0.083. D. at rim 0_10.<br />

Conca\·e. four pierced lugs at rim.<br />

Irregular slanting strokes in handle zone. Two horizonlal bands<br />

.... ith swans rightward (upright) decorate the body punctuated by a<br />

black line between the zones. two black lines below and a black<br />

base line.<br />

Swan Group. black-fi~urc (no incision): AnV, 656. 63:<br />

Ht'Spl'rit/ 13 0944) 55 and 57: Payne. Necrocon'mhw, 292: CVA.<br />

haly XXXVI. Rome. Capitoline Museum I. pI. 35,4,<br />

5. Athens. Agora P 20708, fr. from Athens.<br />

H. pres. 0.038. D. at baloe 0.088.<br />

Lower wall and base preserved. Concave.<br />

PI. 2.1.<br />

Frieze: Swans rightward with groups of strokes bttween. t..,.o<br />

• baSe band (purple ewer black).<br />

hnes. . ha<br />

"or. b~"d ron«ntnc band on ba5C:; ttom' unglazed.<br />

JIttf!ff. • .....<br />

Purple (n'er black on swans' wings.<br />

Swan group. ABV. 656. 65; Agoru. XII. 398. Deposit R 11:2<br />

dated ca. 6(X)-550 R.e. Concave pp:is. type A.<br />

6. Edinburgh 1956.424. PI. 1.2.<br />

H. 0.052. H. 1Jl'ith lid 0.083. D. at rim 0.056. D. of lid 0.065.<br />

Insel nange for lid. concave. moulding at top of body.<br />

Li." twO concentric bands of short strokes; swans 10 right.<br />

Band of multiple outline triangles with tilling-ornamenl of<br />

irregular short strokes at top of wall: frieze below of swans<br />

righlward; groups of short strokes above and below.<br />

Swan group. black·figure (no incision): ABV. 656.64.<br />

Ca. S50 B.C.<br />

Boston 61.1256. from Gree«.<br />

PI. 2.2. Fig. la.<br />

H. 0.06. H. with lid 0.099. D. al rim 0_087. D. of lid 0.091.<br />

Concave. lid nanged beneath.<br />

Liel: lion aad goat; two sirens. ivy border.<br />

Quadruple row of dolS above frieze; below: double ro..... of dots.<br />

Group of the OIford lid. black-figure; He.raldes and Apollo: the<br />

Slnlggle fOf' the tripod; ABV. 6l6.ll: BMFA 61 (1963) 64-67.<br />

figs. I ...... PalVlipomena. 306,<br />

Ca. 5S0 B.C.<br />

8. Nrw York 06.1021.164.<br />

H. 0.055. H. wilh lid 0.10. D. of lid 0.072.<br />

C~ncave. lid flanged beneath. loop handle.<br />

Lld: youths naked and clothed.<br />

Wid .<br />

e black mouldmg above frieze; below: black band.<br />

PI. 3,1.<br />

~~ Re~ated to Ihe New York amphoriskos and 10 Ihe Painter of<br />

~un~hIM2 h·' .<br />

""1 ,w 1I~ ground: arming: AnV, 455.3: 698: Richter and<br />

"11 ne, Sha d N "<br />

pes all alnt'S nfAthema" Vases. fig. 137.<br />

Ca. S50 B.e.


12<br />

THE ATTIC PVlU<br />

IJ<br />

9. Gocha ZV 2380.<br />

Knob missing. H. 0.06. H. pres. wilh lid 0.076. D. 0.087.<br />

Concave, \\'id~ black moulding at top of wall. frit'7.C' between<br />

black lines. black band at base. Lid: blat:k.<br />

Related to the New York amphoriskos and 10 the Painter of<br />

Munich 1M2, hlack-ligure; Heraklcs anrl the lion: Amazonomachy;<br />

L.eiJS lIctwcclI ~ileithYI3I'!: AlIV. 455.2 below; CVA.<br />

Germany 24, Cotha 1. pI. 29,2·4; D. von Bothmer. Amazons in<br />

Greek. An. 75-76: Paralipomena, 198.<br />

Ca. 550 H.C.<br />

10. Basle MarAet, once Berlin 2033.<br />

Lid missing. H. 0.055. Upper diameter 0.071.<br />

Conca\'c. inset flange for lid.<br />

Wreath of leaves above frieze; below: black band.<br />

Black·figure. Dionysos and Aria-doe. dancing satyrs and<br />

maenads on dther side. unbearded youth riding on ithyphallie<br />

mule to left; Mo""a;es et Meduilll's S. It. Balf', Vt'nte Puhfique<br />

Xl, 23-24 Janvier 1953. no. 323, pI. xlv: A. Furtwangler,<br />

BeschreibutlR der Vasl'llsammhmg im Itntiquarium, p.438.<br />

11. It,hnu 502 (CC. 686). from Eleusis. PI. 3,2, Fig. lb.<br />

ud missing. H. 0.006, D. 0.091. H. of foot 0.003.<br />

Wide flat rim, cylindrical body. Iow ring foot.<br />

Black echinus moulding at top of body and rounded moulding<br />

at base. T,,·o raised black ring1 frame the frieze with a wide red<br />

band above and below. Botlom: ~ntral doned circle. three outer<br />

con~ntric circles.<br />

Tleson. black-figure: siren bcl~ecn cocks. siren between<br />

sphinxes; AHV. 181.49.<br />

Ca. 540 B.C.<br />

12. Brfluf'OIf Must!Um• .from .Myrrh~ous. . .<br />

Knob missing. Lid nses ""nh one JOg towards eenter. cyhndncal<br />

hod . Black moulding at tOP of body and at base: t"..o black<br />

m~ldings frame frieze. BottOm: series of concentric mouldings.<br />

Lid: rays, lotus buds linked by arcs and dotted above. ribbon<br />

paltern in red. ..<br />

Probably Exekias. black·figure: PreparatIon of a charIOt: Ergo"<br />

J8 (11)61), fig. 43: BeH 86 (1942). 669. fig. 27; ARV, 1699; AlA<br />

72 (1%8). 362: Parafipomenu. 01.<br />

Co. 540 H.C.<br />

,<br />

13. Athens. AgOlll P /2255 fr., from Athens. PI. 4.1<br />

Fragment from base and lo~er wall of pyxis. H. pres. 0.027, D.<br />

est. 0.075.<br />

Body cylindrical. black base moulding, low black ring fool.<br />

Fn'f'=l': lower portions of ligures only; two horse's hoofs. nude<br />

male figure left. nude male figure right, draped male figure with<br />

scepter right facing mounted horseman to left.<br />

Bottom: dol. circle, glazed band.<br />

Black-figure, ca. 540 B.C.<br />

14. Athens. Agura P /3247. from Athens. PI. 4.2.<br />

Lid missing. One side broken away. H. 0.045. D. 0.071.<br />

Inward-sloping rim. conca\'e; moulding at top and base, bottom<br />

0.,.<br />

a.oo y decorated with double palmettes separated by a dotted<br />

cham between two bands. Interior glazed.<br />

Patterned without incision: the glaze has fired red.<br />

Ca. 550-540 H.C.


14<br />

THE ATTIC PvXlS<br />

SAllY ROVHERFURD ROIlERn<br />

15<br />

IS. Athen.s, Agoru P n26. from Athens.<br />

lid missing. About a third preserYed. H. 0.077: D. eSI. of rim<br />

0.08.<br />

Black inward-sloping rim. cylindrical body. trip'!r1ite foot.<br />

Black. rounded moulding at base of wall. raised ring with<br />

added red abm'c it. Black moulding at top of foot.<br />

Semi-glazed. Agoro XII. no. 1287. p. 327. pI. 43. fig. 11.<br />

Deposit T 18:)·U; for the foot cf. Ne 133. no. 1508. fig. 176.<br />

550·515 B.C.<br />

16. Hf'ideJberg 274, froon Athens. PI. 4.3.<br />

Knob missing. H. 0.065. H. with lid O.O~S3, D. 301 rim O.OMS. D.<br />

of lid 0.087. H. of foot 0.006.<br />

Wide nal rim. concave. tripartite foot. Lid rises steeply to<br />

eenter. nanged beneath.<br />

Lid: three black circles on either side of chain of lotus buds<br />

with points upward. linked by arcs and dotted below.<br />

White dot on c\'ery other lotus point. Band of wavy tines.<br />

Zeds on sKle of lid. Three black circles at top and base with<br />

four circles at the mid-point separating the zone of rosettes from<br />

the chain of lotus buds below.<br />

Black.figure; CVA, Gemlany 10. HeKlelberg I. pI. 41.10.<br />

Ca. 540-520 B_C.<br />

17. Brussels A 1375, from Thebes. PI. 5.1.<br />

Lid missing. H. 0.14, D. 0.23.<br />

Wide flat rim projecting beyond line of wall. concave. Iow black<br />

ring foot.<br />

Wreath of leaves on rim. frieze bordered above and below by<br />

black line.<br />

8fJ1wm: black reserved circle at center and interior edge of foot.<br />

Fr;eze: Scenes 01" the hippodrome: quadrigas. mounted horsenlen<br />

and traill~r.<br />

Black.figure; CVA, Belgium I. pI. 12.<br />

Cu. 520 B.C.<br />

A • lIS Agora P /JI29. from AtMns.<br />

18. t e . .<br />

Lid missing. About a third p~rved. H. rres. 0.042. D. est. at<br />

rim ca_ 0.03. .. .<br />

Conca\"e. inset flange for lid. tnpartlte foot.<br />

Red line at top. black line at base of wall, black band around<br />

middle.<br />

Semi-glazed. AgQI"Q Xli. 327. no. 1288. pI. 43. fig. 11. Deposit<br />

U 25,2·L.<br />

550-525 B.C.<br />

I~. Princetorl. private.<br />

One foot restored, H. 0.085. H. with lid 0.14. D. at rim 0.09. D.<br />

of lid 0.095.<br />

Concave. wilh wide flat rim, four feet. Lid flanged beneath.<br />

Three reserved lines on rim. another around middle of wall and a<br />

grooved line near the lower edge. Vertical rilled edge of lid and<br />

'''''0 circles on upper surface reserved. Added red for under<br />

surface of rim at base of wall. vertical edge of lid and moulding at<br />

base of knob.<br />

Black. Agora XII. 320. no. 1286. pI. 43. fig. 11.<br />

Ca_ 515 B.C.<br />

~ earliest example (no. I) comes from a ehild's urn burial in<br />

the Athenian Agora dated ca. 6(X) B.e. The shape carelessly made<br />

and decorated reflects the concave form of the Early Corinthian<br />

prototype.<br />

Athens 316 (no. 2. PI. 1.1) is a replica of the Early Corinthian<br />

form minus the handles. The rim slopes slightly inwards and its<br />

lid may well have been like that of Boston (no. 7. Fig. la). The<br />

range of vase shapes decorated by the Polos Painter is derived<br />

from Corinth.]<br />

. Another slightly later pyxis dated 10 the second quarter of the<br />

SIxth century is derived from a variant of the Early Corinthian<br />

shape in which the vase is formed as a kalathos with flat handles<br />

at the eenter of the body.• The Ceramicus pyxis (no. 3) is shaped<br />

as a kalathos but the handles are at the rim and the lid curves<br />

toward the center as in the normal Early Corinthian type. An


,.<br />

THE<br />

ATTIC PYII~ 11<br />

animal frieze decorat~ body and lid but the filling ornament is<br />

reduced to a few sparsely scatlered rosettes.<br />

An instructive contrast is offered by the Conservatori (no. 4)<br />

and Edinburgh (no. 6. PI. 1,2) pyxides decorated b)' the Swan<br />

Group.s The Conservatori example is again a replica of the Early<br />

Corinthian fOfm while Edinburgh incorporates new features. an<br />

inset flange for the lid and a moulding al the top of the wall.<br />

Beazley ~marked that the range of "shapes used in the Swan<br />

Group. in general. suggest a date in the first half and probably<br />

the second quarter of the sixth century," Howt\'er. he noted that<br />

the contexts in which such vases had been found necessitated a<br />

date shortly after the middle of the sixth cenlury.' One would<br />

never have guessed a mid century date from the shape of the<br />

Conservatori pyxis but Edinburgh shows interest in aT1iculation<br />

characteristic of the best examples shortly after 550 B.C.<br />

Still very conservath'e is the mid sixth century Boston example<br />

(no. 7. PI. 2.2). The form is Early Corinlhian minus the handles.<br />

The lid retains the usual animals but the main friele has (1 fOrcelul<br />

procession of miniature figures. gods .....itnessing the struggle of<br />

Apollo and Herakles for the tripod. Figural also is the decoration<br />

of the earlier pyxis by the POI05 Painter.<br />

The Athenian painter early sees the advantage of two pattern<br />

band5 to frame and emphasize the frieze: dots on 80slon (no. 7).<br />

rays on the Ceramicu5 pyxis (no. J). or as in New York (no. 8) and<br />

Gotha (no. 9) the framing bands are black. The upper one is<br />

actually a moulding. painled black. which emphasizes the<br />

aniculation of the shape. On the Basle pyzis (no. 10). a wreath of<br />

leaves is pla«d abo"e the frieze and a wide black band at the<br />

base.<br />

The most impressive and dearly composed examples of the<br />

years around 540 B.C. are by Tleson (no. 11. PI. J.2) and probably<br />

by Ell.ckias (no. 12). The overall shape of the box is cylindrical.<br />

articulated by a moulding at the top and base. In addition on the<br />

Tleson pyxis the frieze is framed by raised rings. The clear<br />

division of the pans and their relation to the whole is expressed<br />

by raised elements. There is a low ring foot. the first of many<br />

anempts to fit a foot 0010 the simple box. On no. 12 the<br />

" h n doubled at tOP and base with a narrow<br />

Idlngs ave~...<br />

m~~ leO between them. The mouldings which bind. the frieze<br />

,p "ongly than those at the outer boundanes. Tleson<br />

ject nlore s .<br />

pro . ',n the use of animal frieze though all filling<br />

is conservative<br />

h<br />

disappeared. The preparation of a chariot forms the<br />

ornament as . .<br />

b' t of the Brauron pyxlS fnele.<br />

'0 F', cd 10 lleson's pyxis is a fragmentary example from the<br />

Real f" "L"'<br />

Ago .. (no IJ PI 4 1)<br />

Athenian ..' .<br />

v.ith a figured<br />

..<br />

nett In<br />

.<br />

lit<br />

.<br />

e<br />

"yle. Similar but less elaborate in form. 11 15 cylmdncal<br />

Master . r" \"<br />

with one black base moulding underlining the rleze. It a so IS<br />

title(! with a low ring foot. To this period also belongs a<br />

semi-glued pyxis (no. 15). A small moulding f~lIowed by a lar~er<br />

weight the base of the cylindrical wall. There IS also a moulding<br />

al the top of the trip'lrtite foot.<br />

What a simply made and dCi:orated pyxis might look like in the<br />

)'eaf$ 550-540 R.e. is sho.... n by no. 14 (PI. 4.2). A crudely formed<br />

moulding is placed at the top and base of the concave wall. A<br />

double palme1te connected by a dotted chain forms the<br />

decoration. The pelals of the palmene have not been carefully<br />

definL-d and there is no incision.<br />

The pattcrn is one uscd to ornament the necks of amphorae<br />

though an exact parallel is difficuh to find. Certain of the<br />

amphorae of Group E have a palmene and lotus festoon on one<br />

side and a double palmene on Ihe other. New York 56.171.12'<br />

dated about 540 B.C. may be compared but Ihe petals of the<br />

palme1te hardly project and there is crude incision. A later small<br />

neck amphora by the Painter of Toronto JIJI has a double<br />

palmette and lotus pattern connected by a chain. Here. there is no<br />

incision and in this the design comes closer to that on the Agora<br />

pyxis. Howe\·er. Ihere are vertical divisions in Ihe form of debased<br />

lotuses. It seems probable that the basic shape of the pyxis<br />

suggestcd the neck of an amphora to the potter and this in turn<br />

led to the choice of pattern.<br />

5SO S.C. could be called a turning point. Up until that lime<br />

~plicas of the Early Corinthian form .....ere still occasionally made<br />

Side by side with a form modified by framing mouldings or<br />

framing ornament. The plain box as .....ell as the ne.....er model .....ith


..<br />

THE ATTIC PvDS<br />

'9<br />

a ring or tripanitt foot exist. Both forms of lid construction<br />

current: the lid flanged below to fit within the mouth of the pot<br />

(Fig. la) and the newer model in which the body is flanged and<br />

the lid fits over it (PI. 1.2). A modified animal frieze .....ith link or<br />

no filling ornament as .....ell as the figured frieze are found.<br />

Only a few examples date from the yean 540-520 R.e. They<br />

eauId not be mort \'aried as one is black (no. 19),tone<br />

semi-glazed (no. 18), the third patterned (no. 16. PI. 4.3), and the<br />

last black-figured (no. 17. PI. 5.0. Striking is the absence of<br />

mouldings at the lOp and base of the wall and the clear simple<br />

concave curve of the wall. All are footed. No. 18 has an inset<br />

flange for the lid and the other three have a wide nat rim: no. 16<br />

(PI. 4,3) and no. 19 show that these lids ate flanged beneath and<br />

the vertical edge of the lid is cOnliguous with the top of the pyxis<br />

wall.<br />

The patterned Heidelberg pyxis (no. 16. PI. 4,J). cumes from a<br />

grave on the .....est slope of the Acropolis together with a miniature<br />

skyphos krater of the Swan Groupll and a trefoil oinochoe by the<br />

Painlcr of Vatican 342." The context suggests a date range of ca.<br />

540·520 B.C.<br />

A wreath of lotus buds. with points up\1lard. docorates a zone of<br />

both lid and box. This is a favoriate shoulder pallern on<br />

black-figure lekythoi. Miss Haspels observed that the pattern was<br />

used from the period of early Amasis. In the leagros period the<br />

pattern was revef2d and thereafter the lotus buds were depicted<br />

,",,'ith points downward. U<br />

Brussels A 1375 (no. 17. PI. 5.1)1J like Heidelberg has a simple<br />

CQncave wall with a .....ide flat rim. The base of the wall slopes<br />

inward to a juncture with a low ring foot. The formation of base<br />

and foot resembles a small pyxis from the Agora (no. 18). The<br />

f(Xlt of the Agora example is notched but the profile is similar.<br />

The Brussels pyxis. however. is the largest of the black-figure<br />

examples having a height of 0.14 and a diameter of 0.23. This<br />

is a sudden enlargement of the shape for hitherto the black-figure<br />

pyxides noted ha\'c been of modest size. On account of the<br />

similarity of the rims of the Heidelberg and Brussels pyxides the<br />

missing lid should be restored to resemble that of Heidelberg (PI.<br />

4.J). The date should be about S20 B.e.<br />

""OTES CHAPTER I<br />

H- r.JM" H~,IIID IOsfotd 19JII 2CJ2.<br />

~: ,'''. p ~. P,)'DC Itlitcd onl) ODC concne p)'I'.~ In In.: cat'klcve.cl Mlddk<br />

Conathian usa. pO. 860 B. Louv~ A 432 .nd qL>rstiQnnt ..-hnhcT JI mlltll noI br<br />

latn- For cnmu p)..idrs WC" pp JO'>-.JO!I.<br />

J IW. pp_ 190-191; Hr~P"W' IJ U94-') 52·504.<br />

.. H Paync. Hrf'rocontllhlD, 292. no. 666. Clnh.ll"E. Mus& AI.oui. Btthn J3J.<br />

AIlOlhn" Connlhi",n cumpk of thn .an.nt I'Ii C.rluuhr B 146J (CVA. Germ.ny 7.<br />

C.rbrvhe I. tut 10 pI. 39.2 bUI pkture plo J9..l).<br />

S. Other oooc:.vc Pfllides by the S..·.n Group; Reggio. MIaeO O¥ico; Rom.n<br />

m.rket (PoII.IF:) ~BV. 656. bl.fl2); Elcu$i$ J77. from E1eu$i$ l/'flnJ/ipom~"fI. p.<br />

JIS): Bnlurort 227. lid. from Br.urnn. Thc~ b .nother in Ihe S.ntorini Muuum.<br />

6. HUfw.riIl IJ U944) 57.<br />

7. CVA, U.5.A .• 12. The Metropolit.n Museum of Art J, pI. lJ. (New York<br />

41.162.143. pi. 14. '[$0 by Group E. hu I double INIlmelte ch.in ...Ith dIminutive<br />

IotU$ belwren. The p.[mcIlC$ are crudely incisedl. T..·o furth


20 THE ATTIC PTXIS<br />

CHAPTER 11<br />

The First Small Classes<br />

and Singletons<br />

LATE FOOTLESS PYXIDES<br />

I. Athens /8577. ex £mpedolr.les. PIs. 6.1 and 6.2. FiR. le.<br />

H. 0.057. H. with lid. 0.083. D. al rim 0.072. D. of lid 0.088.<br />

Inset nang~ for lid. body connx with black echinus moulding at<br />

lOp and conca\'c·faced moulding at base. Lid flat with down-turned<br />

rim to cover flange (inset at lOp of body Inll), pomegranate knob.<br />

Lid: tongue and dol. black band bet.....een reserved lines. running<br />

palmette scroll, slanting connections all parallel forming a<br />

vilruvian waYe with palmenes strictly aligned with axis of border<br />

(Dinsmoor Iype IVa).<br />

Side of lid: inlerlocking maeanders in groups of five. once four<br />

and chequered square: base moulding: egg pattern. Lid interior:<br />

black; bonom: reserved ",·jlh cenlta! dOl and circle.<br />

~ Painter of Athens 18577. black.figure: chariot-race: AlA SO<br />

(1946) 118 Oisl of examples of palmene SeToU, type IVa),<br />

ParTJfjpom~"a. 306.<br />

Ca. 5/0-500 B.C.<br />

2. Athens 18578. ex Empedokles. Pis. 7.1 and 7,2.<br />

I H. 0.059. H. with lid, 0.104. D. at rim 0.075. D. at base 0.075.<br />

~ flange for lid. slight incline to wall, echinus moulding at top<br />

and black moulding at base. lid flat ....·ith down-turned rim to cm'er<br />

flange; conical knob.


22<br />

THE ATTIC PYxJ§<br />

SALLY RUTHERFUaD RoaERTS<br />

2J<br />

Lid: tongues. black band bct"cen resened lin~. running<br />

palmette scroll (Dinsmoor. I)PC IVa). Side of lid: interlocking<br />

maeanders; moulding: reser;ed crenellc pattern. Interior of lid:<br />

rescn'ed; bollom; resen'ed.<br />

Fri,.:e: palmettes. ailemntely \'crtical and resen"ed. linked by<br />

tendrils .....ith crosses in the field.<br />

The Painter of Athens 18577. black-figure. patterned: AJA 50<br />

()946) 118. PuralifJo",.·nu. 306.<br />

Ca. 5/0-500 H.C.<br />

J. Atlu·tls Acr. 560. from Athens. Pis. 8.1-8.2. 9.2. Fig. Id.<br />

Lid missing. about t .....o-thirds of wall preserved. H. 0.076. D. t.'lJot.~t<br />

rim 0.09.<br />

Inset flange for lid, concave·sided, black base moulding. bottom<br />

l1at lIo'ilh deprc'\scd ('colral loodo.<br />

BOtlom: two concentric circle.; near ('enter and 11100 OUler<br />

concentric circles.<br />

Black band.' reserved line above .od below<br />

ErPA4>IEN]. KA(A01:··Hlm]OAAM.U KME.<br />

[..,KA] AE. NAYl:lnPA[T]E. [M]ENTA, KA[AE]·<br />

frieze. MAKP(ON:<br />

1:18[.., KME].<br />

Makron. red·figure: women in the home: AR V. 479, JJ6 and 458:<br />

JHS 14 (1894) pI. 3.2; Langlot'l.. Die 0",0(('" Vase" wm di'r<br />

AkropoJis:u Athen, pI. 43.<br />

Ca. 500 B.C.<br />

4. Brussels. Hibliothl~q"I' Royule 9. from Attica.<br />

Knob missing. H. 0.051. lota1 preserved H. 0.Ob3. D. of lid 0.085.<br />

D. of base 0,09.<br />

Inset flange for lid, conc3\'e-sided. moulding at base. lid inlerior:<br />

reserved: bottom: two concentric circles. outer circle.<br />

Black line. reserved line abo\'c frieze, reserved line below. "The<br />

inscription MEKAKI\E~ EnOIEIEN is modern, whether over an<br />

ancitmt inscription or not" (Reazley).<br />

Pistoxcnos Painter, fed-figure; women: ARV. 863.31; O.<br />

Fcytmans. Les Vases grecs dl' la Bibliotheque Royule dj' Bt·lgique.<br />

pis. 21-22 and pI. SI (profile).<br />

Ca, 480 RC.<br />

• Actual ktur rorms an: DOt ~ ill lhb or the rouo...ing illKription$,<br />

Tbe \a~ abme ha\c bt-cn loosel) grouped IOgether as the} .. hOY<<br />

• curious mixture of cunservative and progressiH: features, On the<br />

consenath'e side wuuld appear their small size. base mouldings and<br />

lack of foot. The inset l1ange at the top of the hod) and consequent<br />

tllperimenlation ....ilh the proper shape of lid to fit do.....n o\'er such a<br />

nange are progressi\e in the sense that these features are ronstallll)'<br />

presenl in the fiflh-centuf)' conca\'"e pyxis. The first ell3mple in<br />

red-figure technique appears about 5(X) D.e. and introduces the<br />

predominantlY female subjet'1 matter typical of the fifth cenlury.<br />

Alhens 18577 (no. I. PI. 6.1) and Alhens 18578 (no. 2. PI. 7,1)<br />

wf;re probably made as a pair in the same .....orkshop and det'orated<br />

by the same hand. They are similar in shape and construction<br />

though lhere arc subtle differences in prolile. Bolh italic the<br />

canonical b:lse moulding and complementary moulding at the lOp<br />

of the body but the form of the hase mouldings are cOnlrasted: a<br />

disk for no. 2 to counter a moulding ..... ith a conca\'e face for no. I.<br />

The lids ha\'e bluntly rectangular down·turned rims identical in<br />

profile to those of the Classes of Berlin 2034 (PI. 15. J) and the<br />

Painter of Oxford 137 (PI. 11). The lid patterns are identical. a<br />

running palmene scroll IDinsmoor t)'pe IVa).1<br />

The first red-figured pyxis (no. J. Fig. Id) is of a very simple<br />

conscrvati\e shape. The body is slightly conca\'e with a rounded<br />

mOUlding al the b3sc. It seems likdy by comparison with an earlier!<br />

and 1\100 later p)Xides (no. 4 and the singleton. Athens 12149)' Ihat<br />

tile missing lid had a rounded moulding at Ihe edge to complement<br />

that at the base. There has been a realignment of members. Ihe<br />

Upper moulding ha\'ing been mO\'ed from the top of the body tu Ihe<br />

lid.<br />

The artist is Makrun. who chiefly paiOled cups. Throughoul Ihe<br />

fifth century the great majority of artists who paint pyxides<br />

specialize in the decoration of ClipS.<br />

The inscriptions have been fully recorded in the catalogue entry<br />

follOWing the order in which they appear in Langlolz's drawing.·<br />

Recent examination sho.....s thal all the inscriptions appear to ha\'e<br />

h«n originally white.s With regard to the missing letlers it should be<br />

stated that there is :l chip in front of EMTA and no Irace of any<br />

lener could ever h3\"e been visible.' The chip may be seen in


THE ATTIC P'YXIS<br />

SALLY RI111lEaFUaD RO.EaTS<br />

Langlotz's drawing and on PI. 9,2. The M was first restored by<br />

Richards, as Melite is the name of a Nereid in the Iliad (niiiA2).7<br />

It should be nOled that there is an inscription beside each female<br />

j;sure and room enough between the wonlan hastening leftward with<br />

the mirror and the woman in profile rightward by whom MAKP i..<br />

written for another venical inscription to name that Vooman (along<br />

her left side where there is a substantial break, PI. 8.1)_ Beazley nDled<br />

thallhe KA abO\'e the mirror held by the ..oman striding left "might<br />

also be the beginning of another name" (;tRV, 479, 336). Therefore<br />

the anist can name each figure and sign. It seems highly probable<br />

that MAKP is a fragmentary signature. The letters and pmiition of<br />

the signature on Makroll's Helen skyphos in Boston l are strikingly<br />

similar.<br />

The basic shape of the Brussels pyxis (no. 4) closely resembles that<br />

decorated by Makron. The concave·!>ided box has a rounded base<br />

moulding here complemented by that of the lid, The knob however is<br />

missing so the total effect must be imagined. I would not hazard a<br />

guess as to the shape of the knob as they are so varied in this period<br />

of experimentation. The pyxis differs in some relipects from<br />

Acropolis 560. in that the concave curve of the body is cmpha..i7ed<br />

and the box is proportionately smaller. The pyxis rests slighlly IIff<br />

the ground on its base ring as is the case with Athens 18577 (Fig. le)<br />

and 18578,1 This detail may be observed in the prolile 1t but the<br />

structure of the foot is obscured by the base moulding and indeed all<br />

the pyxides of this class appear to be placed solidly on the ground.<br />

THE CLASS OFTHE PAINTER OF OXFORD 237<br />

I. Camhddgf 86.06. Pis. 10.2 and 11.<br />

Total height excluding foot 0.095. D. at rim 0.101. D. of lid 0.12.<br />

Inset flange for lid, conca\·e·sided. tripartite foot (1). Lid with<br />

down·turned rim to cover flange, conical knob.<br />

Lid: debased tongues. warriors, women and Nike. nCI pattern.<br />

Side aflid: linked lotus buds. pointing downward. with dolS abo\'e<br />

and below.<br />

Net pant:rn abm'e and below frieze.<br />

. r of Oxford 237. black-figure. Voarriors lea\'ing home<br />

palllte .<br />

. rs women and Nlkc): ABV. 649. 248,<br />

(~arnu .<br />

Ca. 500-490 B. C.<br />

Louvrt' CA 3738. f'X Bou/anger. Pis. 9.1 and 12.2, Fig. 2b.<br />

2. H. 0.092. H... ith lid 0.126, D. at rim 0.092. D. of lid 0.109, H. of<br />

foot 0,019, Inset flange for lid. conca\'c, thick stem sprnding foot<br />

ring __..ith reserved com'clI edge. Lid wilh down-turned rim to cover<br />

flange. Disk knob.<br />

Lid: debased tongues. \\arriors leuing home (seated warriors<br />

ahema~ing with warriors leading horses and Nike). dots.<br />

1/ftf'nor of lid. reddened; buttom: dot and wide black circle.<br />

Side ~r lid: lotus buds. pointing downward. joined altcrnatcly by<br />

slalks with dots abO'e and bclow.<br />

Nct pauern abm'e and below frieze.<br />

Leaness Group. black.figure: Am3zon and warrior leading horses<br />

and warriors.<br />

Ca. 5QO·l/90 D, C.<br />

J. Warsaw 138535, probably from Kaliningrad. PI. 13,<br />

H. Rib. D, 0.13,<br />

Inset flange for lid. concave, black thick stem, spreading foot ring<br />

with reserved convex edge. Foot tripartite. Lid with down·turned rim<br />

10 cover flange. conical knob.<br />

Lid: debased tongues. seated warriors alternating with warriors<br />

holding horses and warrior; net pattern. $idf' of lid: lotus buds.<br />

pointing downward. joined by stalks skipping one or two buds with<br />

dots above and below.<br />

Net pattern aOO\'e and below frieze,<br />

lc.aness Group. black-figure; Amazons leading horses. and<br />

warnors: CVA. Poland 4. Warsaw 1. pI. 43. figs, 1-7. ParolilJOmena.<br />

313.<br />

Ca, 500-490 B.C.<br />

4. HOI'""a. Lagunillas.<br />

Sh~pe and patterns as in Warsaw 1J8535.<br />

Painter of 0 f .<br />

p _ 1I ord 237. black-figu~; warnors: ABV. 649. 249;<br />

orailpomenu, 31J.


2.<br />

THE Anle PVXIS<br />

SALLY RUTHERFURD ROBERn<br />

27<br />

S. HmI/TOn 223. Lid. fr.. from Brauron.<br />

Black-figure. scated warrior tlanked by two mounted figures. Vif}e<br />

and two birds in the field. Added while on shield. Trace of debased<br />

tongues near center break.<br />

Ca. 500·490 B.C.<br />

6. Ba/in F 4008. from Attica.<br />

H. 0.10. H. with lid 0.15. 0.0.08.<br />

Inset nange for lid. concave, black thick stem. spreading foot ring<br />

with reserved convex edge. FOOl tripartite. Lid with down-turned rim<br />

to cover flange. conical knob.<br />

Lid: IWO quadrigas betwccn turning posts. Sidl' q{ /i,l: lolus buds<br />

pointing downwards. joined by stalks.<br />

Net pallern above and below frieze.<br />

Black-figure; Pcleus and Thetis; A. Furtwanglcr. Beu'hrl'ibllllg<br />

(It" Va.fl'lI.fummluIIJ( im A"tiqlllldlllll. 1016.<br />

7. D'j's,h'lI ZV 54. from Athens. PI. 5.2.<br />

H. 0.063, H. with lid 0.127, D. at rim 0.061, D. of lid 0.08. H. of<br />

foot 0.02.<br />

Inset nange for lid, concave, spreading fool. lid with down·turned<br />

rim to cover nange. Conical knob.<br />

Uti: debased tongues, two glazed circles, running palmette scrnll<br />

(Oinsmoor type IV A). Side of lid glazed.<br />

Black band above and below frieze.<br />

Black.figure, patterned (two rows of running palmette scroll,<br />

Dinsmoor type IV A). Palmettes {twelve or thirtecn petals) with<br />

in outline. Crosses in field).<br />

Ca. 5/0-500 H.C.<br />

Pyxides of this class have a conca\'e body with an inset nange at<br />

tht: top for the lid. The down-turned rim of the lid is somewhat tall in<br />

proportion to Ihe box and the side while slightly curved does nol<br />

form a smooth continuous curve compleling that of the botly. The<br />

awkward and experimental nature of the lid protile is particularly<br />

marked when one compares it with a mid-fifth century lid of the<br />

Class of Berlin 3308 (PI. 61). The placement and choice of<br />

nts are consistent. A chain of pendant lotus buds.<br />

elcme ..<br />

carelessly<br />

•• _.I bJ' stalks decorates the SIde of the lid. A band of net patlern<br />

JOin""" .<br />

frames the continuous fneze on the body. Knobs and feet vary.<br />

The Cambridge p~'xis (no. I. PI. 11) has a conical knob and foot<br />

'oIhich possibly once was of tripod formation. l1 The black-figure<br />

work has been anributed to the Painter of Oxford 237. u a member<br />

ofthe Leaness Group. The women depicted. one on each side of the<br />

warrior, move to the right with arms akimbo; one looks over her<br />

shoulder. A curious incised rectangular box-like shape with two<br />

"ertical divisions defines the upper body. A comparison with the<br />

n'tlenad on Alhells, Acropolis 20291), makes clear that the lower<br />

slightly angled incisions of the "box" indkate the arms of the<br />

~oman and the loop at the cellter represents her clasped hands. The<br />

macnads depicted on the cup fragment Athens. Acropolis 2928a H<br />

manifest this same debased format characteristic of the Painter of<br />

Oxford 237.<br />

A Nike with recurved wings on either side of a blob·like undefined<br />

head, depicted on the Cambridge pyxis should be compared with an<br />

almost identical Nike on the lid of Louvre CA 3738 (no. 2, PI. 9,1),<br />

here attributed to the Leafless Group. Note the slanted incised lines<br />

with a half loop at the center indicating the arms and clasped<br />

hands. The rough incisions on the lower drapery are identical. The<br />

warriors holding shields on the main frieze of the Louvre pyxis<br />

(PI. 12.2) are of the type of Cambridge. Warriors or Amazons<br />

leading their horses are not found on cups and pyxides attributed<br />

10 the Painter of Oxford 237. However, they appear in the .....ork of<br />

the Whitworth Painter, another member of the Leafless Group.<br />

Compare the faceless Amazon holding her horse on Athens P<br />

3716 H by the Whitworth Painter with a similar faceless figure on<br />

the Louvre pyxis (PI. 12,2). Similar Amazons with horses may be<br />

seen on Auckland 3771.1' Sometimes the hind hoofs (Athens<br />

p 3716) or forequarters (Louvre pyxis and Auckland 3771) are off<br />

~he.grOund and one receh'es the strange impression that the figure<br />

"hhterally holding up the horse. It should be remarked. however,<br />

t at th . .<br />

e mctsed body markings on the horses of the Louvre pyxis<br />

are more detailed than those of the Whitworth Painter. The Louvre<br />

Pyxis by comparison with works by the Painter of Oxford 237 and


28<br />

rilE ATflC PYXlS<br />

29<br />

Whit.....orth Painter definitely belongs to the Leafless Group.<br />

It is e\'ident Ihal the shape of the Lou\'re pyxis (PI. 12.2)<br />

resembles Cambridge 86.1906 (PI. 11). The disk knob of the Louvre<br />

p)'l:is differs from the others of the class. Warsaw 138535 (no. J. PI.<br />

13)1' clearly was decorated by the same hand as no. 2. Louvre CA<br />

37J8 (PI. 12.2). A comparison of the horses. horsemen and<br />

Amazons lIt'ha stand behind their mounts makes this clear. The<br />

horses are evidently of the same breed as th


THE ATTIC PYIIS<br />

SALLY RUTHERFURD R08ERTS<br />

J1<br />

J. Mtumhf'im Cg65. from Athens. PI. 16.1.<br />

H. 0.058. H. with lid 0.09. D. of lid 0.063.<br />

Inset flangc for lid. concave. tripartite foot. Lid with down·lurned<br />

rim to CU'!'er flange. conical knob.<br />

Lid: ra}"S. hare confronting hound. thrice. dots. Double dot. two<br />

black .:alternating" ith two white. abm'e and below frieze.<br />

Manner of the Haimon Painter. black-figure: Heraklo and<br />

Cretan bull. twice: CVA. German)" 13. Mannheim 1. pI. 18.8-10.<br />

4. Prol·idl'IICf.' .14.1374. PI. 14.2.<br />

H. 0.092. H. with lid 0.128. D. at rim 0.080. D. of lid 0.102. H. of<br />

toot 0.014.<br />

Insctl13nge for lid. concave, tripartite foot. Lid with down-turned<br />

rim to cover flange. conical knob.<br />

Lid' rays. hunter preceded by thrce hounds afier a harc, double<br />

dol, IwO black alternating with two white. DOllble dot abo\'e and<br />

below frieze.<br />

Man ner of the Haimon Painter. black-Iigure: S)"mposion: lJ,jl/,'lill<br />

ul thp Musl'um ofAn Rhodl' Isluncl School of Df'sigll 27 (1939) 26.<br />

fig. 7: Diana M. Buitron. A"ir Va.s.' PUilllillJ: in Nf'1I' EI/X/uI/d<br />

Col/t'rtiulls. 66·67.<br />

Ca. 490 B.e.<br />

5. A ,hl'ns. Agara P 14555Ir.. frum Athens. PI. 14.1.<br />

Fragment from "all preserved. PfCS('n'oo H. 0.054. tit. 0.0.08.<br />

Inset flange for lid. conca\'e.<br />

Double dot. two black alternating with two white. above frieze.<br />

Manner of the Haimon Painter. white ground (incision. red for<br />

wreath. beard and large dots on himation): Sympmiun: 0 12:3<br />

well ca. 520-490 B.e. Ues/>eria 24 (1955) 02'06.<br />

COMPARE:<br />

8rallro" /70 fr.. from Brauron.<br />

U1ack·ligure: Komos. 11 differs fmm the class in having a ring<br />

fool.<br />

Ca. 4908.e.<br />

Tht= pp:ides of thi~ snlall class are quite uniform in shape and<br />

decoration. They are con(a,'e with a curve simila.r to thost of the<br />

(lass of the Painter of Oxford 2J7. A ~ual conical knob ero" ~s<br />

t~ box. The lid has a do"n-turned rim. bluntl)" rectangular ID<br />

contour to cm'er the inset flange at the top of the body. The foot<br />

i!t tripartitc. Row~ of double dot ahernatel)" black and" hile frame<br />

the main frieze. Thc side of the lid is black forming a strong solid<br />

border abo\·e. Note ho" different the effect is from sides of lids<br />

decorated with lotus buds as in the Class of Oxford 237 (PI. 11).<br />

Berlin 2034 (no. I. PI. 15,1) and Berlin 2OJ5 (no. 2. PI. 15.2) are a<br />

Pa4 r both in shape and in the choice and placcmenl of pallern<br />

elements. They are attributed to the Manner of the Haimon<br />

Puinter. An inci~cd Iinc emphasize!> the boundary line hclween<br />

fllce und hair. a characteristic of the Haimon Painlcr\ !>lylc,U<br />

carried on in 1Il0rk merely in his manner. This rude demarcation<br />

line may be noted on lhe faccs depicted on all the pYllides of this<br />

class. Two curved incised lines not exactly congruent with the<br />

contour suggest the shape of the thigh of the Heraldes on no. I.<br />

Almost identical incisions may be seen on the youth's thigh on the<br />

lekythos. Cabinet des Medailles 283. U also in the Manner of the<br />

Haimon Painter. Two such curved lines but shorter. may be seen<br />

on the right thigh of Herakles on the Mannheim pyllis (no. 3)." An<br />

incised loop indicates the ear of the youth on the Cabinet des<br />

M~ai1les lekythos. and an identical notation may be seen for the<br />

syrnposiast's ear on Agora P 24555 (no. 5, PI. 14.1). A strong<br />

similarity may be noted in the set of the head in profile to the right<br />

on a body oppositel)" disposed on the Agora and Providence pyllides<br />

(no. 4. pI. 14.2).<br />

On no. 1. Berlin 2034. Herakles is twice represented in combat<br />

with the boar while lulllos kneels between the groups. This<br />

element of repetition is aho present on the Mannheim pyxis (no.<br />

3) where the struggle of Herakles with the Cretan bull is<br />

represcRlcd twice. lolaos kneels. helpfully holding Heraklcs' club.<br />

This same motif appears on a handlc-Iess cup, Prineewn 162.<br />

attributed to the Manner of the Haimon Painter. Z4 There are<br />

nU~bers of these handle-less cups with a labour of Herakles<br />

depIcted tlll'ice.'~


J2<br />

THE ATTIC PYXIS<br />

SALLY RUTHERFUIlO ROIt£ItTS<br />

JJ<br />

The fric7.c of the Mannheim pyxis is extremely narroYt', perhaps<br />

in response 10 the smaller size of this pyxis. but perhaps reOecting<br />

a t .... o-frieze format sometimes employed by the Haimon Painter<br />

for alabastra. 1 ' The Mannheim ppis has not been attributed<br />

previously 10 the Manner of the Haimon Painter. yet the use of<br />

incision for separating face from hair. the thigh markings uf<br />

Hcrakles. the repetition of the motif of Herakles and the hull, the<br />

pose of 101305 holding the club and even the narrowed formll! are<br />

strong evidence for the attribution.<br />

The shape of the Providence py:ds (no. 4. PI. 14.2) miTTOTS thal of<br />

Berlin 2034 (no. I. pI. 15,0. The fragmentary white ground pyxis.<br />

Athens. Agora P 24555 (pI. 14.1) from the concave cun'c of the wall<br />

and double dOl band abo\"e the frieze seems '·CI)' m.ely to belong<br />

to this class. The composition of the Agora pyxis \loa!> probably<br />

similar to that of Providence and both were dralol n b)' the same<br />

hand. The shape of the hcad!>, the cap-:ike hair loIith its<br />

incision-less OUler contour and the erratic incised lint..'S marking<br />

the contour of face and beard arc nearly identkal. The curved<br />

incised lines ~uggesting the drapery of the s)'mposiasb and<br />

particularly the disproportioned joining of arnl to ~lltJuldcr show<br />

the samc artist at work. The latter ;!> often an uncertain feature in<br />

draloling by the Haimon Painter. H<br />

The Agora pyxis. P 24555, comes from a well 101 ith a context<br />

dated ca. 520·490 B.CII Thompson !>uggcsted because of the mass<br />

of pottery and number of lekythoi (250) that the mateflal dumped<br />

came from a retail potter's shop on the edge of the Athenian<br />

Agora damaged in the Persian sack.<br />

Numerous lekythoi from the workshop of the Haimon Painter<br />

were found in the Stadium Street grave logether with an al)'ballos by<br />

Douris. Miss Haspels dated the lekythoi about 480 8.C. n<br />

The pyxides of this class undoubtedly should be dated to the same<br />

period. One would expect many more examples of this class<br />

considering the prolific character of the Haimon workshop, but from<br />

the evicleno:e at hand, this does not seem to be the case. A number of<br />

pyxides ofa broad low bowl form .....ith the picture confined to the lid<br />

were also made in this shop bUI later in the second quarter of the<br />

century.)O The evidence suggests that in the years around 490-480<br />

D.C [here was. as yet. linle demand for the small terracotta box.<br />

SINGLETONS<br />

I. Athl'f/s /9271.<br />

Knob missing. H. 0.083. total<br />

0.078. H. of fOOl OJXl7.<br />

Pis. 16.2 and 17.2. Fig. 2e.<br />

presen-ed H. 0.094. D. al rirn<br />

Inset n:lIIge for lid, long body. concave, black moulding :11<br />

base, be\-clled ring foot. Lid with black do.....n-turned rim 10 cm-er<br />

flange.<br />

Lid· rays. hare and hound confronled. thrice. double dot with<br />

tfattS of IoIhite dOI~ betlo\ccn. Lid i",('n'or reserved; bonum dot<br />

cirde,"band.<br />

Abo·..e and below frieze. double dot with Iraces of 10\ hile dots<br />

Ilt't"een.<br />

I04>ON EPrALATO !:'II4PO ME E40KEN inci~d on Side of<br />

lid.<br />

Manner of the H"imon Painter, black-figure: komos.<br />

For 5t)le compare Berlin 2035. attributed 10 the Manner of Ihe<br />

Haimon Painter (AIJV, 556, 442 ter).<br />

Cu. 490 11. C.<br />

2. Athel/s. Agoru P 279/7 I'r.. from Alhens. PI 17 I<br />

L'd . . . ..<br />

I ml5Slllg. TloIo joining fragments preserve almost onc third of<br />

the ~1 H_ 0.075, C5t. D. at rim 0.07. H. of foot 0.005. Insel nange<br />

for lid. COncave .' reserved 10..... , be' 'e 11--'· ..-.", nng "'1' loot. ,<br />

1010 hOflZOnlal<br />

bands of linked .<br />

fi<br />

pomet::ranates on white ground decorate the hod)<br />

ram«l by a black band at the top and base and a wider black<br />

band at the CCnter.<br />

Dlaclt-figure: pallerned. Deposit H 13:5.<br />

Cu. 490 B.C.<br />

J. OXjord /966 980 I S'<br />

. . ex II' John Beazley). PI. 173 Fig Ja<br />

Crownrn· . ., . .<br />

o . g piece 01 knob missing. H. 0.077, lotal pres. H. 0 114<br />

. at flm 0.009 D f I' 009 ' ,<br />

d,·a.... . . 0 Id . S, H. of foot 0.016. Concave<br />

·"eter of lid . '<br />

eont,' shghlly too large, bUI belongs. intended 10<br />

nUe and I<br />

Lid. comp ele cun·e of body. Iripaflite foot.<br />

right~a::.ngues, black band. quirks. Sidl' 0/ lid: key pallern


THE ATTIC PYIls<br />

SALLY RlTTHERf'UIlD ROIIERTS<br />

J5<br />

Puttl'n! zOlles from top dowl/' h) lea\·cs. linked pomegranates,<br />

broad black band. key paltern rightv.ard.<br />

Black·figure. patterned. Sir John and Lady Ht'U:/l:)' Gifts<br />

/9/2·/966. no. 158. pI. XVII.<br />

Ca. 490·470 H.C.<br />

4. Athells /2/49. Pis. 12.1 and IS.2. Fig. le.<br />

H. 0.075. H. with lid 0.116. D. al rim 0.08. D. of lid 0.093. H.<br />

of foot O.OIS.<br />

Inset nange for lid. eonca\·e. black base moulding, thick black<br />

stem and spreading foot ring with a reserved concave edge. Lid<br />

.....ith do..... n-turned blaek rim to fit ovcr nange.<br />

Knob: slightly conical.<br />

Lid: debased tongues. women and warriors. nCI paltern.<br />

/lIt.'n·or n.f/id: glazed .....ith OUler reserved band: bottom: reserved.<br />

Linked ncl pattern above and below frieze.<br />

Near the Painter of Oxford 237. black·figure (incision. nddition<br />

uf white and red); .....arriors, women and HerOICS.<br />

5. A,ht'IIs 627 (CC.S39). from Alliea.<br />

H. 0.07. D. at rim 0.061. D. of lid 0.082, H. of foot 0.009.<br />

Concave. inset nange for lid. Iow ring foot. side of lid continues<br />

and completes cun'e of body.<br />

Lid: net. maenad dancing bet.....een two satyrs. rider on<br />

ithyphallic mule. sal)'r and maenad dancing. rider on ithyphallie<br />

muh:. net. Side of lid: pendant linked lotus buds. dOlled above<br />

and below. linked net pattern abO\'e and below frieze.<br />

Black-figure. draped figure (Ariadne) and Oionysll!>. macnad<br />

bet .....een t.....o dancing satyrs. rider on ithypha11ie mulc. maenad<br />

and satyr. maenad and satyr. rider on thyphallic mule; Collignon<br />

and Couve. CalU/ogllf' dt's Vas.'s /WiIlIS till AI/1sh· Natiol/al<br />

d·A/"em's. 269. no. 839. Some of ligures of lid and box vestigial.<br />

Cl'. 490 H.C.<br />

6. LOIII're CA 25/1.<br />

H. 0.083. H. wilh lid 0.14. D. at rim 0.085. D. of lid 0.104. H.<br />

of fOOl 0.014.<br />

ConC3\C ~ ith offset moulding at ba~. and black ('chinu!><br />

moulding al top. Ud rises ~ilh a jog t~ard... conical knob. kl ....<br />

lripartite fOOl.<br />

Lld debased tongues. ~reath of \crtical. eirt"umscrihed<br />

palmetle5 (nine petal...) ~ith ~hile dots in spandrels abme and<br />

Ihrce ka\CS below. connectl-d b)' a paltern of lriple opposed lotus<br />

bud.... Side or /id: gla7ed. Red line abo\·e frieze: be/Oil'· 1~(1 red<br />

lines. Rays on base moulding.<br />

Black.ligure; Dion)'sos seated by vine betv.·L'Cn maenad 11l1d<br />

dancing satyr: Athena attacking ~arrior. ~arrior and hearded<br />

onlOOker left.<br />

Ca. 4RtJ H.C.<br />

7. Ox,lortl 1965.13tJ (cx Spcnecr-ChurchillJ. from Athens.<br />

PI. 18.3. Fig. 2d.<br />

H. 0.086. H. ~ilh lid 0.127. D. al rim 0.062. D. of lid 0.079. H.<br />

of foot 0.027.<br />

Cone,uoe. lid \lilh rounded dO\ln-lUrncd rim and insel llange<br />

~lov. it. tall tripod foot.<br />

Lid lertical circumscribed palmellL~ (seven 1>Clab) llocparatcd by<br />

ltar drops aOOn and ~In\l and connecled by a lotus n{Mer.<br />

SiJt· ()I/id: tongue and dol.<br />

Stopped inlerlocking maeanders in groups of three onee luur<br />

and cross squares belo\l friezL'S.<br />

Manner of the Pisloxcnos Painter. red-figure: \lomen: AHV.<br />

864.15 "may be by the painter himself:' A",C6 4. pI. 29. I; Le<br />

Ani I. pI. ISO. figs. 7-8 and 11; Pamli,lO"u'na. p.426.<br />

Ca. 4H/J·470 H.C.<br />

8. LOl/don E 769. from Alhens. PI. 19.2 and Figo 2e.<br />

Knob fragment preserved (originally of loop form). H. 0.069.<br />

IOIa1 preserved H. 0.084, O. at rim 0.064. D. of lid 0.088. H. of<br />

foot 0.027.<br />

. Concave with offset moulding al base. Lid with down-turned<br />

nm and inset nange below. tripartilc foot.<br />

Lid'bdf . an 0 black linked pomegranates on reserved ground<br />

nea.r OUtcr edge, the remainder. black.


THE ATTIC Pvxu<br />

SA1.LT RUTHERfUao Ron:ltTs<br />

J7<br />

Side 0llitl: resen'ed band. black band. Base moulding: rt.-,;en'ed<br />

band. black line. H.esen"ed line abm'e and below frieze.<br />

Briseis Painter, red·figure· women' ARV 'IO"J u· h<br />

. _ . ',. .. .u: 1'\1t.: ter.<br />

AI/e'll"~" f/lnllllln •. fig. 195: Cecil Smith, Cutu/ogllt" 01 ,hi' Gr"f'fc<br />

Ill/(/ 1.1r1/5(:1I1/ VaSl's ill ,h" lld/ish MIISl·IU". Ill. 110. E 769.<br />

CII. 480·470 H.C.<br />

9. A.,hn,.s ~ol908. from Athens. PI. 18.1. Fig. 9d.<br />

. lid ml.,>slOg. H. 0.094. D. at rim 0.081. H. of foot 0.024. Cnnca\"e.<br />

IIN.'t Ilange hlr lid. tall. comex lripanite fool. Blad. hand. rl~cned<br />

line abO\'e frieze: bd(JII'.· black band bel~een reserved lin~.<br />

Close 10 the Wedding Pailller, red-figure: Judgement of Paris:<br />

ANV. 924, CVA. Greece I. Athens I. pi. 6. 4·6: Purtllip(ml.'lItl, 431.<br />

0,. 480·4m Il. C.<br />

10. Cumbnclgf' GR 10.1934.<br />

Knob missing. H. 0.094. tOlal presened H. 0.103. D. at nm<br />

0.086. D. of lid 0.10, H. orfOOI 0.016.<br />

long r:OIlr:3\'e r:urve. side uf lid slightly concavc, tripartite fool.<br />

Lid: ahcrnating \·enica1. circumscribed palmelle bcvcn petal)<br />

and flower linked by tendril. ~hite dots abo\'e flanking f1o~ers and<br />

below in tendril loop on either sKle of palmene.<br />

Side ot/iel' black. Reserved band abo\'e and belu~ frieze.<br />

H.ed-figure. Zcus pun.uing Aigina: JUS qo (1970) 19.\-194. pI. I.<br />

I-J.<br />

et/. 470 lJ.c.<br />

11. WursUlt' /98509.<br />

Insel flange for lid, long COnC3\"e ~all Io\ith torus moulding al<br />

haloc. tripanite fOOl. lid flat with down-turned rim. conc:l.\·e In<br />

profile. acorn knob.<br />

H.t'~en'l·cI: acorn knob \.glazed line around l'cnter to differenliate<br />

Ihe two parts alld black moulding at base), lo\.\er edge of lid and<br />

upper surface of body, gt(x}\"e a~)\"e base moulding. fool.<br />

Black. Maria L Hernhard. Gn'cfc;e MlIlunom WU:Oln'. fig. 51:<br />

A,1toro XII. 174 and footnote 8.<br />

12. Lunn .17./009.<br />

lid nlissing. box mended from numerous fragments. H. 0.105.<br />

0.0.10.<br />

Inset flange for lid. long body, conca,'c; closed. flaring foot of<br />

proportionatel}' small diameler.<br />

onset moulding above and below frieze. ornamented wilh black<br />

net paltcrn.<br />

Diad-figure. Io\omen: CVA. France 20. Laon I. pI. 11. I-J.<br />

Co_ 490 H.C.<br />

"fhe p}xides listed above dcrin= from Ihe yea~ 490-470 H.C. and<br />

they havc cenain common characteristics. They are concave with<br />

an inset Ilange at the top for the lid. The lid has a down-turncd rim<br />

to cm'er thc flange and in some the lid profile colltinues and<br />

completes the cune of the body. In IWO instances (nos. 7-8) the lid<br />

has a do~n·turned rim wilh a flangc set belov.' it. Both a long<br />

slcnder body and a squat compact body may be found. both<br />

continued in thc ~ellled red-figure classes 10 follow. The grealest<br />

diversity comes in the form of the foot. Most arc tripartite. a few<br />

have a ring foot but the influence of foot types of olher vase shapes<br />

is also apparenl. 80th psykter (no. 11) and cup foot type C (nos.<br />

3-4) may be recogni7ed.<br />

The number of black-figure and red-figure examples is fairl}<br />

even but there arc also rare black-glaze (no. 11) and patterned<br />

examples (no. 2·J). Singletons occur whose slyle links them to small<br />

black-figure classes (nos. 1. 4).<br />

These IWO decades are Ihose of erratic experime0l3tion from<br />

,,-hose e1emcnts a new canon eveOlually cmerged. The frequent lack<br />

of harmony between Ihe three pans-lid, bod}' and foot is<br />

suggesth'e of the experimeOlal ferment evidenced by Ihese vases.<br />

~ne number of singletons should not cause surprise as it is<br />

evident no workshop specialized in the production of pyxides.<br />

There ~alo little demand' few were made and evcn Io\'orkshon.: which<br />

d" ,,-<br />

Id prodUce small classes also made sin/lllctons.<br />

I take the long bodied type first. Athens 19271 (no. I, Pis. 16.2<br />

and 17,2) has a base moulding, tradilional but ouldated by ca. 490<br />

D.e. Delow it i~ a low bev...led ring foot. The lid profile connects


J8 THE ATTIC Pun 39<br />

this vase with the Class of Berlin 2034 and the three confronted<br />

pairs of hares and hounds are replicas of those on the Mannheim<br />

pyxis (PI. 16,0 of that class. The side of the lid is black and the<br />

frieze framed above and below by a row of d


40 THE ATTIC PYxlS SAllY RUTHEllfURD RO.EIlTS 41<br />

pyxis move this ~3)'. their arms akimbo. A lock of hair hangs down<br />

in front of the Acropolis maenad's ear: the same mal' be noted on<br />

the maenad 10 the left of Hcrmcs on the pyJlis.<br />

On Princeton 16.1 by the Painler of Oxford 237 (side A. PI. 10.1)<br />

the left most macnad moves similarly ~'ilh het hands (3 while blob)<br />

clasped together in fronl of her body. Her shawl ends in s.....allowtails.<br />

There are while dots on the drapery o\'er the shoulders and in<br />

a vertical row down the center of the garment. A (ress falls down in<br />

front of her ear. The rightmosl maenad's hands arc depicted as<br />

v. hile blobs onc beSide the other in exactly the same way as on the<br />

pyxis Alhcm 12149. The birds used as a design element on the lid<br />

are unparalleled in the work of the Leafless Group. The figure<br />

slyle. howel-er. certainly is near the Painter of OJlford 237 and<br />

perhaps this is his own work,<br />

The prufilc of the body of Athens 14908 (no. q. PI. 18.0 presents<br />

the simple concave curve of the Oxford patterned pyxis and the<br />

black.figure Athens 627 (no. 5). The tall convex tripartite fool is<br />

unparalleled. The lid is missing and the exceptional contour of the<br />

foot is a strong admonition not to hazard a guess as to the profile<br />

of the lid. Beazley writes thus concerning the style. "The following.<br />

though unusual in the proportions of the figures and in some other<br />

respects. is close to the Wedding Painter and may be from hi~ Oil. n<br />

hand."<br />

Similarities to the style of the Wedding Painter are not difficult<br />

to find. Compare the set of the head and the long wavy t~ses<br />

falling along Paris' shoukler and upper arm with the seated youth<br />

depicted in the tondo of the Berkeley CUp.45 The reserved line along<br />

the contour 01 the head widening along the upper arm to halo the<br />

wa\'y locks is similar in each. The shorthand depiction of toes seen<br />

frum the frol1l as a series of curving lines is identically represented<br />

for the figure of Paris and that of the woman on the right in the<br />

tondo of the cup in Compiegne,46 Dilule chilon fold lines end in<br />

hea\'ier dots as may be seen on the woman putting the final touches<br />

10 the arrangemcnt of Thetis' garment on the name pieee of the<br />

Wedding Painter. the pyxis in the Louvre. 4J The unusual<br />

proportions mentioned by Benley may be nOled in the curious<br />

enthroned fi~ure of Aphrodite.<br />

The Wedding Painter is counted a member of the Penthesilea<br />

Workshop. howe\'er Ihe shape of this pyxis is nOI of the canonical<br />

Penthesilean type. By profile and b)' the very oddity of ils foot it<br />

seem!> to belong 10 the experimental period of 480-470 B.e. The<br />

style seems to ha\'c a slightly earlier flavor especially pronounced in<br />

the figure of Aphrodite and indeed Rhomaios and S. Papaspyridi<br />

(Karousou) dated the vase 10 that decade,4'<br />

Pyx;de.~ decorated by the Pistoxenm Painter. Brussels. Biblio·<br />

theque Ro)ale 9 and soon after Oxford 1%5.130 (no. 7. PI. 18.3).<br />

v,hich mal' be by the artist. were made before the canonical type uf<br />

the P"nlhesilca Wor,,"shop ""as introduced, The same is the case for<br />

Athens 14Q08. The Pistoxenos Painter's female ~ and<br />

compositions seem to have provided models followed in the<br />

decoralion of pyxides by certain members of the Penthcsllea<br />

workshop.4t


42 THE ATTIC PVXH<br />

4J<br />

NOTES, CHAPll:.R 11<br />

J. AlA SO 1I94b) 118. The IrtiJICSI populllrity of the palmcm' K'mll border lie$ in<br />

I~ pniod 510-500 D.e. ~ b1acllAi'lIlY pIIlm~tC'li 011 the '.-0 p,".il; lids hiJ'~ ftorn<br />

Ihlf1tvl tu fifi:~n pnals. Therr is linl, s~ brt--a:o the pnals aDd the l'ncirclbJ<br />

vine. Unusual futures arr lhe~ in the f,dd and t!'le palmellt Maru in OUtlie.:<br />

l«hn"!",,, Compare ,he p;llmt'th: PY"I\ In Dn:~l'n i..... zv 54<br />

2. A,II,'tJI'SI XII. 181. fOOl:notl' 5. Athens. Cnamic'lls wp lJ r. a l'OlXau: py"b,<br />

..,th a rounded bb'ck moukhnllll Ihl' base and ~gl' of the lid. ~ bOl:lofll ill na'<br />

..·ith a slightly deprl5.~ ..tn at the ten.." as in the red·fil!'\I~ uampk'. Thb. Jl)'ab<br />

ha~ bftn attributed 10 the POll", ly\iadn .. hO!lol' signature appt'I"" Of' a kOlhon in<br />

l.JOlls. Tht' rCSI:ned coIor and raised rid~ doltf:d .. ith glur simulate ...·000 IS on<br />

kolhuns attributed 10 this potter. A1t~mlling black and IT(! {ongut's (an c:lcmcnt in<br />

lhe deroralion of kOlhuns. type A and III ornament ,he knob. Particularly dose a",<br />

th.. furm and arrangement of palll:rn~ on a kOlhun in Cupcnhal'1Nl d.·rAkropoiiS:II AI....". pl."J and p. 51. no.<br />

"".<br />

7. JHS I~ (18941 194.<br />

8. ARV. 0458. 1; CB. Ill. no. 140. pb. 16·;; (Boston IJ.l86).<br />

9. This ch....nerislie ronn«t\ Brussels Blbhothtque RO)';I~ 9. Athen\ 18511 and<br />

18518 ,,'ith py1id~ (Jft)'llE D.<br />

10. D. Feytm.ns. Ln V4Jt'S Grws d... ,,, Bib'fO/'~q"r Roy"lr de Bdgjq", (BrusKb<br />

1948) 51. profile dr••ling.<br />

11. In. k-tter of May 14. 1969. Mr. Richard Nicholk .kindly "tlJ(e the foflo""ing<br />

.boIot the fonc: "It .I!iO shll'Wis "hat is Itn of the foot. "hich has broken ''''ay<br />

undel'Tll'ath and appa.renlly been ground level in modern tiron. Under lhe<br />

,'H·um\laoc..",. o:rtalnty is nOf ~~iblc but then: scem to ha"e been three<br />

•ymmettkal breaks with kvelish surfaces ~t"'ern thrm (unlcu wholly aue to the<br />

modern grinding)·-i.e. pos.sibly a tripod foot:'<br />

12. ABV. 649. 248. Li~1 of his l\·orlr. on pp. 651-652.<br />

13. ABV. 643. 159; Graef. Oil" u",ik,,, V'urll ''0'' de, Akmpolis :11 AI/Ill'''. pi. 89.<br />

"'29.<br />

14. ABY. 6043.158; Grarf, DjI' ullIik,,, Vus"" l'OlI duAkropoiis:1I Atll,,". pI. 88.<br />

2028a.<br />

15_ AB\ b-M. 166: Thomas b~ Dunb..bin .nd 01:""",. Pnoc...... 11 toxford<br />

19621 J4J. pi. 142 top ntht. DO. J 10.<br />

16. ABV b44.lbS;JJlS -111951) ISS, rlf. 5. WhLll\ortIt ramler<br />

17. CVA PolOInd 4. Warsa.- t. plo 4J, 1·7.<br />

18 JIIS "I (19511 ISS. fil


THE ATTIC PYxis<br />

4S. AHV. 923.11; CVA. U.S.A. S. Um...~rsll)· of California I. pI. J7.Ja.<br />

46. ARV. 922.1; CVA. FraTK"l' J, Compqm. I. pl. 11.14.<br />

4:. ARV. 924JJ. LovH~ l 55. Wl'dding or Pdn~.nd Thelft,<br />

~_ ('l'A G~ I. Alhrn~ I. pi 0.4-6 and p. 5; MMS 5 119J.11 141 ".MII 4llO:<br />

Pam ~llllng among Ih" goddrs~ 10 Judgo:. Iypc or I"'" IO-nal.lonilis pi...IIra.:·<br />

Ua~hall<br />

49, "IMns 1591tcC. I~l by the Cu",u~ Pamter. "them. 2188 by Ih" rami'" of<br />

IAndoo 0 12. "Ihem; 1141 by IIw Veii Painl"'. Alhcns 1107 b) the Painter or<br />

London U 12. MUnich 2721 b)' lhoe Pamlcr of BoIQIl"na 417. Athem;. pn\:lle by the<br />

Veil Paml"'. Athens. Serpirri CoIlcelion by Ihe Painter of London D 12. The pose<br />

ma.l frequently r",pealed is Ihal of a v.ontan scaled m profile on a d,ph~ v.hh her<br />

am,s hidden by hcr hlma110n as in Ill


THE ATTIC PYns<br />

SALLY RUTln.fUIn Ro.urn<br />

890.173: Richter and Hall, pp. IOI-J. pi. 77: Hambidge. DYI/amic<br />

Symmetry. 51. fig. 12: Parafipomena. 428.<br />

2. Ant"ona 3130, from Numana. 1<br />

lid missing. H. 0.12. D. at rim 0.10. D. at base 0.14.<br />

WK:1e glazed moulding. white line. black line abon frieze;<br />

belOII': black line.<br />

The names of Zeus, Hera, Peitho, Charis () and Aphrodite are<br />

inscribed.<br />

The Splanchnopt Painter, white ground: birth of Aphrodite:<br />

ARV 899,144; Riv/stArch 8 (1940) 46-56, figs. 1-7: Paralipomena.<br />

429 "Andrew Oli"er has discovered the lid. in a private collection<br />

in Paris;'" T.B.L. Webster. Polter and Patron in Classical Alhens.<br />

268.<br />

J. Pl/rI·s. LOUI'1'e MNB /286. from Athens.<br />

Pis. 20,2 and 33.1. Fig. 4lt.<br />

Knob missing. H.0.!4. Total pres. H. 0.148, D. at rim 0.117. D.<br />

of lid 0.156. H. offoot 0.035.<br />

Lid: tongue and dot. black band. laurel wreath. black band,<br />

rontinuous or interlocking maeanders in groups of five (once si:r)<br />

and cross square. "Odd man'" south. Lid interior. dot and two<br />

circles: bottom: dot and concentric circle.<br />

Grooved wide black band. white band. black line above frieze:<br />

beluw: black line. while band. white band, wide black band.<br />

Perhaps connected with the Sotheby Painter, white ground; Perseus<br />

and Medusa; ARV. 775" 1669; Rill/stArch 9 (1960) 186. fig. 78;<br />

Parulipomena. 416.<br />

4. Munich 2721. from Athens. PI. 19.1. Fig. 4b.<br />

H. 0.105. H. with lid. 0.147. D. at rim 0.09. H. of foot 0.026.<br />

Lid: tongue and dot, black band. laurel and berry. narrow black<br />

band. double dot. Lid imen'or: dot, circle, band: botmm: same.<br />

Irregular reserved line above and below frieze.<br />

Painter of Bologna 417, mistress and maids: mistress and maid;<br />

ARV. 917.199; CVA, Germany 6, Munich 2. pI. 97.1 and 3-4 and<br />

pI. 99,4.<br />

5. Athl'/ls 1288 (CC. 15.58), from Attica. PIs. 21 and 33.2. Fig. 4c.<br />

Knob restored. H. 0.131. total pres. H. 0.155. D. at rim. 0.112.<br />

D. of lid 0.145. H. of foot. 0.029.<br />

Lid IOngue and dot. laurel .·-reath. black band, interlocking<br />

maeanders alternating with cross squares (once sahire square).<br />

"Odd man" south-east. Lid interior. resen'ed_ BOllom: dot and<br />

conc£ntric circle. Black gl37.ed moukling, reserved groove above<br />

frieze: belo"'. reset'\'ed line.<br />

Painler of Bologna 417. women; ARV. 917.198.<br />

6...Athl'ns. Serpieri Collection (el: Vlasto).<br />

Lid panther. bull and boar between reserved circles.<br />

Reset'\ed line above and below friett.<br />

Painter nf London D 12, women: ANV. 963.87; Puralipomf'nu.<br />

434.<br />

7. Alhl'tIS. Serpieri Collection (ex Vlasto).<br />

Lid tongues. circumscribed palmetles linked to lotus flowers,<br />

black band, interlocking maeuders in groups of six or stven<br />

ahernating with four-pointed stars. Side of/id: laurel wreath. Black<br />

glazed moulding and two glazed lines above frieze: below. Ihree<br />

glazed line


48<br />

THF ATTIC Pnls<br />

SALLV RlffHEllfUIlO ROIll~IIT<<br />

49<br />

9. Ar"e,,~· 2/88 (CC. 1845). PI 23 FO 5 . . Ig. a.<br />

H. 0.15. H. with lid 0.215. D. at rim 0.113-0.114. D. of lid 0.16.<br />

H. of fool 0.037.<br />

. Li~: debased tongues. laurel and berry, debased tongues. Lid<br />

"'terror: rescn'ed; bottom: dOl and concenlric cirde.<br />

Grom'e in black glaze moulding abO\'c frieze; bdull': black line.<br />

lIl'hite line. black band.<br />

Painter of Londnn 0 12..... hile ground; women; ANV, %3.94:<br />

CC plo SO.ItHS.<br />

IQ. Berli" 2261. from Athens.<br />

Pis. 26 and 30.2. Fig. Sb.<br />

H. 0.13. H. with lid 0.188. D. at rim 0.124. D. of lid 0.17. H. of<br />

fOOI0.OJ7.<br />

Lid- tongue and dot. black band. linked vertical circumscribm<br />

palmem:s ....-ilh a leaf in each spandrel. black band. interlocking<br />

macanders alternating with cross squares. SiJe of lid: rays. /.id<br />

i"ll'riur: dOl and two circles; bouum: dOl and three circles.<br />

Wide black moulding......hite band. black line abo\'t' frie1.e;<br />

m'luw: black line, hile band. black band.<br />

Yeii Painter hite ground: ""omen: A R V. 906.116: Adulf<br />

Greifenhagen. A,.tikt' Ku,u/werkf', pIs. 70-71.<br />

It. BUSlon 65.1166 (ell: Mayer). PI. 24.<br />

H...... ilh lid 0.185. 0.0.15.<br />

Lid: tongue and dot. black band. rays. black band. chevrons. Lid<br />

;"tt'rio,: reserved: hullOm: dot and two concentric circles. Black<br />

band ......hite band. dilute line abm'e frieze: below: dilute tine. while<br />

line and black band.<br />

Graffiti on underside of lid: AYIANAPA HOKE<br />

AYI:YMAXIAJ.<br />

The Painter of Londun D 12. white ground: Women: BMFA 67<br />

(1969) 72·92. figs. 1-5 (Truitt).<br />

12. BU!iIWl 93.108. from Eretria. PI. 27.<br />

H. 0.128, H. with lid 0.178. D. at rim 0.116. D. of lid 0.15. H. of<br />

foot 0.031.<br />

Lid: tongue and dot. black band. laurel and berry. black band,<br />

line!> dotted at both endlO.<br />

Bullom dot and t""o glazed circles.<br />

Black glaled moulding. teSened groo\t' abo\t frieze:<br />

below'<br />

resened line.<br />

Red-figure. woman seated by kalathos ""hile bearded man looks<br />

on: anolher .... oman. Youth cro""ned by Nike. another )·outh. l. D.<br />

Caskey. Geometr), ofGred VD.'!"es. pp. 226-227.<br />

13. South Hadll')'. Mount Hol)'oke (ex Seltman). Pis. 30.1 and 34.1.<br />

H. 0.121. H. with lid 0.17. D. at rim 0.118. D. of lid 0.14tl. H. of<br />

foot D·031-0.032.<br />

Lld tongue and dol, wreath of laurel and white berry. black<br />

band. Iongue and dOl.<br />

Bottom dot and two concentric circles.<br />

Rcscned line abo\t' and below frieu.<br />

1 he Veii Painter, woman ~aled, and youth: maid running.<br />

Restored. ARV. 906.109.<br />

14.AI/lt·ll.'!" 1Nl (CC. I5tH) from Athen... Pis. 28 and 38.<br />

H. 0.122. H. ""ith lid 0.17. D. at rim 0.11. D. of lid 0.151. H. of<br />

foot 0.035.<br />

Lid longue and dol. black band, lotus buds pointed down .....ards<br />

linked by ares abme and below aod dOlled. blaek band. reserved<br />

petals. Ud imerior. rcscnled: bottom: dot and two circles. Black<br />

band. rescn'ed groove above frieze: b.-Iow: reserved line, black line.<br />

reserved edge.<br />

Veii Painler. women: ARV. 906.111.<br />

IS. f/(Jllulll/u J59H (ex Segredakisl. Ph. 29 and 37.<br />

H. 0.127. H. wilh lid 0.169. D. al rim 0.109. D. of lid 0.14. H. of<br />

1'0010.03.<br />

Lii/.· rays. rescrved band. lotus buds pointed downwards linked<br />

by arcs and dOlled above, reserved band. zig'lag enclosing oppu!>ed<br />

triangles. Side of lid: rays. Black glazed band. irregular reserved<br />

line above fric1.e: bl'1oll': zigzag clJclosing opp0'iing triangles.<br />

Painter of Bologna 417. women: All V. 917, 203.


TllE ATTIC PYxIs S,AI.l,. Y RUTH £RFUIU) ROBEJl:u 51<br />

16. Mal/du's/er U"il'l'Tsity III I 2. 1'1. 31.2.<br />

Lid mb.sing. H. 0.14. 0.0.15. H. of foot 0.03.<br />

Resented line abm'e fric1.e; lwlDle laurel \\ reath.<br />

"I\.';,r the Palllter of Bruloseb R JJO. "Arrhal of Jouth \\oUlh.<br />

\. "Illall. maid-Pari~ and Helen: nun.e w;lh babe-N;kO'llratOlo;<br />

"lllg-Mellelam.':'-: ,lnd maid). AIl\'. 931.2: L. Gluli·Kahil. Ll·.~<br />

1::lIll'l·f'ml'IIt.~ 1'1 h' HI'fUllr d'l/f!le/ll'. p. 177. footnole 1.<br />

17. Genel'u /0763.<br />

H. 0.114, H. with lid 0.172. D. at rim 0.086. D. of lid O.llq. H. of<br />

foot 0.034.<br />

Lid: tongue and dot. laurel. tongue and dot.<br />

Reserved line above and below friezc.<br />

The Group of Athens 1591, Women: AHV. 955.2: t'VA.<br />

S\\itzerland I. GCllcva 1. pis. 17,7 and 18.5.<br />

Ut Df'/os. fr.. from Delos.<br />

Maximum pres. H. 0.08. D. 0.108. Lowcr pan of COIIC:IVC wall<br />

and concave lripan;te fool.<br />

!Jr)/lom: dot and IWO concentric circles.<br />

Rays bcl"cen Tl:SCrYt.'d lines below friez.e.<br />

Veii Painter. Woman seated and \\omcn: AHV. 906.112: De/os,<br />

XXI. 71.<br />

19. Oxfurd 1929.754. fr.. from Greece. PI. 25.2.<br />

0.0.115. Flange for lid and part of concave wall.<br />

Wide black band abtl\'e fricze.<br />

Painter of London 0 12. white ground: \\omcn \\ ith lyres: AR V.<br />

963.95; S('/f'l't. no. 367. pI. L1.<br />

20. I1ruuroll 58. fr.. from Brauron.<br />

White ground. women.<br />

21. Alhell$ /592 (CC. 1554).<br />

H. preserwd 0.079. D. at rim 0.11. Inset flange. conca,'e "'all<br />

presen'ed to near base.<br />

The Curtius Painter. Youlh and \\omen: women: ARV. 935.76.<br />

Wrollgl~ restored. Like Oxford 1929.754 it \'Ias a full·siLed ppis<br />

\\;th a tripartite fool. Int~ntional red on Interior<br />

22.4//11'111. A,Ionl P 2425.1. fr .. from Alhens. PI. 25,1. Fig. x.<br />

Pres. 11. U.06. D. oftlange eSl . ..:a. O.I:!. About half the lo"'er part<br />

of the ('onca,'c wall and a section of tripanile foot including about<br />

holf of one notch. The foot profile \'aries from the usual<br />

Penlill..'!ilean tn>e. The base line of the receptacle does nOI slope<br />

immediatel)' into the fOOl but first makes a slighl step.<br />

The Veil Painter. Women: ARV. 906.113.<br />

,<br />

23. A/lwm. AgurII P4734. fr.. of lid. from Athens. PI. 32.2.<br />

Knob missing. D. est. ca. 0.17. Base of knob raised above surface<br />

of lid and decorated wilh debased tongue and dot.<br />

I hi tongue and dOl. \·enical. circumscribed palmclI~ linked to<br />

101U~ llo\'lcrlo. black band. nopped interlocking maeande~ in<br />

groups of 1\\0 scpaf:ltt.'l1 h}' four·poinled slars. Side or lid: laurel<br />

\Irtalh (tie presened) thcn tiny tongues belo"'.<br />

Penlhcsilca W\,rk~hop. probablY:1 lid for a \\hile ground pyx;s.<br />

Athen~, Agora. surface lind.<br />

24. BruIlnm 28911 u"J 289h. fr .. of lid from Brauron.<br />

Venical circumscribed palmetles \\ ith leaf abO\'e and bclo\\ in<br />

spandreh. circums.cribed palmelles linked 10 low) fltlwcr" wilh<br />

dots in \olutes of lotus. laurel. SiJt' l!/lid: egg and dart.<br />

Red·figure. probahly a lid for a while ground pyxis. The patternS<br />

are simil:lr to those u!>Cd by PenlhesiJeans but not in this sequence.<br />

The formulation of the pattern on the side of the lid has no exact<br />

parallel 10 m} kno'" ledge.<br />

COMPARE<br />

Llln'rlll' A1urkn.<br />

H. 0.097. H. with lid 0.13. D. 0.085.<br />

Domed knob. conca'"e. lripanite foot.<br />

Lid. net pattern. laurel. debased tongue (black). Side o} lid. ray'!..<br />

MOUlding. then two lines above and below frieze.


52<br />

THE AtTIC Pvns<br />

White ground: Arrival of Paris and Helen at Troy: AT:I A"tiquQ<br />

AG. Auktion V. 0\',7. 19M. no. 134. pI. XXXVII. Influenced by<br />

the Penthesilea Workshop in profile and pla~ment of dttorath'c<br />

elements. For the foot profile compare Athens. Agora P 24253 (no.<br />

20) and Cambridge 4.1943 (no. ]). For the knob er. Harvard<br />

IQ25.30.39 (pI. 54.3) of the class of that name.<br />

The Pcnthesilea Painter and his followers are kno.....n pr1nlariJ~<br />

for their decoration of cups and secondarily lor stemless cups.<br />

o;kyphoi and pyxides. 1 Beazley distinguished a score of hands in this<br />

~orkshop and emphaloizcd that collaboration between ..... 0 artists<br />

on one cup was frequent. Unfortunately no single pOller's signature<br />

remains eitlu:r on a cup or pyxis. Blocsch named the class of cups<br />

as the "Drcikantgruppe" after Ihe significant form of the foot<br />

profile. J<br />

The form of pp,is type A chara(urislic of this .....orkshop firsl<br />

appears around 465-460 B.C. Its most prominent features are a<br />

10llg body. concave walls slightly slrengthened towards the base<br />

and a Iripartitc funt with low rounded notches. Thc sections of Ihe<br />

foot are generally unequal in idth. The fool is resen'cd .....ilh a<br />

black base band (.....ithin and ilhOul) and a black band runs<br />

around the foot above Ihe heads of Ihc notches. The fmu is simply<br />

framed above and below by glazed or resen'ed lines. The lid is nat<br />

with a slanling edge completing Ihe concave curve of the body and<br />

covering the inset flange at Ihe lOp 01 the body of the vase,<br />

Several phases may be noted in lhe de,'elopment of the<br />

Penthesilean p)'xis. lype A. from the time of ilS formal ion around<br />

465-460 B.C. and its proliferation in the 45C)'s by follo~ers of the<br />

Penthesilea Painler. A ncv.· stage in the use of the fundamental<br />

canon is evident around 440 B.C.<br />

The first grouping of pyxides from the Penthesilea Workshop<br />

shows the manifestation of one canon of forms but considerable<br />

diversily in details and measurements. The diversity is probably the<br />

result of a large number of artislS .....orking in one shop. A large<br />

proportion of .....hite ground pysKles known to us date fronl the first<br />

efflorescence of this shop.<br />

Tllc ..... hite ground pp;i" b)' the Penthesilea Paintcr in New York<br />

(pI. 2O.ll is lhe central piece of the class.· 11 !turpasses the rest in<br />

careful attenlion 10 the articulation of !turfaces and in the balall(_"\,<br />

of ~ hne ground and red·figuR elements. The knob is of a domed<br />

'ihapc di' ided bclo~ b) a horizontal gt(xwe: Ihe "Icm is raised<br />

slighll) 3oo\e the surfact: of the lid, Wh3t follo\\cn. made of such :I<br />

knob 1ll,1} b{' scen by looking al Berlin 2261 (PI. 26), Munich 2721<br />

(PI. Iq.l) and 'oIor!t{' still Oxford 1%1.408 (PI. 3td),<br />

The cardinal fe:lture oflhe !thape is the long conca\e cun·c of the<br />

\\all strenglhened bUI linle at the base. From the base the \\alb<br />

cunoe dO'oln\\ard .. ln form a tripartite fOOl \\ith rounded notches.<br />

_The ~ide of the lid is decorated \\;th a wreath of laurel. This is an<br />

unllsu:ll fe:llUre rept: 1288 (nos, 2·5), In each the COIIl'a\{'<br />

cun-e 01 the wall!> ha'i bl,.'C1I intcnsified 1O~'ards the basc. '1 he<br />

tripartllC loot is similarly shaped though the rounded notches arc<br />

Illote l'a'\uall~ fnrl1lt:d in the Ancona. Athens and Munich vases. All<br />

haH' the black gla£ed ba.\oC moulding. though Ihal of Munich i..<br />

l't.lIdel} cxaggerated. The frieze is framcd by gla£e lines abm'e and<br />

below in the case uf the white ground vases and by rcserwd lill{'s<br />

IOr the red-figure \"ases. Slight variations should be notcd. The<br />

louHe pp:is halt a \\ ide black band belo\\ the lower gla£e lin{'<br />

\isuall~ IIJlcn~il~il1)! the tcrmin'ttion of lhe concan: cune of thl'<br />

\lOll!!.. -I he Ancon:l pp:is h:ls a simple glaze line but sel as if a IO\lcr<br />

r'lltcrn border ':':j bet' .... ;llIendcd. Indeed slll'h a fe.l.\ure became


54<br />

THE ATTIC Py:us<br />

common aI a later date. These vases ~crc decorated by<br />

PcnthesiJeans. The LoU\TC PYllis was painted b}' an artist "perhaps<br />

connected with the SOIhcby Painter,'"<br />

The BaltImore while ground pyxi'i (no. 8. PI. 221 by the Sotheby<br />

Painter 7 should be closely connected .....ith the first grouping and<br />

l:~pt'cially ~ith Louvre MNB 1286. The walls of the p)'xis arc<br />

as}'mmetrical \\ith the consequence that one side ha~ a flaller<br />

concan~ cun'e with greater strengthening 31 the base. The other<br />

side prescllI!o a I~ complicated CUTve. The elements framing the<br />

frieze resemble those of the white to:Tound vases Lom'rc MNB 1286<br />

.md Boston 65.1106 (no. 11). The greater height of the foot. tall<br />

slender stem and disk knob with bUllon differentiale it from the<br />

foregoing examples. Athens 2188 and Geneva 10703 share the!>c<br />

chara{"teristic~.<br />

Athens 2188 tno. 9, PI. 23)' has been damaged greatly and the<br />

box mended from many fragments. Ho",e\'er, the complete profile<br />

of the vase has been preserved on one side, It is 3:lo)'mmetrical and<br />

the cro',~.-ningbutt\ln of the knob ofT-center. The base uf the stem is<br />

raised abo\'e the le\'el of the lid as in the Baltimore pp:is. Thilo<br />

ppis decorated by the Painter of London 0 12, with Its slender<br />

stem and disk with button handle and tall foot would appear also<br />

to belong tu the first grouping.<br />

Geneva 10763 (no. 11)' was shaped more hastily as may be seen<br />

in the oO'-center placement of the knob on its slender stenl. The<br />

height of the stem and foot connect it with Athens 2188 and<br />

Baltimore 48.2019. The careless quality of the decoration<br />

corresponds to the poller's 'A'ork. The Baltimore vase should be<br />

dated to about 460-4SO D.e. Cardul polter's work is characteristically<br />

underlined by the differentiation bct\\'een the le\'el of the<br />

base of the stem and [he surface of the lid. The style of the figure<br />

work, simple framing elements and mythological subject maller<br />

corroborate the date, Mythological subjects appear on pyxides from<br />

the Penthesilea Workshop of circa 460-450 B.e., but later scenes of<br />

women in the home predominate. The height of the stem and knob<br />

point to a slightly later stage of de\'elopmem manifestcd in Athens<br />

2188 and panicularly Geneva 10763 whcn thc canon is used<br />

casually and without much thought. as is typical of followers of the<br />

potter 01 the PenthesiJea Workshop around 450-440 D.e.<br />

The \.\ hite ground pyxis in Bcrlin (no, 10, PI. 20) by the Yeii<br />

Paillter b connected by the height of ill> stem and knob and foot to<br />

the la~t mentioned !:rtlUp. A glaze line frames the frieze above and<br />

helo" and an outer frame is formed b) a black band se1 lIeXl 10<br />

each. Such framing elements arc identical '" ith those seen 011<br />

8ahimore 48.2019, Louvre MN8 1286 and BO!'iton 05.1166. The<br />

squal proponions and shon ConC3\'C cun'e of the \\alls come as a<br />

surprise. as does the widcl) proj«ting lid. The lid, hO'At'\er.<br />

assuredl) belonglo to the vase. The underside of the lid is reddened<br />

and d«orated by a dot within a small circle with a wider<br />

surrounding circle, '1 he design on the bottom of the l:onlainer<br />

matL'lleo; that undcr thl.' lid wilh the additiun of Ilnc 1Il0re outer<br />

circle. I he lid. in addition. i~ well filled to the container. The ray'<br />

ornamentlllg the outer wm'a\'e flangc of the lid ;Ire identical" ith<br />

Baltimore 48.2019.<br />

P)Xide~ of types B, C and 0 occasionally bear matching gralTiti<br />

on lid and box." '" hile pyxides of type A ne\'cr do to Ill)<br />

knolloled~c.1I HOIloe\'er, ~metimclo there are matching seb of<br />

Clln('Clllric drclelo on the underside of lid and box in type A. 1 he<br />

box almo!>t im'ariably bears these designs. When the lid bears a<br />

m:uching !>ct of circles it seems secure that box and lid bcloll!:.<br />

Ho\.\cvcr, many lids are merely rcscned, though evidencc Ill' pallem<br />

borders. eolor of clay and fit indil:atl:lo a match. The probllblc<br />

explanation lies in lhe loading of the kiln. If many pyxido ",ere to<br />

be tired in the gi\cn kiln batch. matl;hing marks on lid and box<br />

would he a convenience, \\hile if fev. there ",ould be little nct.·cloloil).<br />

Another possibilit) is the degree of care expended on the<br />

ornamcntation of a \'a~. The puller of Berlin 2201 cenainly kne\\<br />

the canon illld the ac\"'ompanying pattern accenb but experimented<br />

in a diflcrent directioll. The date lies between 460 and 450 H.C.<br />

An unallributed pyxi!>, lIoston QJ.I08 (1111. 12. PI. 27),<br />

apprual'llCk knob with bUllon on a squat stem bcarl> no<br />

resemblance 10 the elegantly executed Berlin cxample. The ha


THE ATIIC PvXIS<br />

SAll,Y RUTHERFURD RO.ERTS 57<br />

The Mt. Hol)o!...: pp.il> Ino, 13. PI. 30.1) and Athens 1741 ( no.<br />

14. PI. 28) belong to this rather commonplace !c\'cl.<br />

Mention should also be made here of a pp:is in Honolulu (no.<br />

IS. PI. 29) and another in Manchester (no. lb. PI. 31.2).11 The<br />

fI.'lanl·hester pyxis has a long l'onCa\'e eune strengthened


58<br />

THE Arnc Pnu<br />

SALLY RUTHEI.'UIID ROeEI.T5<br />

59<br />

and the Quter border is composed or groups of two macanders.<br />

each l:roup separated from the nexl by a four pointed star. Two<br />

black bands set oIT the borders. The side of the lid has a laurel<br />

.....reath with a narrow band of tungues belo",", It would seem<br />

probable from the profile and patterns of this lid that it belongL"d<br />

to a pyxis of the firsl stage of the I'enthesilea Workshop.<br />

The second pallern group is more numerous Ihan the tint. In<br />

this group of lids 3 prcfcrcnct= is shown for a laurel or laurel and<br />

berry v.reath for the main band. Tv.o IKb exemplif} the careful<br />

treatment noted in the first p3t1ern group but roll~iog this the<br />

care ",,jlh y,hich the patterns h:l\e bt.-en executed has declined. 11<br />

seems po'isihlco Ihal these examples dale from drru 450 D.e. The<br />

arrangement of three conC't'n1ric bandJ> of ornament around the<br />

ttnlral knob continues. The innermost elenlent is romposed of a<br />

der;\'ath'e of Ihe tongue pallern. either debased tonguCJ>. tongue<br />

and dOl. or line and dol. The outer border shows a greal variation<br />

in motifs. no one pallern predominating. Thc use of one or t.....o<br />

blu(:k band.. for a(:(:cntuation (:ontillue...<br />

T~o of the ~h;te ground p)xidcs. Baltimore 48.2019 (no. H) and<br />

Lou\'fc MNB 12H6 (no. 3. PI. 33.1). Ihe one b)' the Sothcb) p.. inter<br />

and lhe olhe:- b)' an artist perhaps connected with him. sho~ the<br />

careful execulion of pallern borders characteristic of the tirsl<br />

group. A laurel wreath forms the middle OOrder. The central<br />

seclion of lhe Lou\'rc lid b, misJ>ing. By analog)' "'ilh Baltimore<br />

4H.2019 and olhers in "'hi(:h the stem broadens OUI into a base<br />

raised aOO\'e lhe Ic\el of the lid. such a 'item base and accenlualion<br />

belween levels ma), be reslored for lhe LoU\'re lid. The {'hoke of<br />

macandcr and erns....quarc fur lhe outer boni.·r of the 1.... 0 1id~<br />

conneClS lhem "ilh the firsl pallern group. Alhens 1288 (no. S. PI.<br />

.1.1.2). h.llo a J>chclllc of decoration \'ery cloloc fO Ihal of Ihe LOLl\'fe. a<br />

tongue and dol. a laurel garland .md 3n outer border of<br />

interlocking maeander and dOlled cross square. The hasty<br />

execulion of Ihe pllllcrns is markt:d.<br />

Athens 2188 (no. 9). Munich 2721. Boston 93.108. and South<br />

Hadle)' (no. 1.1. PI. 34.1). h;I\'e.1 \'arialll pattern of laurel and rai..ed<br />

white berr)' for the main border. The laurel on Ihe Boston and<br />

Soulh Hadle)' lids is tied at the ends like a wreath. Th{' outer<br />

borders arc varied. debased tongues for Athens 2188. longue and<br />

dot for South Hadley. double dots for Munich 2721 and a line and<br />

dot band for Boston 93.108.<br />

The lids of Vienna 3720 by the Painter of Lundon 0 12. Oxford<br />

1%1.468 (PI. 35) b)' the pailller of Bologna 417. Athens 1591 (PI.<br />

J-I.2) and Gene\Ca 10763 by the Group of Athens 1591 sho.... a hast)'.<br />

ahnO§t mechamcal rendition of Ihe pattern borde~. Debased<br />

tongue pattern frames the main pattern border of laurel on Ihe<br />

Vienna. Mhens and Gene'·a lids. T~o plain black bands frame the<br />

laurel pal1ern of the Oxford lid. fullu"cd by an outcr border of<br />

rays. The shape of these pyxides !ieenlS tran.sitional and the) ma)<br />

d~tc bet~ct'n 450 and 440 B.e<br />

T"o pyxis lids. Honolulu 3598 (no. 15. PI. 37) and Athens 1741<br />

(ml. 14. PI. ]8) are ornamented with a different principal pattern.<br />

Lolll!> buds arc linked b) arcs ~ith dots set ahO"e and below in Ihe<br />

spaces. The Honolulu lotus patlcrn is cardessl) executed and lacks<br />

dOls anlOng the outer an:!Io. The outer pallern border is composed<br />

of a Lig~ag line containing opposed triangles. This pallern<br />

reappean in the border below the frieze. This coordination of a<br />

pallern band on the lid wilh another on the box is unusual. The<br />

chain border occurs again among vases of the Penthesilea<br />

lolU~<br />

Wo;kshop 11.<br />

Before "e take Iea\e of the first Pcnthesileans. mention should<br />

be made of a fine white ground pyxis in Boston. decorated by the<br />

Hesiod Painter. a {'tllltcmporary of the Penthesileans but in his<br />

slyle an outsider.<br />

B{/~((", 98.887. from Eretria. PI. 34.3.<br />

H. 0.107. H. with lid 0.176. D. ofJid 0.146.<br />

Lid: black band. tongue and dOl. black band. circumscribed<br />

palmelles. maeanders ill groups of six separated by cross squarcJ> .<br />

black band. Sidt' ~(Iid: re"crsed rays. black band. 801lum: dol.<br />

t"O concentric circles. and band. Black glaze moulding. while<br />

groove. hlack line above frieze: be/v\\': three black lines and black<br />

band.<br />

Hesiod Painter. v.hite ground: Muses and ncatherd (Hesiod)<br />

lopccial commission: ARV 774.1: CB. 1. pI. 15.37; PurulifJ()lt/etla<br />

416.


THE ATTIC" Pn::l~ SALLY RUTHIE.FURD ROBEJtTS 0'<br />

BOIh in shape and in ornament this piece proenls points of<br />

similarity ~ith \'ases produced in the Penlhesilea Workshop and<br />

certain significanl differences. The profile of the \'a~ e~hibits a<br />

conca\e curw slrengthencd at the base and completed b) the<br />

uutward curw of the lid. The foot is tripartite ~ith rounded<br />

nOlches. Lid designs closely resemble those of Berlin 226 I (no. 10.<br />

PI. 30.2) by the Vcii Painter.<br />

The differences are as follO'o's: a pear knob rcplaces the usual<br />

disk knob with cruwning bUllon. In all but ,lIle exanlplc in the<br />

work of the Penthesilea Workshop the l'onCa\'e tun'e of the prolile<br />

of the box is echoed by a conC3\'e curve of the fuul. There is a<br />

sloping line which descends from the base of the receptacle Iu the<br />

fool. In the Hesiod pyxis the base line of the reccptade rUIlS<br />

horit.untillly across to the fool. Thi" detail may be dearly seen in<br />

lIambidge's drawing,ll The Hesiod Painter is an outsider. 1101 a<br />

PCllIhesilean: the \'as(' has been dated 460-450 B,e. by Bc:rzley.n<br />

No doubl the roller who thrello' the vase was familiar ~ ith the lIoork<br />

of his ncighbors. though not uf their ~orkshop.<br />

CLASS OF OXFORD 19hIAtl8:'1 RANSITIONAl<br />

I. OXford f96f.468 (ex Banisler Fletcherl. Pis. J6.J and J5.<br />

H. 0.095. H. with lid 0.145. D. at rim 0.OS7. D_ of lid 0.125. H. of<br />

foot 0.025.<br />

Lid black hand. laurel IIorcath. black band. ray... /lilt/m", dot.<br />

eoncenlric circle. lIoider concentric cirde.<br />

Black glazed moulding. rescncd line abow frie7e: bdulI':<br />

rescnl,


·2<br />

THF ATTIC Pv CA 6.16. from Eretria. Ph. 41 ,2 and 47.1.<br />

11. 0.124. H. with lid 0.179. D. at rim 0.108. D. of lid 0.15. H. nf<br />

foot 0.03. sct·tions of fool: 0.08.0.089. 0.07t1.<br />

I id dehased tongue and dot. black band. laurel, black band.<br />

deblbed longue and duI. Lld fllIl'n'o,' re~ned: bonum trace of<br />

circle and pnhaps ..mall central circle under ]iml' dcpmil.<br />

Blad glazed moulding. groo\c. racncd line abm'e frieze: bdol\"<br />

ra)s bcl.... een resc.... ed band!>.<br />

Painter of Hcidclbcrg 209. Pelias and his daughlers; AR V. 1289.<br />

25: Seehan. /:/Ild,,!> ~/I' la TruJ.:/dh' Gr('('qlle. 479-480. fig. 1.17.<br />

5. Muy.·I/I·.·. Unil">r\ill' 116. PI. 43.3.<br />

11 ~ith lid 0.181.<br />

I id rkba..cd tongue :1nl! dOl, laurel and herry. black band.<br />

1ll1leandct"> alternaling ~ilh eros" squares.<br />

Ulal'k band. resened line abolc Iricze: hdOl": laurel and berry.<br />

KAAH inscribed by each figu,e.<br />

I he Oppenhcimer Group. Heslia: .....oman seated with torch. and<br />

foul' .... Omen approaching her; woman seated. anlt .... oman.


THE ATTlr PyXIS<br />

SAllY RUTHEIIFUJU) R08EIITS<br />

.5<br />

ARV. 1224.2: Hampc and Simon. Gri('chisches LI,bl'II im Sl'il'gf'l<br />

I/l'r K III/~t. pI. 28.<br />

O. YIlII' 1913./53.<br />

Knob mb~ing. H. 0.115. D. 0.089. D. of lid 0.128.<br />

Lid. egg. black band. egg and duI, blal-k band. egg and dol. Lid<br />

il/ft'r;ur: resened; bottom: dot and concentric circle.<br />

Black glazed moulding. resened band abo,'c frieze: bl'/o\l': egg<br />

and dot bctv.cen rcsencd bands.<br />

KAAH is inscribed on a block to the left of Ihc door on v. hich a<br />

A'oman is seated.<br />

Painter of London E 777. v.omen: AR V. 944. 83: Baur.<br />

Cotulogue of ,h,. R,.bt>Cco D. Stoddaro Coi/«,io" o} Gn'i'le and<br />

Italiall VUS,.s ill Yult> U,lil·t>rsit)'. 103. pI. 12.<br />

7. London £ 777. Pis. 4S and 39.<br />

H. 0.13. H. wilh lid 0.191. D. of lid 0.157.<br />

Lid: debased tongue and dot. lotus buds pointed outv.ards linked<br />

by arcs above and below (dOlS above and lines extending from buds<br />

helov.). black band. interlocking maeander in groups ofrive and SLt<br />

(once se"en) alternating v. ilh cross squan.~. Sidt> oflid: rays. black<br />

band. Black glaze moulding. resen'ed groove abo\'c fricze: belo.....:<br />

black band. egg and dOl between resen'ed bands.<br />

KAAOl:<br />

KAAH is inscribed twice in the field and KAAH tv.ie.: alonc.<br />

Painter of London E 777. women: ARV. 944. 79: C. Snlith.<br />

COIuluglll' uf Gref·1e olfd Etnl,fcal/ VaSI'S ill Ihl' Bn'lish MIlSf'IW'.<br />

Ill. 309. E 777.<br />

8. Paris. LOlIl'rl' G 605. from Greece. PI. 46.2. Fig. 6


THE ATTIC PYxIS<br />

SAllY KUTHE'Rfl1RD ROBEaTS .7<br />

Lid: debased tongue and dot. laurel. black band, rcsen'ed petals.<br />

Dot and concentric circle on bottom of receptacle.<br />

GroO'·e. rtsen'ed band abo1le and belo.... frieze.<br />

Painler of Bologna 417..... oman seated r.. on diphrO' looking<br />

back at double door. to right a .....oman mm'ing r.. but looking back.<br />

:1 Nikt.·. III the field fillets. sandals and t\lo"O kalathoi. For "tyle cf.<br />

Oxford 1%IAbB (pI. 36.3) and Munich 2721. Jerome M. Eisenberg.<br />

An of tlH'AIIl'iellt World I. 110. 17: Cm. ChriJ"til'. April JOand May<br />

I, 11:J74. no. 178. 1'1. lb.<br />

12. l\fiuissiflpi P IOH tex D.M. Robinson). PI. 43,2.<br />

Knnh missing. about half the lid restored, H. 0,121. tutal H.<br />

pres, 0.147, D, at rim 0,117, D. of lid 0.155. H. of foot 0.034,<br />

Lid: debased tongue and dot, black band, laurel. black band.<br />

reserved petals. Sidt, oflid: glazed .... ith cending preceded<br />

by ;I figure in himaliun and t.....o running figures. the first one<br />

fcmol\c \loith sakkO!> and chilon. Profile as in Penrhesilea Workshop.<br />

Walllhicker than in Brauron 176.<br />

e'l 4.fO H.C.<br />

Around 4-W D.e. a different stage in the forming of pyxid~ of<br />

t)-pe A bt..'Comes apparent in thc Penthesilea Workshop. The \'ases<br />

an: of standard siLe and red-figure technique. There is no cvidence<br />

that the production of while ground vases continued. The original<br />

canon has been exaggerated but is the basis for these later \ases.<br />

TIre canon prescribed a long body, a eonca\'c cun'e strengthened at<br />

the ha~e. a tripartite foot with rounded notches, a disk knob with<br />

cro.... nillg button and a fricze bordercd by Iinel>. III lhe later vases<br />

the lOllnC3\e cllne is dra.....n in tov. ards the base of the vase and then<br />

much inl'rea~ed. Compare the simple cun'e of Munich 2721 (PI.<br />

Iq,I), \Iilh the more pronounced cun'e of Athens 1661 (PI. 40). The<br />

cxaggeration of the curve necessitated a further change in the fonn<br />

of a p:lttcrn border set belo..... the frieze. It usually consisted of a<br />

deri\athe of the tongue pallern or egg and dot. In the exceptional<br />

cllse "here l>uch a border was not employed the consequent<br />

di"tClnion of ligural or architectural elements may be discerned. It<br />

i~ p.micularly e\'ident on Lou\·re LP 2692 (PI. 42). The Iov.cr part of<br />

tht: column has a distinct cun·e. E\'identl)', the painter sa.... the<br />

csthctic ad\'antagc of confining the frieze to a rel3livel} Oat surface.<br />

The le\c1 of care e\'idenced in the ponerwork ne\er reachel> that<br />

achic\'ed in the first slage of the Penthesilca Workshop but remains<br />

at the :lxcrllge le\el exemplified by Munich 2721 (PI. 19.1). The disk<br />

knob "ith button rClaim the shape that \lo'as evoh'cd at th:1l st:lgl'.<br />

The lid profile has changed slighlly. The juncture of Ihe base of the<br />

lid .... ith the pot is \'ertlcal and suddenly slants out.... ard gi\ing the<br />

etlcct 01 a l>light hook. Athem 1661 (PI. 40) sho.... s this tendency<br />

\Iightly: ill London E 781 (PI. 44), the effect is pronounccd, The<br />

ILlpartite pallern band deeoration of the lids continues. Pride of<br />

\ll;h.'C i.. gi\en to the laurel .... reath. The paired lea\'cs are sloppily<br />

~h;Jpl'C! and lie c1use along the stem. as in LoUHC LP 2692 (PI.<br />

46 11. Hlal'k bands l'OIl1inuc to be used as acccllts. This stage<br />

appc;\~ hi lasl llnlil around 420 B.t'.


THE AlTK Inn<br />

SA ........ y RUTHERFURD ROIlERTS<br />

,.<br />

Athens 1707 (no. 2. PI. 41.1). probably the latest exta", pyxis of<br />

type A b}' the Painler of London 0 12. is Ihe only one of his vases<br />

with a pallern border below the fr;e1.e. The conca\'e cune of the<br />

profile is \'ery shallow .... ith a jut 10 Ihe lid which gi\'t~s a<br />

pronounced hooked effect. The presence of a lower pattern border<br />

and the emphasized lid profile are among the indications that this<br />

pyxis is later than a \'cry similar one in the Serpieri Collection (I'.<br />

47. no. 6), b} the same artist. The tigural work is hasty and<br />

hlTlllul;lic as i.\o characteristic of thi!> artist.<br />

The conca\e cune of the walls of Athcm 1661 (no. I. PI. 40). is<br />

mon: pronounced. The .... alls are dra.....n in to.....ards the base and<br />

then flare out strongly presenling a profile more f)'pical for the<br />

Penthesilea Workshop 11. The loy.er flange is decorated by a band<br />

of ra}"S bet.....een irregular reserved lin .... '$. The notches in the fOOl arc<br />

wide, low and carelessly shaped. Although the long Chin Group<br />

has been ~paraled in style b}' Deazley from the Pcnthesileans,n<br />

there i!> no doubt that b}' shape this pyxis belongs .....ith the uthers<br />

listed abO\'e, as is thc case also for nos. 4. 5, 9 and 12. either<br />

unattributed or decorated by painters outside the Penthesilea<br />

Workshop.<br />

The profile of Louvre CA 636 (no. 4. PI. 41,2) is extr:Jordinarily<br />

akin to Alhens 1661. from the disk knob with a low cro.....ning<br />

button on a stem of medium height to the 10..........ide notches in the<br />

foot: the pattern border belo..... the frieze is also identical. The<br />

artist, Ihe Painter of Heidelberg 209, is howe\'er an outsider. The<br />

painter here undoubtedly worked on a pyxis shaped by one of the<br />

pOllers for the Penlhesileans.<br />

No. 5, in Mayence (PI. 43.3). presents much the same type of<br />

problem as Louvre CA 6.36. In profile it closely resembles Athens<br />

1661 and Louvre CA 636. Beazley attributed the vase to the<br />

Oppcnheimer Group. who arc outsiders. The pyxis is of Sl3ndard<br />

size, the curve exaggerated and a lower patlern border has been<br />

added.<br />

Yale 1913.153 (no. 6) fits the criteria for this class and is ascribed<br />

10 a Penthcsilean, Ihe Painler of London E 777. The lower border is<br />

filled by egg and dllt, a pallern which hereafler became a favorite.<br />

The three bands of egg pattern on the lid correlate with Ihe IO~'er<br />

border.<br />

London E 777 (no. 7, PI. 45) the name-piece. \ari~ some.... hat<br />

from the profile standard for this class. The sid~ of the pyxis ha\'e<br />

a much flattened conca\'e cune and the lo.....er flange is<br />

emphasized. The lo.... er decorati\'e border has been doubled, a<br />

black band bet'llo'een reserved Iin~ is set abo\'e a band of egg and<br />

dol. The notch~ are tall, rounded and dra.... n in at the base. The<br />

lid profile projects !>trungly beyond the box.<br />

rhe '''3l1s of LouHe G 60S (no. It PI. 46.2). another ppis<br />

a\l'ribcd to the same painter, are more strongl)' flattened than<br />

thlbC oflondon E 777. The 10"" er flange projects emphaticall)' and<br />

i anlculah:d by a black glazed moulding set off by resem:d<br />

groO\C!i and then a sloping surface decorated .... ith chC'\rons. The<br />

furmulation of the lo.... er flange differs from that of the class and<br />

rncmbl~ that of London 1920.12.21.1 (PI. 49.1).<br />

Ihe Jtlup-!>hapt.'d notches of London E 781 (no. 9, PI. 44), connect<br />

thi!> \asc .... ith London E 777 and Lou\"Te LP 2692. A horizontal<br />

gmU\e casuall}' indicated as a slighl step in .... ard!> on the disk knob<br />

connects the !>ame thn.-e \'ases.<br />

I he extra\'aganl1} exaggerah.'d ('un'e of the profile of Loune LP<br />

2b92 (nu. 10, PI. 42), allributed IQ an undetermined member of the<br />

"nrhhop of the Penthesilea Painter, indicates a date .... ilhin phase<br />

11 ul the .....orkshop. although the frieze is simply bordered b)'<br />

resened lines. The loop notch .... '!> alsu arc an indication of the late<br />

phase.<br />

The colour of the lid is similar to that of the receptacle. It should<br />

be nOh.-d. however, that though the lid fits, the edge lies a liule<br />

inside Ihe contour line of the wall at the juncture of the box and<br />

lid. The transitional line from the body of the pyxis through to the<br />

projecting hooked profile of the lid is not smooth as in London E<br />

781. Thus it cannot be taken as certain that the lid belongs.<br />

although colour. pallerns, knob type and profile arc characteristic<br />

of the workshop.<br />

The conca\'e curve of the pyxis in the University of Mississippi<br />

(no. 12. PI. 43.2), is strong and the projection of the lower flange<br />

more pronounced than on any olthcr vase of this class. The lower<br />

Ilange is decorated with a band of eggs between reserved lines as in<br />

London E 781. The lid, though extens;vely damaged. still preserves<br />

the hooked prolile charaeterislic of the Penthesilea Workshop 11.


70 THE ATTIC PVXIS SAllY RUTHERfURO ROBERTS<br />

"<br />

The frieze represents three women approaching a door followed by<br />

a flying Eros." The vase is unattributed. The painter is<br />

contemporary with the Orollol Painter, but ahhough they use many<br />

similar motifs their SI)'les ditfer markedly. A certain similarity may<br />

be noted between the drallo'ing of the door on the Mississippi "ast<br />

and Ihat of Munich 2720 by the Drouot Painter n (PI. 49.2).<br />

Further. the drapery riStS up in a flounce from the heel of a<br />

running woman in bOlh. but the Drouot Painter's women always<br />

turn their heads 10 look back whence they came. The poncr's<br />

signature on the limel of the door on the Mb.sissippi pyxis has<br />

pro\'ed 10 be a modern forgel')'. JI<br />

The pyxis. Ttibingen E 156 (no. 12). by the Aberdeen Painter has<br />

been senrely damaged. The fOOl has been entirely reslored in<br />

plaster and also the bottom of Ihe box. Two fragmenls of the lower<br />

flange with a border of egg and dart ha\'e been presenied. The<br />

height of the box alone as restored is 0.135, probably dose to its<br />

original size. There sttms no doubl that the vase ~as of slandard<br />

si7..e and originally had a canonical tripartite fool. The 10"'er<br />

pattern border suggesls as a corollary the exaggerated concave<br />

curn of the .. ails. Similar egg and dart may be seen on two lebetes<br />

gamikoi attributed to Ihc Washing Painter and dated 430-420<br />

a.C.n<br />

A laurel wreath form!!. Ihe main pattern band on the majorilY of<br />

lids from the Penthesilea Workshop It. as it did in thc second,<br />

more mediocre stage of the Penthesilea Workshop I. The quality of<br />

workmanship continues to decline. The lids of Alhens 1661. Louvre<br />

CA 63tl (PI. 47.1), Lou\'re LP 2b92 (PI. 4b,O, Mayence 116 and<br />

Mississippi manifest the late form of paired leaves lying closely<br />

along thc slem. The leaVe!; lie limp and lifeless, no sap runs. Two<br />

black bands regularly accenwate Ihe main pallern. A IOngue and<br />

dot band surrounds Ihe knob wiln the exception of rays on Louvre<br />

LP 26C)2: the outer palterns vcry widely.<br />

The laurel and berry pallern of Athens 1707 by the Painter of<br />

London 0 12. seem rathcr to be linked wilh transitional lids sm'h<br />

as Oxford 1%1.468 (PI. 35) and especially Vienna 3720. 21 The<br />

laurel of the London market vase (no. 11) is just as in Oxford; the<br />

reserved petals connect it wilh Ihe next group.<br />

The llul('r border 01 rcsened pelals of the Mi\sis\ippi Pyxl~ (no.<br />

121 links it with Ihe earlier lid of Alhens 1741 (PI. 38), by Ihe Veii<br />

polinl~r. rhe main pallern band of Athen~ 1741 is composed of<br />

hnl..l-rl IlltuS bud~. This border also occurs on lIonolulu 3598 and<br />

umclnn E 777 lno. 7. PI. 39). in a less careful rendilion. The<br />

lragllll'ntaf) lid of I"ubingen [ ISblt recalls Athcm 1741. bOlh in<br />

Ihe poillt~ of ils 10lus buds linked by- arC'S and dOlled, Ihe accenting<br />

!;llacK !;land and the outer border of reserved petals.<br />

A lutu~ bud chain with points dO~'n~ards may oftcn be seen on<br />

,hl' 11\.'('1.... of red·figured column·kralcn. A considerable number of<br />

l' lumn-haters ~ ith such decoration come from tombs in the Valle<br />

rrchha atca al Spilla.)O<br />

rhe main wne of Ihe lid of London E 781 tno. 9) conlains an<br />

3nimal fricLc: a buar .... ith snout dO~'n confronting a lion and a<br />

repeat of Ihe pair. The t~o pain are set tail 10 lail. The animal<br />

fricLc h placed bct.... I.'e1l two ron~ntric circk":!> of egg and dOl<br />

p;lIlcrn. The lid should be compared to Ihe lid of London E 77-1<br />

(PI 47.2). altributl."d 10 the Drouol Painler,u ~ith two pairs of liom<br />

31ld boars confronted hcl\lt.'ell band.. ofegg and dot. The egg.. ha'·e<br />

been drawn on a slight slant in bolh ca!>t."'lJo. The lid of London E 774<br />

belongs to the class of Munich 2720, which has close amnitic~ ~ ith<br />

Ihe Penthesilea Workshop 11.<br />

The Painter of London 0 12, a Penlhesilcan, occasionally<br />

d~·oratl.'d pyxis lids \lith an animal frieze. Two appear on pyxides<br />

01 t~pe A: onc canonical example in Ihe Serpieri collection tno. 6,<br />

on p. ·n abm'e)n depicts a liberally spotted panther springing<br />

Hlward~ a bull followed hy a hoar. The olher pyxi.. , of uncanonical<br />

typc. is Harvard 1925.30.39 (PI. 4!s.2PI ~ith thrt.'e bulb walking in<br />

~eqllellce separated by 1"'0 boulders. 1 ~o additional animal friezn<br />

;lppear Ill! the tops of lids of pyxides of type B. one in Fulcla,l( the<br />

Iltht.:r ,llle on the Vienna ll1arket.l~ Pair~ of animal.. , eonfronled. do<br />

not I~Cllr on the lid.. by the "ainlcr of London J) 12. The Wedding<br />

Pallltcr. another Penthc~ilcan. once decor:lIed the lid of a PYX1\<br />

tYlw A (ull.:anonica1) ~ilh 311 animal frieze. 16<br />

1 he three cOIll'entril' bands ot" egg pallern '" ith double border!><br />

and dots in the inten;tices ldots missing in the inncrmO!>t circle).<br />

aCl'ented by two blal'k bands on Ihe lid of Yale 191.1.153 (no. 0). arc


72<br />

THE ATTIC PY:u~<br />

SAllY RUTHERFURD ROBERT5<br />

7J<br />

unprecedented. They coordinate I>:ith a similar band of egg and dot<br />

on the lower flange; such decoration of the lower flange is frequent<br />

on pp;ides of the class.<br />

CLASS OF MUNICH 2720<br />

I. MIII/ieh 2720. PI. 49.2. Fig. 7a.<br />

H. 0.073-0.074. H. with lid 0.108, D. at rim 0.065. U. of lid<br />

0.085. H. oUOO! 0.021.<br />

Lid: debased tongues. egg and dot, chenolls. Lid illlt'rinr: dOl<br />

and twO concentric circles: bottom: same.<br />

Groove. reserved band above frieze: hf'low: reserved band.<br />

Orouo! Painter. Nikc and woman; ARV, 1223. 4: CVA.<br />

Germany b. Munich 2. pI. 96.6·8 and pI. 99,3.<br />

2. Londoll E 779. from Athens. PI. SO,1. Fig. 7b.<br />

Lid missing. H. 0.078. D. at rim 0.062, H. of foot 0.023. width of<br />

sections of foot 0.046. 0.051 and 0.053.<br />

Grooved black band, reserved band above frieze; hl·tow: reserved<br />

band.<br />

Drouot Painter. Eros and women; AN V. 1223.2; Smith.<br />

Catalogue ~rGreelc alld Etruscan Vases 111, 370.<br />

3. A/hem. Agoro P 2283. from Athens. PI. 50.2. Fig. 7d.<br />

Lid missing. About half of the rim gone and a large pari of onc<br />

side. One of the three feet missing. another chipped. H. 0.0%. D.<br />

al rim 0.078. H. of foot 0.03.<br />

BotlOm: dot. circle. band.<br />

Black band. resef\'ed line abovc frieze; bdul\': debased tongue<br />

between reserved bands.<br />

Drouot Painter. women; AR V, 1223.5; Hesperia 4 (1935)<br />

477-478. and 499 no. 2. figs. J and 4. Deposit: R 13:4 well ca.<br />

440-425 n.c.. Agura XII. 398.<br />

4. Heiddberg 51(21 (ex Parrish and RevelslOke). PI. SO.3.<br />

Lid missing. H. 0.083. D. at rim 0.074. H. of foot 0.025.<br />

BUT/um: dOl and t","o concentric circlc!>.<br />

Black band. reserved groove above frieze; beloll': egg (double<br />

borders and black core) and dot between resened bands.<br />

Pa;nter of London E 777. winged goddess and .....omen; ARV.<br />

944.~ and p. 1675: Miinzl'" IIl1d Medaillf'1I AG. Auktion XVIII.<br />

No\'. 29. 1958. pI. 40. 124; R. Hampe. Kutulug da Sum",lll,,!:<br />

(/Iltikt'" K {('i"lwmt dt'r Ullil'l'rsituf H('idelbt'r!:: 11. Neuerwerbungcn<br />

1957-1970. no. 85, plo 62.<br />

5. Lt'yd{'/1 KVH 157. from Cyrcnaica. PI. 51.2.<br />

Knob missing. H. 0.112-0.115. totul H. pres. 0.134. D. al rim<br />

~.095-0.099. D. of lid 0.132-0.133.<br />

Lid- egg and dot, black band. laurel. black bund. egg and dot.<br />

/Jl'lfl\l' frit'u': egg and dot between reserved bands.<br />

Buttum: doucd circle. circle. band.<br />

Compared with the work of the Drouot Painter. Ero!> and<br />

","oman. Eros and woman. In the lield. a door between the IWO<br />

groups; ARV. 1223. The egg pattern has double borders and black<br />

cores. The profile and pallerns of the lid indicate that it belongs to<br />

the cia!>!>. but ;t is loo large for this vase.<br />

6. Pun's Market.<br />

1-1.0.15.<br />

Lid: debased tongues. laurel (no information as to border<br />

pallern).<br />

Bl'/o\\' .!'riezf': eggs w;lh black cores.<br />

Drouot Painter. Ertltes and women: ANV. 1223. I; V{'/I/(' a<br />

L 'Hotl'! IJrollut 13 Mars, 1911, pI. 5. 13. The name-piece.<br />

7. Athl'lIS 159U (CC. 15(5). Pis. 51.1 and 48, I. Fig. 7c.<br />

Knob and greater portion of slem missing. H. 0.10. total H. pres.<br />

0.115. D. at rim 0.086. D. of lid 0.118. H. of foot 0.027.<br />

Lid: eggs with double borders and black cores. black band.<br />

hound!> and harcs. black hand. eggs with douhle borders and black<br />

cores.<br />

Lid ill/('riur: dot and two concentric circles; bOllom: same.<br />

Flat black moulding. groo\'e. reserved band abm'e fr;eze: be/o\\':


74 TtlE A-rfl( PYXIS S.,u.LY RUTHEllFUIlD R08EllTS 75<br />

I.'~g 13~ 011 lid) bcn.n:cn rc..en'ed bands.<br />

Orouol Painter. Erotcs and women; ARV. 1223. b.<br />

H. Gh.'''' /6.<br />

Ud missing. H. 0.082. D. 0.087.<br />

/lotto",: dot. circle and narro" black band.<br />

Black band. rcsened line abo'\,' frieze, hr/m,,; egg.. v.;lh double<br />

border!> and black COtes bet\\een resened lines.<br />

Urouol Painter. Erotes and "'oman: ARV. 1213.3; AIIICI 22.<br />

398, pI. 9. 10.<br />

9. Lnndoll. "arl ofF. 774, from Athens. PI. 47,2, Fig. 71.'.<br />

Lid (knob alien), D, 0,123.<br />

Lid: dotted eggs with bl:lCk cores and double border), black<br />

Iwnd. bO;1r and lion confronted, rcpc:lIcd: black band. dotted egglo<br />

\\ ilh black cores and double borders.<br />

Lill ill/prior' glazed.<br />

Drouo! Painter.....omen: ANV, 122J. 7. No information<br />

.lO.J (hybrid p)'xis. t)'pe A. ARV. 1224.4),<br />

Athens. fr{'lnl Brauron.<br />

Drouol Painter. womcn; ARV. 1223. 7. No information available<br />

as to form and now unlurtun:Hely nlissing.<br />

The da~!> of Munich 2720 is clearly dependent on and<br />

COlllemporary v.ilh the Pcnthc!>ilca Wurk!>hop 11. It diITer


7. TilE ATTIC- PnllS 77<br />

MOnllaures Painter. woman scated ..... ilh Eros..... omen and )outh:<br />

)outh and \\oman: youth and .... oman. Paris :md Hckn v.ilh the<br />

"Acneas group" repeated: ARV, 1296. 26: CVA. German)' 6.<br />

Munil'h 2. pI. 97.2 and 5-0. pI. 99.S.<br />

3. HI'idd!lt'rK 66./0.<br />

H. 0.113. H. with lid 0.157. D. at rim 0.094. D. or lid 0.129. H. of<br />

fOOl 0.031.<br />

Lid: egg (black cores and duuble borders). black band. oblique<br />

addorsed palmcllc\ linked by a running scroll. egg (black ('UTes and<br />

double borders). Lid illll'n"or: dOlled concentric circle. circle. band;<br />

hOlmm: same.<br />

Black band. resened line alKwc frieze: bdoll': egg (a.. un lid)<br />

bel.... ccn reserycd lines.<br />

Red-figure. lyre-playing Eros and v.omau. door. \o\omall with<br />

Eros and .... urnan, Eros and 11000130; H. Hampc. AmI/hI}: (/ 1,,,<br />

SI/mm/Ill/M "",ilea K't,j"JcultSt du UI/;I'f'rsiIU/ H,·illl·lh,·r/.: 1/.<br />

Nt'I,,'n"I'rbuI1RI'II 1957·1970. no, 84. pis. 60-61. Aserib(.'d by Hampe<br />

10 the Montlaures Painter.<br />

4. NI'''' Ycrk. ('oJ1cction of the late Wailer Baker (ex Cel'il H,<br />

Smith).<br />

H. ~ilh lid 0.173.<br />

Liel: eggs. black band. oblique addorsed palmelle'\ linh'd by a<br />

running scrotl. black band. eggs (black cores lind doublc borders).<br />

Lid illlf'riur: dot and concenlric circlc. circle. band: boftum:<br />

same. Abm'f' lrif":(': small egg (black cores and double borders):<br />

hl'1ow' egg ::..,d dOl between ~f\'ed bands.<br />

Red-ligurc. wedding preparatiom: D. \'On Bothmer. Allcient An<br />

frum Ne\\' York Pril'ufj' Collf'Cfiolls. no. 243. pis. 91-92: JI/lrlil/}:tolf<br />

f'il/pAra Club l::xltibi/irm q(Allci.,tIt Cn-j'le An, 1904. p, IIJ. pIs.<br />

XCVII and C'.<br />

5. Vi.,,,,,,, 1863. from Thebcs.<br />

11.0.11. H, "ith lid 0.158. D. of lid 0.137. H. of fOOl 0.028,<br />

I id egg and dOl (black cores and double horder"J. black hand.<br />

oblique addorsed palmellcs linked b) a running scroll. blar.:k band.<br />

l'g!! and dOl. Lid im"rior rcsened; bottom<br />

cird~<br />

I{c\erH.'d grome aho\l: frie1e: m-Iow<br />

bo:t"ccn resen'cd bJnd\.<br />

Red.figure. women, ('VA.<br />

pI. 41:1. 4·~.<br />

dot and NO cOnCenlnC<br />

egg and dot (as on lid)<br />

Austria I. Vienna 1. pI. 48. 9-10 and<br />

b, A/h,'lIs. Agoro P 27317, from Athens, PI. 53.1 and 53.3. Fig. 8b.<br />

Lid (knob missing). 0.0.15.<br />

I ill egg and d.ot (black cores and double borders). black band.<br />

..,hliquc addorsed palmettes linked b} a running scroll. black band.<br />

cg~ and dot (hlack cores and double borders). Lill llIf.'riOr:<br />

l'onl~ntri(" circle and band,<br />

Clas) of Wiin.burg 542. Hl!sJH'ria JS (1%6) 83. pI. 27e. Deposit<br />

S 16:1 "ell co. 4Z5·4(J() IJ.C.. Agnr/.l XII. 398.<br />

7, A/hl·lIl. Aa. MII:fl. 6477. fron1 Ihe Sanctuary I)f the Nymph,<br />

'1 he Class of Wiirzburg 542 is in many respects dependent on the<br />

Pcnthe"lka Workshop I!. The pyxidl.'!> arc of standard height and<br />

hthl.' a concave curve slrcngthcned al the ba~C', emphasized by a<br />

lll\\cr pallern border. The Montlaurclo Painter. 10 "hom Munich<br />

2722 b anributcd. and "ith "hich the style of Wiirzburg 542 is<br />

compared. had some (.'()IIneclion with the Pcnthesileans. fur thi~<br />

painter collaborated on a kJlix "ith the Painter of Hcidelberg<br />

211.)1<br />

The arrangemenl of pallern zones on the lids is modelled afler<br />

the Pcnthesilean Wor~shop but Ihe main paltern of oblique<br />

addur~ed palmenes linked by a running scroll is new. A dom.'d egg<br />

pattern" ith black cores is set belo~ the pyxi!> frieze. Thi.. pallern<br />

coordinates with the subsidiary borders on the lids.<br />

A lid from the Athenian Agora (no. 6). which by its prolilc and<br />

pattern borders. belongs to the class comes from a well dated to the<br />

last quarter of the fifth century. This date is applir.:able to Ihe reM<br />

of the examples from thi!> class.<br />

A ppiJ>. tJPC A. allributed to the Montlaures Painter W:l!> once<br />

on the London markct. J1 Unfortunately. no information is a\'ailable<br />

concerning its shape or paltcrn borders.


7.<br />

"' HE AlTlC PYlI"lS<br />

SALLY RUTHERfURD ROIlI:!RTS<br />

79<br />

I. Hunwd 1915:JO..~9. from Gn."e('e. PIs. 54.J and 48.2. Fig. 93.<br />

H. 0.086. H. IOolth lid 0.121. D. al rim 0.08. D. of lid O.HH. H. of<br />

fuot 0.008.<br />

1 Id Three bulb. \l.:llking 10 the left and Iwo rodo; in field.<br />

helv.een reser\cd cin:lct'nC'd.<br />

Blal'k band bct"~1I n'Sencd lines abo\c frieze: bl'lOIl n","cn'cd<br />

line. black band. Ri,,~ loot: glazed with tesen't:d line at b3~C.<br />

The Painter of London 0 12..... omen: ARV, 963. 92: CVA.<br />

U.S.A. I. Hoppin and Gallatin Collections. 9. pI. 13. 7-10.<br />

.1. Porl\. MII~.rl· Hmlill re 155.<br />

CLASS OF HARVARD 1925.30.39<br />

2. 7'rJ,·(ll1oJ.21J lex Ba~lc Market). PI. 54.2.<br />

H. U.OR7. H. ",ilh lid 0.124. D. at rim 0.083. D. of lid 0.107. H. Hf<br />

10010.01.<br />

Lid. laurel and ber!) 'He3lh hcl.... et>n resencd circll.... Lid<br />

i"/l'TIO,.: resencd: bottom rClocncd.<br />

. Wh' ll~<br />

r1nl', b ro"n glal.c hne . abo\c frie7C: hl'luw hrO.... 1I gl;l£c<br />

I~nc. ",hlte band. brO"'n gla7.c line. Rillg,lUfl!' gla£l'fl "'ilh rescncrl<br />

hne :1.1 bil"e.<br />

Painter of Lundon D 12. white ground: women: AH V. 1675.94<br />

bis: M,ill:l'f' /llId Mmuillt'/I AG. Auktion XXVI. October 5. 1%.1.<br />

no. 149: HMI-It 670(9) 81. ligs. 11-13: Purulipul1lt'lIu. 434.<br />

Lid Illi,,~ing. 11.0.113. D. al rim 0.095. D. at hase 0.U5. H. of<br />

loot 0.017.<br />

Black band. rc"en'l't! gruU\e abtwc frieze: ht'/IIl": rc"el"\~'d line.<br />

HillJ: I""t: gl:lI;ed.<br />

Hcd-ligure. women and bearded Illan leaning on stall": CVA.<br />

France 16. Musec Natiunal Rodin. pI. 26. 1-3.<br />

4. AIIIl'm. privatc. PI 32 . .1.<br />

Mea!>ure1l1cnt" un:wailahle.<br />

Ud· tongue and dol. linked cirCUIll!>crib\:d p;llmettes .... ith a leal<br />

III each !>pandrel. debasl-d tungue!> dotu:d abm c and belo.....<br />

Black band. re..ened band aOOH" frie7c: hl·I"" resen'ed hne.<br />

Hm!! If Hit gla£cd.<br />

Vcii Painler. (.... oman. }"oulh): ANV. 906. 115. The lid may not<br />

helong.<br />

S. LII'I"r 5.1Y-16.5.lo. PI. 54. L<br />

ParI of stem and knob missing. H. 0.09. 10lal H. pres. 0.115. D.<br />

ul lid 0.123. H. of 1001 0.019.<br />

Ocba..ed tonguc!> on base of knub. Laurel. hlack band. debased<br />

h1ngut.'!> on lid.<br />

~ Black hand. n.'!oCf\'cd line aoole frieze: helo"'. resen'ed line.<br />

black band.<br />

Painlcr of London 0 12. women, ARV. %3. 91: HMFA 67<br />

09(9) 83. figs. 15--18.<br />

b. ~)·dllt·-" 5.1.06 lex Fau\el). from Greece. PI. 55.2.<br />

Lid missing. H. 0.0635. D. at rim 0.066. mu. D. 0.087.<br />

Ih.",el'\(,-d line .:abo\e frieze: bl'ifJI" re"\cnlu lint'. bl.:ack band.<br />

Ui"K IU in base of slem for<br />

repair (knob a reSloration). H. 0.086. total H. pres. 0.091. D. at<br />

rim 0.089. D. uf lid 0.123-0.125. H. of fout 0.012.<br />

Lid' dehased wngue and dot. black band. laurel. hcrringbone.<br />

Silll' 01 /ill: reserved. LiII illt"riur: rc,crv~:d: 1"'"11/1/: rescl'\ed.<br />

mack glazed moulding. reserved groove above frieze: hl'/olI':<br />

re,erved line. black band. rt.'!>crved line. black edgt.'. HillJ: ./,nll:<br />

n:~crverl.<br />

Wedding Painter, birth of Aphrodite: ARV. 924.34; BMMA 35<br />

(]940j .17, lig. 2 and 39. lig. 4.


80<br />

SAllY RUTHERFURD ROl:lERTS 8'<br />

COMPARE<br />

Berne Historisches Museum. Loaned by Christoph Clairmont.<br />

Fig.9c.<br />

Fragment of loop handle preserved. H. 0.092. total H. prcs.<br />

0.123. D. at rim 0.077. D. of lid 0.105. H. offoot 0.019.<br />

Lid: sheep confronted by a panther and (ollo",.ed by another<br />

panther between two reserved circles. Sidf> of lid: herringbone. At<br />

base of lid a moulding. Interior of lid glazed: bottum: five<br />

concentric circles.<br />

Black band, reserved line above frieze; below: reserved line,<br />

I;Ilack line.<br />

Wedding Painter. Danac ill Scriphos; ARV. 924. .15; AlA 57<br />

(1953) 92·94, pis. SO·52. T.O.L. Webster, Polter ""d Putroll i"<br />

Classical Athem. 263. Notches of foot not indicated on profile<br />

drawing.<br />

The Class of Harvard 1925.30.39 was decorated by artislli<br />

~Ionging to the Pcnthesilea Workshop. The lids prt~r\'ed show<br />

patterns fanliliar from the Pcnthc!l.ilca Workshop I, and especially<br />

from the transitional stage of that workshop. The subject maller.<br />

female genre scenes placed in a frieze arrangement around the<br />

body of the pyxis. framed by simple resen'ed lines. is also typical of<br />

that workshop. The body has a long concave curve st~ngthened at<br />

the base. The striking and unusual feature of the class is the foot<br />

which is low. glazed and of ring formation totally unlike the<br />

concave tripartite ~served foot characteristic of the Penthesilea<br />

Workshop. The vases are small, slightly smaller than those of the<br />

Class of Ol:ford 1961.468. 40 with which most are contemporary.<br />

Five lids are preserved and a drawing of a sixth. which is now lost.<br />

The two knobs preserved are of a casually formed domed shape<br />

and the drawing of the lid. once belonging to Sydney 53.06. shows a<br />

knob of similar profile.<br />

The Harvard (no. I. PI. 54.3) and Toledo (no. 2. Ill. 54,2) pyxides<br />

3re very close with respect to profile. measurements and<br />

decoration, The side of the lid of the Harvard pyxis continues the<br />

concave curve of the body. a canonical feature Qf the Penthesilea<br />

Worbhop 1. The sKle of the lid of the Toledo pyxis is slightl)<br />

con\U. The domed knob of uch is set upon a squat stem "'hich<br />

lopreads and blends into the sloping surface of the lid. The glazed<br />

ring foot is men'ed at the base in each. Except for the contour of<br />

the side of the lids the pyxides are counterparts, made by the same<br />

poner, decorated by the same painter. ooe in red·figure and the<br />

other on white ground,<br />

The pyxis in the Musee National Rodin (no. 3) is slightly taller<br />

than the Harvard and Toledo pyxides. The conca\'e curve of the<br />

walls is acceotuated towards the base. The curvature is noticeable<br />

in llle distortion of the columns. The glaz.ed ring foot is taller and<br />

makes a better basis for the vase,<br />

A pyxis by the Veii Painter in a private collection in Athens (no,<br />

4. PI. 32.1) is very similar in profile and proportions to the Musee<br />

Rodin pyxis. The curve of the walls is accentuated towards the<br />

base, However, the reserved line below the frieze has been set a<br />

good distance in from the edge. minimizing the curvature of the<br />

columns of the frieze, One is reminded of a like treatment on a<br />

while gruund ppis in Ancona by Ihe Splanchnopt Painter of the<br />

Pt!nthesilea Workshop 1. 41 In bolh. room is left for a lower pattern<br />

border, though the space is oOt utiliz.ed.<br />

1 he Exeter pyxis tno, 5. Ill. 54,1) is similar to those of Han'ard<br />

and Basle but possesse'li a ring foot so low that the pyxis appears to<br />

be balancing on the base of the vase itself. The flat upper surface<br />

of the lid is clearly differentiated from the base of the stem much<br />

as in canonical lids of lhe l'enthesilea Workshop I and may be<br />

l'nmpared 10 Athens 1288 (1'1. 21). and Baltimore 48,2019 (PI. 22).<br />

The S)dney pyxis (no. 6, PI. 55.2) is smaller than the olhers of<br />

the class and a little squauer. When the pyxis was published by<br />

St:lckelbcrg in 1837. it still retained its lid with a knob of similar<br />

prolile 10 the Harvard and Toledo pyxides, According to the<br />

dnl\\ing in Stackelberg·z the contour of the vase slopes from tile<br />

ba~e tuwards a flaring ring foot. The Han'ard py"is (no, I, Fig,<br />


82 THE ATTIC PYxls SALlY RUTtIERFUkO R08Utn 8J<br />

The pyxis New York 39.11.8 (no. 7. PI. 55.1) is attributed to the<br />

Wedding Painter and dated ca. 460 D.C. The m)1hological subject<br />

is unusual for the class but was prevalent in the Penthesilea<br />

Workshop in the years 46().450 D.C. It is the same height as no. I,<br />

but squallcr in its proportions. The ring foot is articulated above<br />

b}' a moulding. The profile of the lid resembles that of Exeter (PI.<br />

54,0, and other lids of the f'enthcsilea Workshop I. Colour accents<br />

employed to set off the frieze are unique: the side of the lid as<br />

well as the fOOl are resened. The ring fOOl of other members of<br />

this class is invariably glazed as are the sides of the IKls. The lids<br />

of the Penthesilea Workshop J arc either glazed or adorned with a<br />

pattern border.<br />

The conC3H: curve of the \Il ails of the Oanae py.is is<br />

accentuated toward the base and the degne of cun-e seems to lie<br />

betv..een thal of the Harvard (no. I). and Sydney (no. 6) pyxides.<br />

From the base: the contour slopes inward to meet the 10'10' naring<br />

foot at a sharp angle. The profile of the base and foot is<br />

somewhat lik!: that of the Sydney pyxis except for the low wKle<br />

rectangular notches. The formation of base and foot separates the<br />

Danae pyxis from the class. Neither is the tripanite fOOl shaped<br />

as in the Penthesilea Workshop I. The contour of the base and foot<br />

of a canonical pp:is of the Penthesilea Workshop I form .. a<br />

continuous concave curve as in Athens 1288 (Fig. 4c). The Danae<br />

and Sydney pyxides seem to show different adaplations of the<br />

continuous sloping line of the Penthesilea Workshop I 10 the rillg<br />

fool.<br />

The lids preserved of pyxides of this class show patterns<br />

familiar from the Penlhesilea Workshop I. The lid of a pyxis in a<br />

private collection in AthcllS (no. 4, PI. 32,1), has a main pattern<br />

band of circumscribed palmettes linked one to the next<br />

corresponding to lids of the Pcnthcsilea Workshop I {first pallern<br />

group).d The laurel band on the lid of New- York 39.11.8 (no. 7)<br />

corresponds to the second pattern group of the Penlhesilea<br />

Workshop J.u The laurel wreath as .....ell as the subordinate<br />

borders of debased tongues of the Exeter lid are like Ihe lid of<br />

Vienna 3720 belonging to the Class of Oxford 1961.468 dated<br />

450-440 8.C.-s The leaf and berry wreath on the Toledo lid (no.<br />

!l l' tramed b) resened circles. 'I he leaH.'S are freer in their<br />

cwcllti'lfl than those seen 011 the Exeter lid hy thc !>ame artist.<br />

I he animal frieze on the lid of Hanard 1925.30.39 (no. I. PI.<br />

-l~.21 iimilar 10 that on Ihe lid of a canonical ppis of th£><br />

I'cnthL"Silea WorkOS!>css stenlS whieh blend into Ihe sloping surface of<br />

Ihe lid. The domed knobs of Ihese two pyxides are different in<br />

I~PC from any in Ihe Penthesilea Workshop 1.<br />

1he prolllcs and patterns of the lids, Ihe framing of Ihe frieze<br />

and !>ubjecl matter :Ire similar to the Penlhc:loilea Workshop I. The<br />

'qual proportions and ring foot are different. One may ask<br />

\\hcthcr these \'ases were made in the same shop as the canonical<br />

p}xides of the PenthL~i1ca Workshop I. An ans\Ooer IS suggested by<br />

\lM Philippaki's discussion of stamnoi decorated by Ihe Painter<br />

III Ihe Yale l.ekythtl!>, "The Painter or the Yale LckYlh~ painted<br />

three slamnoi; each of them represents a different Iype, each time<br />

the painter has filled his decoralive system to Ihat used by the<br />

other painters of Ihe class,"" Miss Philippaki suggcsts lhat Ihis<br />

paintcr \Ooorked in the Berlin Painter's work


84<br />

I Ha, ATTIC PYJUS<br />

SALL Y RUTHEIIIFUIIID R08EIIITS<br />

85<br />

lhe ideas of a polter from outside the shop may ha\'e influenced<br />

the shape. Indeed the ring foot is one of the hallmarks of the<br />

v.orkshop in which the potter Agathon .... as acth-e.<br />

The Penthesilea Painter him!>c1f painled a squat p}xis with a<br />

lu.... ring fool.<br />

41h"IH A cr. 569. from Athens. Pis. 56-57. 58.2, ami 59.1.<br />

Lid missing. H. 0.15. 0.0.26. H. of fool l'3. 0.015.<br />

Black glazed moulding. resct"VL'tl. grooHO: abo\c friele: hj'l/Jw;<br />

rcsen'oo line. black band. reserved line. black Lxlgc. Ring foot.<br />

...QN\K\AAOI. HEIP\AIKAAE.<br />

PCllthesilea Pailllcr, bride: ARV, 890.172: L:lngln17. ViI'<br />

,pl/lknl V/lSe'" I'UII (/." AkroJlolis :w At!tc'II. plo 43: T. B. L.<br />

\\~h~lcr. PO//er 01111 Pmro" ill Clf/ssiel" A/III'IU. 77. The size<br />

,. QuId lend credence 10 its being a special cOmmission.<br />

The fragmentary pyxis Athens Acropolis 5M by the Penthesilea<br />

I'ainter is the largest red·figure py"is e"tam. Correspondingly. the<br />

k)'lix Ferrara T.18 C VP. from Spina. by the same painter iJo the<br />

largt.'Jot of red-figure cups}' According to Allieri the diameter of<br />

the k)lix is 0.566 and the height, 0.24. The height is more than half<br />

the diameter of the b~1. a relationship not usuall) present in<br />

l'{JIItcmporary Attic cups}' The o\'eral1 profile of the cup<br />

corresponds \11 ith thO!it.' of the "Oreikamegruppe."se<br />

The Acropolis pyxis has a height of 0.15 and a diameter of<br />

0,26, The height thus also is more than one half the diameter of<br />

the box. These squat proportions are extraordinary' for the pyxides<br />

of the Penthesilea Workshop I. The pyxis was found in \'ery<br />

tragmentary condition. The principal fragment is composed of<br />

lourteen joining sherds and a complete profile of the wall is<br />

preserved in one section which depicts a bearded man and a<br />

woman tending a seated bride (PI. 56 and 57). The profile of the<br />

1>.'311 is similar to pyxidcs 01" the J)enthesilea Workshop I with a long<br />

concave body strengthened at the base (PI. 21). The framing<br />

elements also are in keeping with the canon: a groo\·t.' abo\'e the<br />

frieze. a resen'ed line below. The slight intensification of the curve<br />

at the base has been complemented by the placement of a wide<br />

1;11,)('1;, band followed by a f'CSCned line.<br />

Other fragments gi..-e additional informati~n concerning the<br />

protiJe and the composition. Two joining sherds gi\'e a portion of<br />

the 10\ller \IIall and a 10\11 ring foot. The foot was placed \lieU under<br />

the bod)' at a distance of ca. 0.049 from the outer edge. In<br />

addition there are three joining sherds from the upper wall and<br />

onc other non-joining sherd (PI. 59,1). There are not enough<br />

.ldJullling sherds in thiS Stttion to make a complete profile 01 the<br />

1>. .. 11 and the diameter as now restored does not corrC!>pond with<br />

that uf the principal fragment (PI. 56) because of the incurrect<br />

Ill,llccment of the une nun-joining sherd in the upper wall. This<br />

~herd depicts a Doric capit:11 and part of the entablature. The t.... o<br />

adjoining sherds from the base of the box arc painted with a<br />

repre~entation of the right lower panel of a door. all adjacent<br />

column and a woman (IO\ller portion only) clad in himatiol1 and<br />

dlittlll who hastens rightward carrying a casket (pI. 58,2). A later<br />

represcntation of such a double panelled door with flanking<br />

columns and entablature may be Jol'Cn nil the pyxis. Leyden KVH<br />

ISi (PI. 58.3), and Yale ICJIJ.lSJ.S1 Thus on the Athens pyxis. the<br />

~herd depicting the Doric capital should be mo~cd \IIdl tt! the left.<br />

to ghc Joufficienl room for two door panels_ This adjustment \llould<br />

also doubtlos gi,'e the proper diameter to these fragments of the<br />

Acropolis p)Xis. Still other details of the composition are ~i\'en<br />

by three joining sherds from the upper wall which together depict<br />

lhe head of the woman bearing the casket, a white tasseled fillet<br />

in Ihe field. and a woman moving to the right with her hand<br />

IUrnoo back: in profile to the left (towards the door and the other<br />

h~btening woman).<br />

It is tempting to connect this uncanonical squat pyxis with its<br />

fragmentary low rillg foot with the Class of Harvard 1925.30.39.<br />

By scale and proportions alone this could not be done. since the<br />

pyxi~ is outsized and the height is more than half the diameter.<br />

Yet. by profile alone there is perhaps a relation.


TilE ATTIC PYll:IS<br />

SAllY RUTHIERfURD Ra.ERrs<br />

6'<br />

SINGLETONS<br />

1. Ontt Curtius CoU,=ction.<br />

Concan~. ins'=t flang,= for lid. spreading c1osoo foot.<br />

Reser\'oo; line articulating acorn knob. at mouth of vase<br />

(probably flange) and on exterior lower ooge of foot.<br />

lJl3ck. l. Cuniu!> "Pentheu!>." WjllckdmuI"'~/,rogrtl",m H8<br />

(1929) fig. I: C. W. Lunsinllh e Schculccr. Gri"kscl/l' C!'rIIl1Ill'k. p. I<br />

43, 122; AgurII XII. 174,<br />

Ca. 470-450 B.e.<br />

2, A,hells T. E.. 162J, from Athens,<br />

Lid missing. Inset flange for lid. long, concave wall. tripartite<br />

foot.<br />

Black band above frieze. below: black band bet\.\'een reserved<br />

lines. net pattern. black moulding.<br />

rhe lcningrad Painter. ~orn'lII ~e;llcd spinning. "ith a \.\nman.<br />

a girl holding a male child. and a youth: woman seatro. a male<br />

child crawling toward her. and two women: Dd,ion 18 ii. pI. 33:<br />

Puru/ipome"a. 391. 88 his.<br />

J. A,hellS 1708. from Aegina. PI. 58.1.<br />

Knob missing. H. 0.12, H....·ith lid 0.14. D. at rim 0.101. D. of<br />

lid 0.16.<br />

Conca\'e. side of lid continues and completes curve. tall tripod<br />

1001.<br />

Lid: tongues. spirals (black). running palmette scroll (Dinsmoor<br />

type IVa). Side aflid: debased tongues.<br />

Reserved line abm'c frieze: hp/m\': tongues bel""en r~crvcd<br />

lines.<br />

Amphitrite Painter. red-figure; Poseidon pursuing Amphitrite:<br />

ARV. 833.46: CVA. Greece 1. Athens 2, 1'1. 18. 2-4, pI. 19.1.<br />

and pI. 20. 2-3; CB. 11. 92·93. Form of foot probably inspired by<br />

tripod pyxis. Cr. the tripod pyxis by Douds /A.RV. 477.276: CVA.<br />

Germany 13. Mannheim l. pI. 26. I and 6-7. pI. 32. 5. A list of<br />

bl:t('k-ligure examples is appended. Add Ceramicus 1590 and 1591<br />

ICVA. Germany 9. Munich 3. pI. 140. 81: Berlin F 3988 and<br />

.. JQ~9 [U. Gehrig. A. Greifenhagen and N Kunisch. Fuhrer<br />

durch di~ Antikrnab,~i/ung pp. 174-5. pI. 45J ). Cf. also a tripod<br />

1'\\1\ In the manner of the Panailios Painter's later work (ARV I •<br />

u'::'. Athens 1584: CVA. Greece I. Athens l. 1'1. 6. 1·3). These are<br />

IIlI.: lml~' extant red·figu~ examples of th,= tripod pyxis as this<br />

1'111.: \loa!> d)ing OUI at this time. Add Brauron Museum 71. fr..<br />

h.lm Brauron.<br />

('c 0.155.<br />

Cylindrical. side of lid horizontally grooved. moulded base. Li(I:<br />

H'rlical. circumscribed palmetles (six or seven petals) linked one<br />

tll the next with a leaf in the spandrel. black band. groups of<br />

interlocking maeanders separated by cross squares. Reserved band<br />

ahO\e and below frieze. then groups of interlocking maeanders<br />

wp.lfO'Ht:d by cross squares articulated by two rahl' and Theti.... AR V.<br />

924. 33: Stackclbcrg. Dj,. Graf'lwr d,.r lIf!1/~II,.n. pI. 32;<br />

Paralipomtna. 431. Lid; Penlhesilea Workshop I. rtnt pattern<br />

~f\lUP d'. Berlin 22hl (lJ1. 30.2). b) the Vdi Painter. Probable<br />

inlluence of vases of metal cf. DarSag. s.\'. Capsa. fig. 1178.<br />

::., l/lt,·IH. Cl'rulllinlS 1-162. PI. 59.2. Fig. ge.<br />

H. 0.089. H_ with lid 0.126. D. at rim 0.078. D. of lid 0.106. H.<br />

of foot 0.026.<br />

Conca\e wall completed by curve of lid. tripartite foot.<br />

Reseru'


88<br />

THE ATIIC PYXIS<br />

SALLY RUTHEAFUIlD RO.EATS<br />

Conca\'e. side of lid cOnlinues and completes cun'c of body,<br />

tripartite fool.<br />

Lid. debased tongue and dol. \'crtical circumscribed palmettes<br />

(sc\'cn to nine petals) with tendril above and below in spandrels.<br />

between reserved lines. Side uf lid: groups of inlcrlocking<br />

maeanders and saltire square.<br />

Reser...ed line abo\'c and below frieze.<br />

N~ar the Deepdcnc Painter, mi


90 I HE An-It PYXIS<br />

norlll. The profile of the knob ~hould he compared "ilh LOUHC<br />

L SS (nu. 4. PI. 60). b) a Penthc..ilean. the Weddin~ Painter.<br />

1'00 black p)xis. type A. can be assigned Iu a red-figure class.<br />

From the e\'idence at hand it seems clear Ihat they \!left' not made<br />

in the nd-figure cup shops which also produced pyxides. At an<br />

earlier period. one would hale 10 stale that e'\idence is not<br />

plenliful enough to allow speculation. Howc\'er. the Early<br />

Classical period provides numerous examples especially from the<br />

Pcnthcl


THr ATTIC PYXIS<br />

S.HLY RUTHEIlFURD ROBEIlU J<br />

man" (CB. 11. pp. 2J·141. The hean of each palmelle j" ar1K"lllaICd hf a dOl and<br />

encircling lin~. The "h'le ground pyxi'i b) Ihc Splanchnnpl PamJer 1Tl Ihe s",rpien<br />

Colkcllon (nu. 7). ~hl""S a fun he, ,·ar;ant. The circumscrihfil palmelll':l; arc linlrM<br />

10 lolU~ no..·eB. Then' is singular slmiluit)· of pallern bUI no unlfornllly. Th"lid of<br />

J'Ioe.. Yoc" 0·.21l6..Jt, (no. I) palnlcd by the Pcnlh"",lca Painler h:u a. It'\ main<br />

elcnK'nl a paln>c:tle band of a mon.' ..labuTale rnnccption. CiKumscribed palmettC'o<br />

aK lln..ed "..ilh tall. free palmeue'< and 1"'0 dOls aK placnl In ,he spandre1\.<br />

11. Circumscribed palrllettcs oceur on Ne" York 07.28td6. Alhen•. Scrpieri. Ikrlin<br />

2261. Alhens Agora P -I/~. Alhen•. private. Lou"re L 55 and Brau",n 28\Ja.<br />

18. ANV. 924JJ. Wedding Pamler. A b.Jnd of ein:umscrilxd palmetln is hn"ed<br />

OtIC." ..1\h IM 11 I poll...,', or<br />

p~il1t,·,·, signatu,," frum Il>e Pcmho,lea W".... shop and ~.. John Rentle)'. b) kll.'r<br />

hI M,~\ rUkUll. Ocl. If>. 1%7. "indly cunfirmed Ih... fac' ,hal h... had ul"lI)'<br />

\·onsid... rcd 11 false. Variou\ rnrn.lderatlOn~. h'Wo·ocr. ,",c1udtn~ th.. \Om~,,1>31<br />

,,'phl'ilK"lIlnl plllnng 01 the In,,,ripllUn sccmcd 10 uS! duut>l on 11. MM Lu•.,.<br />

I urnbull. oflllc Unl'er,U) 01 Ml~;",ippt. undttloulro 10 1e'\1 Ilk" glair "lIh aknhol;<br />

Ih... kllc..... dl~appc:an'd al un~.<br />

27, H,ehlcr and lIall. rIO. 144 and 146. ph. 147·148.<br />

211. CVA. AUSlm I. Vienna I. pI. 5U.3.<br />

29. U-lIer from Dr. Lore Aschc. Arcl>lol~I>CS InsmuI der Un..·...nilll TUbmg.-n.<br />

JO. S"h'aIOfl: Aurigemma. L. N,rropoll J' S"."fJ ." VfJJI, T",hbo (,Rome 19trSI Vol.<br />

I. Pan 11. 'Iombs 27. 143. 200. 22J. 386. JII4. 475. 577.<br />

JI. ARV. 122J.<br />

32. ANV. %3. 8i. O. also PlJflJliponr..,.". 4.14."5 Il'r. Itype unIiSlc'dl.<br />

3J. ARV. 96J. 92; CVA. US.A. I. Huppin and Gallalin CoIkctions. pi. lJ.7.<br />

34. AR V. 'l6.1. 118: Bps(lr",ibunll Ro",u("/r.., AI,.."amrr I,summr/, "61. figs. 1·6.<br />

42. Bam.. 0 M 'on 5Iac....lhc'l!. l)u' GflJ"twr Jrr 1I,1l...,,,,, (Berlin 183'1 pi.<br />

2tl.I.2. A sketch from ,he Nicholson Museum wnl .. "I> meaSuremel1lS ~ht)'''' a<br />

,,,nlour hIM.' from bax to fOOl mOCoi.' in a\urffil\ 00-. .., ..... Iho:' lid C\>r1\C1o tn>nl lhe<br />

I'


..<br />

•<br />

CHAPTER IV<br />

The Class of Berlin 3308<br />

I. B.'rh" .1.108. Irum Aulea. Pis. 61 and 68.\.<br />

Upper portion Clf knob missing. H. 0.109. tolal prcs. H.O.loll.<br />

D. of lid 0.141.<br />

Lid· debased tongue and dOl, wide black band. running<br />

palmette scroll, slanting connections all parallel forming a<br />

Vitru\'ian .... al·e .....ith palmettes aligned with the axis of the border<br />

(Dinsmoor type IVA). Side of lid: debased tongue and dot.<br />

Reserved line above frieze; below: reserved line. debased tongue<br />

and dot.<br />

The names of Zeus. Iris. Hera and Nike are inscribed beside<br />

the heads of the figures. ArASQN and below it En01Hl:EN.<br />

Agathon Painter. :leus with Hera, Iris and Nike; ARV, 977. I;<br />

AA IQ (1895) 38, fig. J2 and 13; E. Simon. Opfemde Gatter. 65.<br />

2. LOl/don E 773. from Athens. PI. 62 and Fig. IOd.<br />

Knob intact. the stem has been mended. H. 0.089. H. with lid<br />

0.174. D. at rim 0.093. D. of lid 0.125. H. of foot 0.011.<br />

Lid: debased tongue and dot. black band. running palmette<br />

scroll (Dinsmoor type IVA). Side of lid: debased tongue and dot.<br />

Lid imerior: reserved; bottom: reserved.<br />

Reserved line abo\'e frieze; below: reserved line. debased toogue<br />

and dot.<br />

The names of Iphigcneia and Danae. Helen and Klytaimcstra.


ilE ATTIC PVXIS<br />

SALLY RUTHfllfUR.O R08UITS<br />

97<br />

also Cassandra are inscribed near the upper edge of the field.<br />

Chicago Painter. Iphigeneia as a bride; ARV. 805.89; FR. pI.<br />

57.1; AlA SO (946) 105. fig. 12.2; Ghali·Kahil. H.. 93. footnote 4;<br />

Parali(IQmena. 420.<br />

J. 1/11111/11/ E 772. from AlhcnJi. PI. 63 and Fig. IOc.<br />

Knob alien. ba!ie of l>tem prcl>Cn'ed: H. 0.089. lotal H. pn'S.<br />

0.109. D. al rim 0.086. D. of lid 0.114. H. of foot 0.013.<br />

Lid: debased tongue and dot. black band. running palmette<br />

scrotl (Dinsmoor type IVA). Side of lid: debased tongue and dot.<br />

Lid interior: reserved; bottom: dOl and tv.·o concenlric circles.<br />

Reserved line aboye frieze: belotl': reseryed line. debased tongue<br />

and dol. The names Thelis. Hippol)1e and Mapsaura are<br />

inscribed near the upper edge of Ihe field.<br />

Follower of Dooris. HesperKles. ARV. 806.90. FR. pI. 57.2:<br />

AlA SO (1946) 105. fig. 12.1.<br />

4. Brauru" MU:Jeum RI, fr.. from Brauron.<br />

The name of Aphrodite is inscribed to the righl of her head.<br />

The Chicago Painter. wrath of Mcnclaus: ARV. 0.11.42;<br />

Ghali-Kahi!. H .• 93. no. 74. pI. 63.2. Compared by Beazley with<br />

London E 773.<br />

5. Athl'lI.f. C"romicII:J IOOlJ. from Alhens.<br />

Pis. 64 and 67.1. Fig. lOb.<br />

H. 0.{)82. H. 'dth lid 0.13. D. al rim 0.084, D. of lid 0.107, !-t.<br />

of 1'0010.01.<br />

Lid: debased tongues. wide black band. running palmetle scroll<br />

(Dinsmoor t)'pe IVA). Side uf lid: debased tongue and dol. Lid<br />

i/ltl'rior: reserved; bottom: same.<br />

Rc


98<br />

SAllV RUTIiEIIFURU ROBl'IITS 99<br />

1nl' side of Ihe lids and a band below the frieze on the body. The<br />

pallerns thus repealed form an c\'cn frame for the frieze. a<br />

pictorial concept which ne\'cr occurred In the Penthesilea<br />

Workshuplo I and 11. 'I he pattern!> employed on the IKbi aTl' also<br />

surprisingly consiSlcnI. The bands are placed in concentric rings<br />

around the knob; debased tongue or tongue and dot followed by a<br />

black band wilh the main paltern of a running palmenc scroll set<br />

along the perimeler. This placement of the main pattern contraslS<br />

\lo ith the emphasis on the middle band in the Penlhesilea<br />

Work~hops I and 11. The painlc~ arc followers uf Douri~. either<br />

unascribed. or named as the Chicago and Euaion Painters. The<br />

Agathon Painter. a follower of Ihe Lewis Painter (Polygnotus 11),<br />

is loosely connected with the Douris tradition through influenCfi<br />

on his master by the Euaion Painter. 1<br />

The class ~tem~ chiefly from the middle years uf the fifth<br />

century with a 10"" er terminus about 440 B.C. A pyxis in<br />

Cambridge. in the manner of Douris. dated ca. 470 8.C.•<br />

suggests that the roots of the class lie slightly earlier.<br />

Lonclon E 773 (no. 2. PI. 621. is an elaborate example (If the<br />

c1aslo closely linked to London E 772_ The bod)' has a shallow<br />

conca\e curve. canonical for the class. and the frieze is framed by<br />

uniform patterns of tongue and dot placed above on the curving<br />

face of the lid and belo....· on the keel. The low glazed ring foot is<br />

set well under the vase. The outer contour of the foot is convex<br />

and from its apex a horizontal line leads across to the edge of the<br />

flangc. Thc surface of the lid slopes slightly from the center to the<br />

outer edgc. The knob is elaborate. shaped much as a "kothon"2<br />

on a tall stem with a flaring base raiscd abovc the levcl of the<br />

surface of the lid.<br />

The profile of London E 772 (no. 3. Fig. IOc) is ~trikingly<br />

similar to London E 773 (Fig. IOd) as may be noted in the concave<br />

curve of the walls and convexity of the ring fool. The handle is<br />

alien but the base of the stem remains. An addition 10 the<br />

catalogue of the British Museum states. "The remains of the<br />

handle root suggest that the ancient handle was of similar<br />

pattern," i.e. a loop handle. This type of handle is rare on pyxides<br />

of type A; more examples are found on pyxides of type 8.3<br />

It seems cenain that the same potter shaped both vases.<br />

Bcazlc)' noted that "the lid is by the same hand as in London E<br />

'"In. but the figure-work seems nOI."4 The artists are Early<br />

("Iassical follo....·ers of Douris. Furt.... angler dated both \'ases to<br />

455-445 B.C.~<br />

Berlm 3.308 (n(l. 1. PI. 611 has a shalloy, conca\e cune c1O"el)<br />

akin to the t.... o London pyxides of the class. The framing<br />

elements are identical. The pyxis is a little taller, having a height<br />

of0.109. The outer contour of the 10"'" glued ring foot also differs<br />

\Iightl) in that it is straight and the line from its apex slants<br />

upy,ard to the edge of the flange.' The crowning element of the<br />

knub is missing; probabl) it .....ould have been conical resembling<br />

that 01 no. 2 (pI. tl2). Thi.. pyxis is of great importance in that il<br />

bedn. the only signature of the potter Agathon. Pyxides rarely<br />

bear a polter's signature and signed uamples may be numbered on<br />

the fingers of onc hand. A pyxis type A, in Brus~ls bean the<br />

signature of the polter Megacle... but the inscription is modern.<br />

"y,hcther O\'er an ancien! inscription or not:' 1 The \'aq' is<br />

attributed to the Pistoxenos Painter and dated ca. 480-470 D.C.'<br />

In addition there arc three signatures of the potter Gaurion on<br />

small p)xides of type 0' dated to the last quaner of the fifth<br />

century. lastly. the fragmentary inscription MAKP on a pyxilo of<br />

l)pe A in Athens may be a signature of the painter Makron. 1c<br />

1 he pyxis has been dated ca. 500 a.C.1I<br />

It is clear from Ihis evidence that pyxides .....ere rarely signed by<br />

potter or painler. When and if other signatures appear on<br />

p\ ,idcs. in vie..... of the Brussels pyxis and the forged signature on<br />

tile Misloi......ippi pyxis.u they should be scrutinized with great care.<br />

A further consequence is that it ilo not pmsiblc to follow the<br />

c:.reer of a polter via his signature as was possible in the study of<br />

Allic rcd·tigure cups. The only .....ay open is by a study of the<br />

-"ha pes themselves and by the pattern accompaniments regularly<br />

:Jllending a class. By these criteria it seems possible that Agathon<br />

]111ltcd nos. 2. 3. and 5 besides the pyxis in Berlin. This judgment<br />

ho\\evcr allows the pOller leeway in the shaping of the foot profile.<br />

A pp.;s in the Ceramicus Museunl (no. 5 and 1'1. (4) closely<br />

relocmbles the IWO London pyxides of the c1aloS. The 10..... glazed


100 lllE ATTIC PYXIS 101<br />

ring rom diffel1i in that its outer contour is straight and the line<br />

tram its apex slants upward to the edge of the flange as in Berlin<br />

JJ08. The knob h conical. The framing elements 3rc similar in<br />

Iype and placement 10 the other ,oases of the class. The body is<br />

lomall and sqU31. the diameter al the rim being 0.084, slightly<br />

greater than the height of 0.082. In proportions. the body thus<br />

resembles London E 773 (no. 2). The artist is an unnamed<br />

follower of Douris. The vase was dated to ca. 470 B.C. by<br />

Kiibler,lJ Judging by the profile and framing elements and<br />

especially by the palmette scroll on the lid (discussed below), the<br />

date should he slightly later, perhaps around 460 a.c. not 50 far<br />

removed from the date of the London pyxidcs. The running pose<br />

of the Nereids with the forward fOOl off the ground gh'~s an<br />

earlier feeling to the style than the static positions of the figures<br />

in London E 773 and E 772. This is lhe conventional running<br />

ruse employed by Oouris for his Ncreids On cup exteriurs with<br />

representations of the struggle of Pelculo llnd ThetisY The Early<br />

Cla~loical folluwers of Douris adopt this cOlwentiulI for loimilar<br />

reprcscntations on p)'xides. The figures of Nereids and also of<br />

Peleus on a pyxis in Munich (no. 8)1!i and another in<br />

Copenhagen ll by the Painter of Villa Giulia should be compared.<br />

A noticeable differenc~ may be seen in the treatm~nt of the<br />

drapery. The zigzag lower edg~ of th~ drapery in the representations<br />

of running Nereids by Oouds is replaced by a simple wavy<br />

line or series of arcs by the followers of Oouds in response to the<br />

advance of naturalism in the treatment of drapery of the timeY<br />

No. 8. Munich (ex von Schoen). is smaller and som~what<br />

squalter than th~ other pyxides of the class. The lid is missing,<br />

giving the pyxis a strongly d~apitated aspect panicularly since<br />

the side of th~ lid probably was decorated with a tongue and dot<br />

patlern to match that below the frieze. The concav~ curve of the<br />

hody is normal for the class. The outer contour of the low gla7.ed<br />

foot is convex but notched thrice. which makes it uncanonical.<br />

Huwever. when one considers the height. the profile of the fool<br />

and lhe fact that it is glazed. the nOlching may be thought of as a<br />

,ariation perhaps under the influence of the contemporary<br />

Penthesilea Workshop. The subject maller is mylhological as on all<br />

\'alo~ 01 thc class. rhe slory of Peleus and Thetis is a favorile and<br />

most 'lppropriate as decoration fur vases used by women primarily<br />

for their adornment. The m)1hologicaltale of marriage by capture<br />

adorn~ t"o other \3.!>CS of the class. no. 5lPI. 64).11 no. 6 and one 10<br />

be \'·ompan:d. C0tK'nhagen 4735 by th~ Villa Giulia Paint~r. The<br />

\3.se has been datcd ca. 460 B.e. by Lullies ll and ca. 450 B.e. by<br />

Schclold. 1O<br />

rhe ppis Cambridge 19.1.1.1 (no. 6. PI. 65.2) poses sC\'cral<br />

lhflicult questions. It is attributed to Ihe manner of Oouris and is<br />

{,;ldier than the other ,'ases of the class. dating ca. 470 B.C. ll The<br />

p'aintcr is nearer in style and time to th~ late work.s of Oouris.<br />

Ncrcids arc figured in the frieze. and on~ runs in the cOh"entional<br />

manner described abme with the forv.·ard foot in Ih~ air. Th~ ba.se<br />

line of the chiIon i.s \Io'avy as is normal in th~ Early Classical<br />

period. bUI the further edge of the garment i.s shown. an arehaism<br />

lot the limen and a trait not seen in olher depictions of Nereids<br />

on \';lSCS of this class.<br />

Thc \':\se is small. m~asuring 0.08 in height. and so quite<br />

canonical for the class. The canonical knob though brok~n<br />

seemed to Miss Lamb to belong to Ih~ vase and its shape. though.<br />

more sknder. rescmbks the C~ranlicus ppis (PI. M). The<br />

pla\'"Cm~nt and choice of uniform patterns of tongue and dot to<br />

frame the frieze are usual. The low. ring foot is more pronounced<br />

in the convexity of its contour than the twO Lllndlln pyxides (nos.<br />

2 and 3), but olherwise is similar in pro£i1e. The foot is resen'ed<br />

which is unusual. The concave curv~ of the walls is slightly deeper<br />

than the rule. The va.se lhen appears to be the earliest member of<br />

the class followed about fifteen years lal~r by London E 772 and<br />

E 773. the Ceramicus pyxis and Berlin 3308. It leads one 10<br />

inquire ~hether th~ type could have originated in the workshop of<br />

Douris. There is liule e"idence but the little there is does not<br />

..eem to support this conclusion. There is only onc fragmentary<br />

pyxis. type A. presen'ed from Ihe hand of Oouds. London E 807.<br />

The fragment presen'es th~ inset flange. a moulding below Ihis<br />

and a small portion of th~ friez~.l) Th~ band of ~gg pattern abov~<br />

the frieze is an unusual pattern for the class and its placement is<br />

uncanonical. In addition the projecting moulding is nOI a feature


102 I HE ATTIC PYxts 103<br />

of the class. It is true that London E 807 is only a small fragment<br />

but the fealUres it presen'es do not coincide with pyxides of the<br />

class. The only other pyxis decorated by Douris is a tripod-pyxis<br />

in Mannheim.z• a type prevalent in the sixth cenlury and of which<br />

fc\\ examples persist in red-figure.<br />

Athens 1586 lno. 7. PI. OS.1) is allributed 10 the Euaion Painter,<br />

another follo\loCr of Douris and like him primaril}' a painter of<br />

CUps.1S The p)'ll:i.. is the latest vase of the class dating to ca. 440<br />

a.e. and various elements of the profile haw been exaggerated.<br />

The .....alls have the characteristic shallow conca,'c curve of the<br />

class but the lower flange projects outwards in an exa~rated<br />

configuration. «hoed by the hooklike projection of the lid.<br />

Compare the profile of Berlin JJ08 (no. I. PI. bl). or London E 77.1<br />

(no. 2. PI. 621. The knob of Athens 1586 prO\'ed In he alien<br />

and now has been removed by Ihe kind offiees of Miss Philippaki.<br />

The base of the stem. however. is original and undoubtedly bore a<br />

knob similar to that of no. 2. The lid slopes from the eenter 10 the<br />

OUler edge as in that example. Debased tongue and dOl band..<br />

ornamenl the side of the lid and the lower keel as is normal for<br />

Ihe class. The ring foot is glazed but differs in that the line from<br />

it!> apex curves upv.'ard to the edge of the keel. an exaggeration of<br />

the conlour seen in Berlin 3J08 (no. I) and Munich (ex von<br />

Schaen. no. 65).<br />

The uniformity of patterns ornamenting the lids of these<br />

pyxides confirm and suppon the conclusions already reached as to<br />

the cohesiveness of the class. Debased tongue and dot forms the<br />

innermost pattern band around Ihe handle. followed by a wide<br />

black band between reserved circles. The main border, placed<br />

along the perimeter, is composed of a running palmelle scroll<br />

\\ith slanting connections all parallel forming a Vitruvian wave<br />

with palmettes aligned with the axis of the border. The palmelle<br />

scroll. of which there arc six variants, was created immediately<br />

after the invention of the red·figure technique around 530 a.c. n<br />

Howe\·cr. thc popularity of this pattern \\as greatest in the dec:lde<br />

510-500 B.C., the so·called leagros period. 21 Then se\'en plump<br />

palmeues were usually employed. when the pelals were excx'U!ed in<br />

red. Thereafter interesl in Ihis type of ornament declined, only<br />

fon~··two examplt:s being listed from the first three decades of the<br />

lilth century of which the lid of Cambridge 1933.1 (no. b) is one.<br />

After 470 B.C. the number of examples is so meagre Ihat they are<br />

considered as isolated sun'ivals by Dinsmoor. Only seventeen<br />

examples 3re listed for the remainder of the fifth and founh<br />

century and it is of considerable interest that three of the<br />

t'\:amples adorn lids of red.figured pyxides of our class (nos. 1 [pI.<br />

h~tll. 2. and J). To these mal' be added the lids of no. 5 (PI. b7.0<br />

and no. 7 (PI. 68.2). This pattern appears thell in force on lid~ of<br />

,hl' Cla.'>s of Berlin 3J08 in a period ¥ohen Ihe pattern ¥OM out IIf<br />

Ja\ol.lr.<br />

All belong 10 the vari~t)· of palm~tt~ scroll ~numerated by<br />

Din!>moor as IVA. Cambridge 1933.1 (no. 6) has the earliest form<br />

of the scroll for the class. apparent in th~ more rounded<br />

enframing tendril." The long oval frames and long stifT petals of<br />

nO'o. 2 and 3 are indicative of their later dat~: the form of the<br />

pallern ill no. 7 (PI. 68.2) i!> !>imilar to these. The palnleUe scroll on<br />

the Cl'riunk-us lid (nu. 5. 1~1. 67,1) is likl' that on the lict.. of the<br />

London pyxides. The leaf in lhe form howev~r is sometimes'<br />

attached rather than free and there is a leaf decorating the upper<br />

spandrel in the place of the spiral on the London examples. The<br />

running ~croll on Agatholl's pp.h. (PI. 68.0 differs only in the<br />

pointed central pelal of each palmette. The frames are long and<br />

there are spirals in all the spandrels with single petals at the<br />

f.lrh. Onl)' in the smallest details 3re there any different·cs: in the<br />

m'crall form the palmctle scrolls are strikingly uniform. The<br />

r",undcr frames show no. b. Cambridge 1933.1. to be earlier but<br />

the !>crull of Alhens 1586 (110. 7. PI. 6H.2) gives no l>ign of a l>lightly<br />

later date.<br />

COMPARE THE SINGLETONS<br />

COfh'lIhag/'1I 4735. from Greece.<br />

H. 0.0825. H. with lid. 0.1225. D. of rim 0.072·0.073. D. of lid<br />

O.l06~0.107. H. of foot 0.009.<br />

Lid: reserved addorsed palmettes. obliquely placed and linked


104<br />

I HE ATTIC' PvXIS<br />

105<br />

by tendrils springing from volutes. stopped interlocking maeandcT'li<br />

(black). Side oj lid: debased tongues. Lid imen'or: rescned;<br />

hotwm: dotted circle and t .....o concentric circles.<br />

Below frieze: debased tongue and dot. black band.<br />

The Villa Giulia Painter. Peleus and Thctis; AR V, 625. 95;<br />

CVA Denmark 4. Copenhagen 4. PI. 162.4.<br />

The size.)O subject, choice and placement of framing elements<br />

are similar to the class. The concave curve of the wall is simpler<br />

and the profile of the lid totally different. The side of the lid is<br />

convex and runs counler to the concave curve of the vase:. The<br />

Villa Giulia Painter is connected wilh followers of Douris but<br />

chiefly painlcd large pols rather than cups.JI<br />

MUllich (ex von Schoen, 65). PI. 67.2. Fig. 10r.<br />

H. 0.097. H. with lid 0,159. D. al rim 0.104. D. of lid 0.127. H.<br />

of fOOl 0.017.<br />

Lid; interruptM maeander 6n groups of five .....ith one of four<br />

and one of six) and cross square. Side of lid: black. Lid interior:<br />

black; bottom: same.<br />

Reserved line and .....ide black band below frieze.<br />

The Painter of Agora P 14384. women (Ilo'ith mUl>ictll<br />

inslru mems); A R V. 777.1: R. Lullies. Eille SUII/m/llng Rrif'Chisl"hl'r<br />

A/i'i"kllrw, pI. 24. 65 and pI. 25; Pur(llipuml'1lU. 410.<br />

Iloith dthara, woman playing flutes for gtrl dancer and ""oman,<br />

door; RA J6 (1950) 40-75. figs. 1-2. 7·10.<br />

Size and proportions link this p)'xis to the class. It differs<br />

primarily in the form of the lid. The concave curve of the body is<br />

not completed by that of the lid; the cune of the side of the lid<br />

lies .... ithin that of Ihe body. The subject is nOI mythological.<br />

Profile and framing elements seem to sho..... the black-figure artist<br />

~-nyni7a111 of the canon of the Class of Berlin JJ08 but choosing 10<br />

go his own way.<br />

,<br />

Athens. Agora P 8985. from Athens.<br />

T",o frr.. one preserving about a quarter of the lid. the other<br />

pan of the edge only. Knob broken away. D. es!. 0.11.<br />

Tongue and line ending in dot, running palmene scroll (cenler<br />

petal pierces vine) Dinsmoor type IVB.<br />

Lid -"unge: maeanders in groups of 1.....0 once three separated by<br />

cru~s squares. Lid itltf'rlQr: lrace of circle at cenler lhen two circles<br />

and'" ide black band.<br />

Red-figure. Deposit C 9:6. Hespaia SlIpp!l'mem V. 136. The<br />

profile diffcr~ from that of the class.<br />

Ca. 450 B.C.<br />

The profile bears a close relationship to the class. The painter<br />

is an outsider. The plain, black framing elements, though most<br />

effective. differ from the class as does the pattern on the lid. Note<br />

also Ihe non-mythological subject.<br />

Athens /4909. PI. 00.1\<br />

H. 0.077. H. with lid 0.120. D. at rim 0.09. D. of lid 0.115.<br />

Lid: Woman seated. playing flutes by altar to which dance five<br />

women. column. woman; linked pomegranate. Side of lid:debased<br />

tongues.<br />

Tongue and dot above frieze; belo"": rays reversed.<br />

Black·figure, mistress and maid, woman dressing and woman


lOb<br />

THE Arf/C PYX'S<br />

SAlJ,Y RlTTHERFURD ROBERTS 107<br />

NOTES, CHAf>'1 FR IV<br />

I. H. R. W. Smith. D.., L ....·;sm,,'.'T (Lcipsic 1939) 19·22.<br />

2. G. Ri..,htn and M. Mdn.,. Sitapt's und Names 0fAlneniatr Vast's (Ne'" York 19J5)<br />

21-22 (1'Iem""hoe): CH. I nu. 55. plo XXV; Ago'" XII. pp. 1~-ISI ~KrJ\h('lnJ anll<br />

""r"Tenre in<br />

IlK: represcnlatkm on London E 773. "Th" 'Iphigenda' may ha"" been thought of as<br />

a bride." noted Beat,",y in ANV, 805.89.<br />

J. Ppides nftyrt' B "11h loop handles: ARV. 963.98 I'ulda. Web.: ANV. 963.96<br />

London D 12: A RV, 1()q4, 104 Louvre CA 587. Ther~ ii ahu a r~'tI·figurt py~is. Iy~<br />

B. from the C~ramltUS gravt 115 2\7 dated 4o()·450 B.C. and a py~is. ly~ B. rrom<br />

HS 89 decoraled .. ith net palt~rn ..·hieh probably Ixlre such a handle dated ca. 420<br />

R.e.<br />

4. ANY. SOb. 90.<br />

5. ,.-R, pI. 57.2 and p. 291.<br />

6. AA 1008(5) 38. fig. 12.<br />

7. ANY. lS63. 31 "Mrs. Callipo1itis·Fcytman~"a, nlll allowed to clean the ,ase:' It<br />

would only be by cleaning that ont CQlJld be sure .. heth"r 01' nUl lh"r~ was an<br />

anci"nl im.\:riplion undcr the modern l~l1~n.<br />

8. Dc:l1ise Feytman~, LI'.1 "11.11'.1 g'('{'.1 dl' lu IhbUu/h:-qlll' Nl~\'/lll' d,·IJi·lgiqlll' (Brussels<br />

1lJ4!\) p. 54 for dale and discussion or l~ ~illnalUre "'hich thc author considers IQ ~<br />

a forgery.<br />

~. ANV, IJbO. 1·3.<br />

10. AllY. 458: 47~. 336.<br />

11. B. Graef and E. Langlotz. Oil' Illl/ik,>" VU)I'It I'lm d," Akml")/'J ;" A/h,-"<br />

(Berlin 1(30) 11. n". St>O. pI. 43.<br />

12. S~..., arnwc p. 70 urlll n"te 2b.<br />

13. Karl Kuble•. "I\usgrauunll"n 1m KcramclkO!>:' AA 50 (1935) 2'N, till. 2.1.<br />

1-1. AIlV. 431. 44; l.. 1\. Stella. llli/Ologia Gn-ell. 410; AR\'. 4-11. 185. School.<br />

pi\~; Stella. 421 and 427. belo... The 110'>" i~ nut confined to Nc.";,k cf. 1\1hmtu<br />

un a .. bite ground Iek}1hos in Cl'eland of Ihe early middle period U'u,ulip","l'"u.<br />

.llh. 21>h bis: (·VA. U.S,I\. 15. C1evel3nd 1. pI,. 32·331 and lhe laler ar}hallO"i .. ilh a<br />

bu~ pur~ued bl botes lARV. 447.27-1: vreitenhag, Ej",- Sum",Ir"'g griff/llJch", Kleinhul.ll (Munich 1(55) pI. 26.<br />

16. eVA, Denmark 4, Copenhagen 4. pi. Ib2.4.<br />

17. Richter and Hall. 89. Numerous examples of use of this conventional running<br />

pose may be noted in pursuit scenes of the period 475-450 B.C. See ph. h9. 72. 73.<br />

99. IUS.<br />

18. The subject is here abbte~ia(ed as only neeing Nereids arc ponraycd. The same<br />

is true for Cambridge 1933.1 (no. 6).<br />

19. R. Lullies. Ein" Sommlung gn·"chi, gnN:lr"d"-,, M"i'fl'nchul..n (Stul1gart 18(3)<br />

fig. oB and p. 026,<br />

2-1. ARV. 447. 276; CVA. Gem1any 13. Mannheim 1. pI. 2b. l. 0·7 and pI. 32.5.<br />

25. ARY, 798. 146 "'ale."<br />

26. w. B. Din~moor. "The Athenian Treasury as Dated by il\ Ornament." AlA 59<br />

(1946) 9JtT.<br />

n. find.. 97. 10-1 (onc hundred and e1ght uamples noted).<br />

28. Ibid.. 109·111. fig. 12, \·2 and nQ!;, I54A. I54B and 152.<br />

1'1. CVA. Gre:u Brilarn 11. Cambridge 2. pI. xxv!. Id.<br />

30. Hel1e Salsko, Robe.1\ kindl)' eummcd tbe vase and .. rute as foHows: "Th~<br />

glaze of rn,. -1735 (Villa Giulia Pamtel) is :;om"",ha1 une.enl) coloured, but l'Cems to<br />

~ be ul' lhc same kmd on bolb lid and OOA. Although the lid is broken .nd a bit of lb~<br />

ll10cr rim missing it lits e~tremdy ..ell and I dun't Ste any reawn fur ~uspecting thut<br />

it II".:s not belong:' Th~ meaSllrement~ listed in the eataluxue welT aiM! lak"n by<br />

lhe arnwe scholar.


108 THE ATTIC Pvx,s<br />

•<br />

CHAPTER V<br />

Later Fifth Century Pyxides<br />

of Type A<br />

In the last thiny years of the fifth century the pyxis of type A is<br />

no longer the predominant type and the number of examples has<br />

dwindled down to a few. Those which art preserved arc<br />

exceptionally varied. Some follow the tradition of the Penthesilea<br />

Workshop 11 hUI show occasional influence of the domed<br />

formation of the lid of the pyxis type C. now preeminent in<br />

numbers and innuen~. A spirit of elaboration is evidenced in the<br />

form as well as in Ihe decoration; the first double pyxis appears<br />

around 430 D.e. This example stands at the head of a series<br />

which extends through the firsl half of the fourth century.<br />

Independent miniature pyxides appear of about the size of pyxis<br />

knobs. A few odd pyxides show a dependenc}' on the tradition of<br />

the Class of Berlin 3308 in their proportions. ring foot and knob<br />

typt. The number of odd pyxides rises in proportion to those<br />

belonging to classes. There is evKlen~ of py.l.ides being made in<br />

other materials during this period especially among those of type<br />

C. A curious reflection of this trend may be seen in a pyxis. type<br />

A, with a lid decorated in relief. The diversity of models being<br />

made is also shown by the fact that where two pyxides are painted<br />

by the same anist they are sometimes of quite different profiles. A<br />

single unifying feature is the contour of the wall which either has<br />

a shallO\\' concave curve or approximates a cylinder.


110 SAllY RUTHER~URDR081lRTS III<br />

THE KOINE CLASS<br />

I. Alhf'1IS 13676a. from Athens. PI. MU. Fig. Ila.<br />

Base of stem presen'ed. knob missing. H. 0.116. total H. pres.<br />

0.128. D. at rim 0.09. D. of lid 0.127. H. of fool 0.034.<br />

Lid: egg and dot. wre.ath of h"}' lea\"es (black). egg and dot. LiJ<br />

j"terior: dot. circle. band. bottom: center damaged. trace of band.<br />

Black moulding. rescned irregular band abo\"c frieze: below:<br />

egg and dot betVocen reser\'cd bands.<br />

Painter of Athens 1585. "'oman seated \\ilh women (miSITe"iS<br />

and maids) and Nike; ARV. tJ60.J.<br />

Ca. 410 H.C.<br />

2. Athens /585 (CC. 1561). PI. 69.1. Fig. lib.<br />

Lid missing. H. 0.12. O. at rim 0.096. H. of foot 0.035.<br />

801l0m: dOl and two concentric circles and outer circle.<br />

Black moulding. reserved irregular line abcn'c frieze: /xolow: egg<br />

and dOl.<br />

Painter of Athens 1585. woman St'ated with women (mistress<br />

and maids) and Ems: ARV. 1360.2: EAA. I 871. fig. 1091.<br />

3. Athens. Cerumieus Museum, from HS 89. Fig. I le.<br />

H. 0.144. H. I"ith lid 0.213. D. at rim 0.124. D. of lid 0.179. H.<br />

of foot 0.038.<br />

Lid· egg and dot. circumscribed palmenes with raised hearts<br />

painted white. black glazed band. maeanders in groups of Ihree<br />

(once two) separated by saltire squares. Lid imen'or: dot and<br />

circle. wide outer black band between two circles; bottom: same.<br />

Sidp of lid: egg and dot.<br />

Black band. reserved band above frieze: below: reserved band.<br />

egg and dol.<br />

Red-figure. Eros and bride, women: Klaus Vierneisel. "Die<br />

Ausgrabungcn im Kerameikos." AA 1 {I 964) 432ff.. fig. 24.<br />

Ca. 4]0 H.C.<br />

4. Lundun E 780. from Athens. PI. 70. Fig. lid.<br />

Knob missing. H. 0.13. lotal H. pres. 0.143. D. at rim 0.107. D.<br />

of lid 0.1.34. H. of fOOl 0.031.<br />

Lid' debased longues. myrtle and berry. herringbone.<br />

Black moulding. irregular reserved line above frieze: bt'/ow'<br />

debased tongues. bet"'een resen'ed lines on sloping keel.<br />

Painter of Florence 4217. women: AHV. 1223.4: C. Smith.<br />

Ccl/ulopllt' of ,hI' Grt't'k and Etruscutl Vuses in thf' Bn'tlSh<br />

Musf'um. Ill. E 780.<br />

S. Cambn'dgt' 168. PI. 72.3.<br />

H. 0.125. H. I'ith lid 0.18. D. al rim 0.095. D. of lid 0.124. H.<br />

01 foot 0.03.<br />

.. Lid' debased tongues. spirals. chevrons. Lid imt'n'or: circle and<br />

hand: bottom: dOlled circle. band.<br />

Hlad moulding. reserved band ahm'e frieze; below: debased<br />

IOngues between resen'ed lines.<br />

Painter of Florence 4217 ......omen: ARV. 1223.5: E. A. Gardner.<br />

A Cuwloguf' 01 the Gr"I'k VU~I'S ill ,he' Fit:.....U/ium Museum<br />

ClImlm·dRf'. 69.<br />

6. Athens 13028. from Athens. PI. 71.<br />

H. 0.115. H. with lid 0.155. D. at rim 0.092. D. of lid 0.122. H.<br />

of fOOl 0.0.34.<br />

Litl· egg and dot. black band. tongue and line (black) between<br />

rcsern:d lines. egg and dot. Lid ;men'or: dOl, circle. band;<br />

bol/n".: same.<br />

Black moulding, irregular reserved band above frieze:<br />

below:<br />

egg and dot.<br />

Red-ligure. woman seated to right playing a tympanon. a woman<br />

coming from her left holds out a mirror while a woman<br />

approaching from her right extends an alabastron, an opened box<br />

and scarf in thc other hand. Next two women rush to the right<br />

looking back ovcr their shoulders. one with mirror and kalathos.<br />

the other with a taenia and a basket and taenia.<br />

Ca. 4/0 e.C.<br />

7. Arhens 1287.<br />

H. 0.145. H. with lid 0.214, D.<br />

PI. 69.3.<br />

at rim 0.117. D. of lid 0.145.


112 [nr ATTIC PVll:1S SALLY RUTHEJtfliRD ROBEJtn 113<br />

Disk·like knob .....ith horizontal grOO\-C along lo\\,cr edge.<br />

crowned b)' conical member and supponed by stem s.... elling<br />

lowards apex. Slightly domed lid. Box: shalloy. COnC3\"C cunc 10<br />

.... all.. wilh projecting lo.....er keel. Tall foot with three squared<br />

nUlches. Lid: egg pattern. panther and swan confronted. swan and<br />

panther confronted. lion left. egg and dot. cr. animal slyle to lid<br />

of Oxford 1934.330 (see footnole 9). Bottom: small central circle.<br />

circle. band.<br />

Black moulding. reserved band above frieze: bt'ic,JW: reserved<br />

line, egg and dot between black lines.<br />

Red·ligure. chain of Ii\C .... OO1el1 dancing rightward led by a<br />

.....oman playing [he double nute. Altar between fourth and fifth<br />

.....oman.<br />

Late 5th·early 4th century 8.C.<br />

The vases listed above are clearly dependent in their shape on<br />

the tradition of the Penthesilea Workshop 11. They are of<br />

Slandard size with a long body wh~ shallow concave curve \'aries<br />

in degree and in some approaches the cylinder, The lall resen'cd<br />

Iripartite foot echoes the contour of the wall and has the<br />

characteristic rounded or squared notches. These pyxides might<br />

y,ell ha\'e been appended to those of the Penthesilea Workshop 11<br />

except for the formation of ~nain of the lids which show the<br />

influence of t~ of type C (nos. I. 4, 6-7). The painters are not<br />

connected with the Penthesilea Workshop: the shape has now<br />

become common property.<br />

Athens 13676a (no. t. PI. 69,2), by the Painler of Alhens 1585, is<br />

the key piece preserved almost intact but for the crowning knob.<br />

The surface of the lid is slightly domed with a ridge articulating<br />

the juncture with the outer rim, The lid is decorated with egg and<br />

dot borders flanking a graceful black ivy wreath. The ivy pattern<br />

is new and unparalleled on lids of type A but an almost exact<br />

counterpart may be seen on a fragmentary lid of a miniature<br />

p)Xis t}pe C from the Athenian Agora (P 13097. 1'1. 72.2).1 Here<br />

the h'y leaves are red with stem. tendrils and berries in added<br />

day. The wreath is enframed by narrow bands of egg and dol<br />

pallern as on Athens 1.3676.<br />

The foot profile is distincthe, its conca\'e cun"e being<br />

interrupted by a step below the apex. Athens 1585 and Ceramicus<br />

OIS 89) hne an identical foot profile. This is a variant on the<br />

usual profile of the Penthcsilea Workshop occurring earlier on<br />

Athens Agura P 24253 (Fig. Se) by the Veii Painter' and also on<br />

Cambridge 4.1943 by the Curtius Painter. J<br />

The shape of Athens 13676a is mirrored by that of Athens 1585<br />

tno. 2. PI. 69.1 and Fig. lib). the name-piece of the painter. The:'<br />

lid unfortunately is missing but the measurements as well as the<br />

prolilt.~ are very close. The egg and dot border below the frieze is<br />

identical. It seems eenain that the same potter produced both<br />

~asc~,<br />

SUlllcwhal earlier than tht.'Se is a pyxis in the Ceramicus (no. 3.<br />

Fig. lie) found with a hydrill attributed to the eariy work of the<br />

Meidias Painter. a pair of lebetes gamikoi by the Washing<br />

Painter. a patterned pyxis type B and other \'ases in an offering<br />

tr~neh dated 10 the years around 420 B.C.~ The concave cun'e of<br />

the y, ails is more pronounttd than in nos. I and 2 and resembles<br />

more closely Ihat of LOIn're LP 2692 (PI. 42). from the Penthesilea<br />

Wurhhup 11. The disk knob on a high slender stem whose base is<br />

dirrcr~ntiated from the Ic\'el of the lid is familiar in a number of<br />

examples from the Pcnthesilea Workshop (PIs. 22 and 2(».s The<br />

lout profile is like that of nos. I and 2. The cuntour of the side of<br />

the lid is unusual and 1 have yet to find a c1O!1oe parallel among<br />

pyxides of types A and C: that of the fragmentary double PYXls.<br />

Athens Agora P 16924 (PI. 75.2) and also the fragmentary pyxis lid.<br />

type C. P 96.' 3re somewhat similar.<br />

London E 780 (no. 4. PI. 70) and Cambridge 168 (no. S, PI. 72.3)<br />

arc ascribed to the Painter of Florence 4217 who is also known to<br />

ha~e decurated a few pyxides of type B.' The lid of the Cambridge<br />

pp:is has a disk knob on a tall slender stem which blends into the<br />

sloping surface of the lid. characteristics typical uf mediocre work<br />

uf the Pcnthesilea Workshop. The lid of no. 4 resembles that of 110.<br />

I (Athens 13676a. PI. 69.2), There was a central knob (now broken<br />

ay,ay). and then a slightly domed section separated from the outer<br />

rim by a ridge-the two latter features borrowed from lids of type<br />

C. The contour of the side of the lid does not continue the line of


114<br />

THE ATTIC PYXJs<br />

115<br />

the wall of the box as in Athens 13676 (Fig. Ilal and as is generally<br />

the rule. ho.....c\·er. the glazed and resen'ed areas ofbolh box and lid<br />

match in color and the two appear 10 belong. Not only are the new<br />

form and traditional Penlhesilean lids contemporary but they maJ<br />

be fuund side by side in pyx;des made in the same .....orkshop and<br />

painted by the 103mc an;sl.<br />

"nob t)pe of Ihe C\lo York Pl'tis by the Penthesilea Painler (PI.<br />

20.1) which slarted the canon. The knob of Athens 1287 dlffeTS in<br />

hllhtness and in il.'i conical crowning finial. In both the stem<br />

~\\el1s to.....ards its apex. Athens 1287 forms a link between Ihis<br />

"'l'r;L'S or vases and the single ppides of type A of the first half of<br />

the fourlh century.-<br />

VARIOUS TALL SINGLETONS<br />

COMPARE<br />

A,hms. AgorYl P 10573. from Athens.<br />

Fig.7r.<br />

lid. of which handle missing. H. pres. 0.036. 0.0.123.<br />

Lid: egg and dot, tongue and dot. herringbone.<br />

Black'patterned lid of a red-figured pyxis. type A; P. Corbeu.<br />

"Auk POllery of the Later Fifth Cenlu'1'," HesfWda 18 (1949) no.<br />

54. pi. 91; AKnru XII, 384. DcpO!>it B IS: I dated ca. 425-400 a.c.<br />

The profile of a lid from the Athenian Agora (Fig. 70 is like<br />

that of no. S. It comes from a well, the great proportion of ..... hose<br />

figured wares date in the lasl quarter of the fifth cenlury. The<br />

profile is also sinlilar to lids of Munich 2720 (Fig. 7a) and London<br />

E 774 (Fig. 7e). both of the Class of Munich 2120 and attributed<br />

10 the Drouot Painter. The Agora lid adds additional evidence<br />

that lids uninfluenced by those of type C and following the older<br />

canon of Ihe PcnthesiJea Workshop and dependent ~'orkshops<br />

were still being made in the last quarter of the fifth century.<br />

Athens 13028 (no. 6. PI. 71) and Athens 1287 (no. 7. PI. 69.3)<br />

retain lids similar in profile 10 no. I (Athens 13676, PI. 69.2l. The<br />

base of the stem is formed in IWO degrees and the surface of the<br />

lid convex with a step down to the outer rim. The stem of the<br />

knob of no. 6 .....as once broken but it is certain that the knob<br />

belongs. I The heavy knob has a flattened domed upper member<br />

separated from the downturned rim of the lower by a reserved<br />

horizontal gron\'e. the whole surmounted by a low disk, It seems<br />

probable that this is a late fifth «ntury transformation of the<br />

I he following pp.ides stem from the period ca. 430-420 D,e.<br />

I he) ha\'C' lal1. slender proportions and lids with tall. elaborate<br />

knobs. The fOOl \aries. The style of certain painters of Ihe laler<br />

lihh century has onl)' been recognized on pyxides. This is true of<br />

Ihe Painter of Athens 17191 (no. 2). and among others. the<br />

Painter of Athens 1585 (ARV. 1360. 1-5) and the Drouot Painter<br />

lA HV. 1223. 1-7).<br />

I. AmSll'rdam. Allard Pierson Museum 623. from Athens.<br />

11,0,121. H. with lid 0.206, 0, of lid 0.138, H, of foot 0.018.<br />

Shallow concave cun'e to wall strengthened al base. lid slopes<br />

from center to outer edge. knob: conical member surmounting<br />

di!


•<br />

lib<br />

1 HE ATTIC PnIS<br />

117<br />

echinoid-like form on stem whose base' is ra~ above the 1el'el of<br />

the lid.<br />

Lid; debased tongues !black). black band bt'tween reserYed<br />

lines. vertical circumscribed palmettes alternating with bouquets<br />

of lea\'es. black band between reserved lines. laurel and berry<br />

Oeaves on outside of stem only). J"ten'or of lid: black: bottom:<br />

dotted circle. circle, outer circle. band. Grafilto.<br />

Laurel and berry below frieze.<br />

Painter of Athens 17191, horseman. with youths and woman:<br />

ARV, 1222.1: CVA. Greece 2. Athens 2. pI. 29.<br />

J. Vienna 37/9 (ex Dlum-Blank-cheW.<br />

Half of ring handle restored. H. 0.117. H. ,.·jth IkI 0.187. D. of<br />

lid 0.128. H. of foot 0.021.<br />

Wall cylindrical with Joo,l;er sloping keel echoed by contour of<br />

lid flange. Ring handle on support of hourglass formation. Flaring<br />

tripartiu~: foot.<br />

Lid: debased tongue and dOl, running palmelle scroll. slanting<br />

(,:onnections all parallel forming a Vilruvian wave with palmetles<br />

strictly aligned with axis of border. Side of lid: groups of<br />

maeanders ~parated by chequcr squares. black band.<br />

Black band, reserved line above frieze: below: maeanders<br />

separated by chequer squares. egg (with double borders) and dot.<br />

Red-figure. women, CVA, Austria 1, Vienna I, pI. 48. 7-8 and<br />

pI. 49, 1-3, L. Curtius, "Pentheus," Winde(mQnnsprogramm 88<br />

(l929) 5. figs. 9-1 t.<br />

DOUBLES<br />

I. Ferruru T. 27 C VP. from Spina. PI. 73.<br />

Sccondary lid missing. Stem of pyxidion mended to lid in<br />

antiquity.<br />

H. 0.153. total H. pres. 0.223, D. at rim 0.129, D. of lid 0.165. H.<br />

offoot.o.045, D. at rim of pyxidion 0.06.<br />

Slightly domed lid r;:urmounted by small pyxis, type C, on slender<br />

stem. Slightly concave, tripartite foot.<br />

Lid tongue and dot, black band bctvo'een reserved lines.<br />

lcrtical. circumscribed palmeues alternating .,,·ith 10tus DO'I\ers<br />

,,:r()\l\ ned by tiny palmeHC5 and linked by a scroll, spirals in upper<br />

~pandre1s, egg and dot, inverted. Side of lid: laurel. Reserved line<br />

abo"'e frieLe and helo" then black band and egg and dot. AHJ\OL<br />

tn'iCribed above seated figure of Delos.<br />

Marlay Painter, Apollo with Artemis, Leto, Dclos and Hermes:<br />

ANV. 1277.22: Ant> Anticu e Modernu (1%6) 173-178. figs.<br />

70~72.<br />

ell. 4.10 H.C.<br />

2. Athells. Agora P (3097.fr.. from Athens. PI. 72,2.<br />

D. est. 0.07. Lid of miniature pyxis type C.<br />

ShallO" domed I'd with narTow ~wer rim.<br />

Lid. small ~ntral clay medallion. egg and dot. resefYed ivy<br />

lea"·cs, turned alternately outward and inward. stem. tendrils and<br />

berTies in added clay, narTOW egg and dot band. Underside<br />

unglazed.<br />

Red-figure. Agora XII. 396 Deposit 0 19:4. This pyxis from<br />

dumped tilling. For ivy pattern cL lid of Athens 136763 by Painter<br />

of Athens 1S85 dated ca. 410 D.e.<br />

3. Alhelu. Agoru P /2975. fr.. from Athens. PI. 72,1.<br />

Lid missing. stem broken, H. pres. 0.031. max. D. at rim 0.057.<br />

D_ 0.071.<br />

Miniature pyxis, type C. which served as the knob of the lid of<br />

a pyxis, type A. Inset flange for lid. shallow concave curve to<br />

sides, sloping projecting keel at base. underside elaborately<br />

moulded.<br />

laurel wreath on body, debased tongues on 1000'er flange.<br />

Red-figure. Area 0 20.<br />

I Second quarter fourth century.<br />

4. AlllellS. Agoru P /6924 frr.. from Athens.<br />

PI. 74,2·74.3.75,2. Fig. 12a.<br />

Two non·joining fragments of a lid of type A with a miniature<br />

pyxis type A serving as a knob. Lid of miniature missing. body<br />

about half preserved, stem broken.


118<br />

THE ATTIC PYXIS<br />

SALLY RUTHERFt:RD ROBERn<br />

119<br />

Lid: H. pres. 0.037. 0.0.140. Box: H. pres. 0.062. D. at rim<br />

11.061.<br />

In~et flange for lid. shallo\\ concan~ cun"c 10 sides with 10'l1'cr.<br />

~l()ping projl."Cting keel.<br />

Ud' si~ \'crtical palmclles v.ilh a dot on either side of one,<br />

Interlocking maeanders in groups Of five (once six and once three)<br />

\eparated by chequer square. 80.' IWO \'ertical palmclles \\ith<br />

\\ hite hearts and most of a third he middle one is flanked by<br />

dots: /ul\'j" kl'd: egg pattern.<br />

ned-figure. Agortl XII, 384. Deposit A·B 21·22:1 dated ca.<br />

120-.190 R.e.<br />

S. A /lIf'11$, Agora P 24296. fr.. from Athens. PI. 75,1.<br />

Fragment (If small pyxis type A. which served as knob of a lid<br />

Ill" a pyxis type A. Portion of IOlh'1 wall preserved and projecting<br />

IOIH'r keel. Underside elaooralelv moulded around broken stem<br />

10.0.035), H. pres. 0.036, 0, ptl'l>, :I.t 10"'er part 0.093.<br />

Heart 01 palmetlc on acanlhus Iea\'t's, interlocking stopped<br />

lIl:lcanders and chequer square. two black-glaze raised rings. Egg<br />

un lower keel.<br />

!'atterned; found in Agora a~a. exact prO\'enance unknown.<br />

h. IJrollrOlI /80 fr .. from Brauron.<br />

MinialUre ppis. type A. whieh sen'ed as the knob of the lid of<br />

a pp-is type A. Presen'ed: low'er portion of sloping wall. projecting<br />

lower keel. tall stem (broken below) connected to keel by cuo'ed<br />

contour.<br />

The evidence for this the most elaborate form of pyxis type A III<br />

the later fifth century is very limited. But for an almost intact<br />

example from Spina. a few fragments from the Athenian Agora<br />

and Braurun. one would not have been aware that the lype existed<br />

prior 10 the second quarter of the fourth century. Evidently t.....o<br />

\'ariants of the type were made. a pyxis type A with a pyxidion of<br />

type C serving as a knob and a pyxis type A surmounted by<br />

miniature pyxis of the same type. The combination of the two types<br />

of pyxides sen'cs as a \'isual reminder of the contemporaneity of<br />

l~~ A and C and suggests that the potter "ho made one type.<br />

made lhe other. The c1assificatK>n of the doubk pyxis is based on<br />

that factor alone. The evidence at hand indicates that the mam lid<br />

was slightl} domed as in those of type C and the pyxidion<br />

supported on a li"tem swelling toward its apex. Judging by the<br />

number.> presened the t)PC became more popular in the first half<br />

of the fourth century.<br />

Ferrara. T. 27 C VP (no. I. PI. 73) has been preserved intact but<br />

for the lid of the p)'xidion of type e. The principal lid is slightly<br />

domed and the pyxis knob is joined to it by a slender stem which<br />

,,"ell.. at the junctiun, The walls of the box approach the cylindrical<br />

and the lower keel is pronounced in its extension. The flaring foot<br />

i!> tripllftite, The lid of the pyxidion was undoubtedly slightly<br />

domed with a lower rim as in the lids of those of standard size. For<br />

a miniature lid of type C see Athens. Agora P tJ097 (no. 2. PI.<br />

72.2) which is identical with the standard \'ersion exccpt that the<br />

smalll'entral clay medallion is not pierced to rccei\'e the u..ual ring<br />

handle. This miniature lid must have belonged either to such a<br />

pyxidton or to an independent miniature vase.<br />

The pyxis has been allributed to the Marlay Painter who also<br />

deroratt.'d pyxides of type C and an additional type A of another<br />

model.I' The vase dates to ca. 430 B.e. and thus prm'ides preeious<br />

c\idence for the production of such elaborate \'ases sixty years<br />

before the Kerch l>erK.~.1J A "fourth ccn!Ury' type b, thus shO\o\n 10<br />

han' its origin in the later fifth century.<br />

Athens. Agora P 12975 (no. 3. PI. 72.1). is a fragmentary<br />

pp,id ion uf type C from such a double vase. The hastily painted<br />

wreath is the usual decoration of such boxes of standard size. The<br />

date is difficult to determine and unfortunalely the vase does not<br />

come from a numbered deposil. u<br />

No, 4 (Pis. 74.2-74.3. 75.2) is a fragmentary example uf the<br />

~crond variety. a pyxis type A surmounted by a pyxidion of the<br />

same type. Of the box only the main lid is preserved whose com'ex<br />

central area. lower rim. 3nd broad two step stem-base as well a~ its<br />

modest diameter 01'0.014 show it to be from 3 ppis. type A. The<br />

!>tcm i~ broken just 3bo\'e the base. The pyxidion has slightly<br />

('onca\'e walls and a sloping lower keel from "hich the contour


120 lilT ATTIC PVXIS SALLY RUTHERFUJlD Ra.ERTS 121<br />

slopes do" nward to join a thkk '>tern. 11 should be nOled Ihat thl.'<br />

~tt'm of a double pp:i.. swells to\\ards its Junetun' with the pplis<br />

knob. Compare the slender stem of the Ferrara pyxis lno. 1) and<br />

al~() the thicker later (ourth ccntu'1' examples Leningrad


121<br />

'liE ATTU PYJI:n<br />

SALLY RUTH£ltFURD RO.EaTs<br />

123<br />

.118. PI. 85.21 (Corbeu): Apor


124 THE Arnc PVXIS SALLY RUTHEil.FURD ROIERTS 125<br />

wdl on the southern slopes of the Kolonos Agoraios. which<br />

produced a large proportion of fed-figured pottery. The potter)' is<br />

considered to have been thrown in all at one time and must be<br />

datablc tu 425·400 B.C. Peter Corbett belic\'cd the pyxis and a<br />

1cbes gamikos by the Matlay Painter to he considerably earlier<br />

(440·430 a.c.), than the bulk of the ,'ases from the .....ell and<br />

(.'olllparcd the fanleT to a pyxis P 2283 (PI. 50.2. Fig. 7d) by the<br />

Drouot Paintcr. 19 A comparison of the profile of this pyxis lInd<br />

others of the Class or Munich 2720 (p. 72, Fig. 7a). shol>.'s the<br />

wall of no. 3 to be straighter and the lower keel projecting almost<br />

at right angles to the wall rather than continuing and completing<br />

llle curve of the wall. In these charpctcristics P 10459 appears to<br />

be later than any of the pyxides of the Class of Munich 2720 and<br />

rightly dated by the context of the well.<br />

If restored with a tall tripartite foot. no. 3 would be about the<br />

same size as Munich 2720. the smallest--of -that class. The box<br />

proper is a lillle larger than the pyxidion P 1M124.<br />

Another sm:lll pyxis. Athens Agora P 8441 (no. 4. PI. 75..1)<br />

preserves only its lower wall, boldly projecting lower flange and<br />

fragments of a tripartite foot. The wall appears to have had a very<br />

shallow curve much intensified at the base as in Berlin F 2520<br />

(Fig. 12bJ. The box seems to have been slightly larger than no. 2<br />

as the diameter at the lower keel measures 0.09 10 0.08 for that<br />

example. The pyxis dates late fifth-early fourth century B.e.<br />

In most pyxides type A of double format the pyxidion is<br />

supported by a single stem; however it should be noted that in<br />

one example. Berlin 3373 10 • the pyxidion has a tripartite foot. This<br />

i~ one of the la lest and most elaborate of the Kerch series of<br />

pyxidcs dated ca. 360-350 B.e. It is also the tallest; the pyxidjon<br />

itself is sizable.<br />

As it appears Ihat the series of double pyxides of type A began<br />

around 430 B.e. it seems necessary to consider whether the<br />

fragmentary pyxides no. 3 and 4 could have been pyxidia. There<br />

is not sufficient evidence at present to decide this question and<br />

therefore il is safer to consider them as independent pyxides. One<br />

should bear in mind. however. that this question of pyxidion or no<br />

should be raised even when a pyxis is furnished with a tripartite<br />

foot.<br />

ODD PYXIDES FROM CA. 4.30-420 B.e.<br />

I. Athens 1241 (CC. 1553J. from Athens. PI. 75.5.<br />

H. 0.11, H. with lid 0.185. 0.0.10-0.11.<br />

Lid: eggs. black band. palmettes. partly circumscribed and<br />

linked by a running scroll (central petal pierces frame). leaf abO"e<br />

and below in interstices.<br />

Reserved line above frieze: below: groups of interlocking<br />

macanders separated by a cross. saltire or chequer square.<br />

Red-Iigure. Apollo and eight Muses. CVA. Greece 2. Athens 2.<br />

pI. HLI. 5·6. pi. 19. 2-4. pI. 20,1.<br />

2. Alh,-·ns. from Aiolou Street. PI. 76.2.<br />

Lid: tongues. wide black band between reserved lines. running<br />

palmettc scroll (Dinsmoor type IV BJ. Side of lid: laurel and<br />

berry: inlf'rior of lid: black.<br />

Egg and dot above frieze: ht'IQw: tongues.<br />

The names Thalia. Choro. Terpsichorll. Melpomene. Orania.<br />

Klcn and EralO arc inscribed.<br />

Red-ligure. Muses; BCN ~6 (1962) 644-645. figs. 2·3. plo 23;<br />

AlA 50 (1946) 119 (Dinsmoor).<br />

3. Chicago 92.126. ex Hutchinson.<br />

Knob missing. H. 0.075. total H. pres. 0.089. D. at rim 0.078.<br />

IJ. of lid 0.103. H. of foot 0.012.<br />

Lid: egg and dot. vertical. circumscribed palmenes (eleven<br />

petals, once twelve). linked and alternating with lotus flowers.<br />

three pelal palmene in spandrel. egg and dot.<br />

Black band, reserved band above frieze: below: egg between<br />

reserved bands and black band.<br />

Red-ligure. women.<br />

4. Wiinburg 541. from Attica. PI. 76.1.<br />

Upper member of knob and foot mlSsmg. H. 0.093. total H.<br />

pres. 0.136. D. at rim 0.11-0.114. D. of lid 0.137.<br />

Lid: egg and dot. egg and dart, palmette alternating with lotus<br />

flower, egg and dart. egg and dot. Side oJ lid: laurel.


126<br />

SALlY ROTHERfURD ROB£RTS 127<br />

Black band. resen'ed band aho\'c frieze; belo.....: egg and dot.<br />

Wa'\hing Painter. bride silting on a couch. "'itll Er..,..,<br />

Aphroditc and a ....oman who holds a loutrophoros; 1....0 Erotn<br />

"'resiling. with Aphrodite seated and a woman (Peilho); woman<br />

~ated playing the harp; ARV. 1133.196: Langlolz. Griechische<br />

VU.)"I'" i" Wiinhurg, pk. 200·1: A. Greifcnhagen. Gri('chischt'<br />

bvt(·" 42-45; A'hMitl 71 (956) 205-207; Beil. JlS below and<br />

Beil. 116 belo...... For the subject ef. the kbes gamikos rtr. t4RV.<br />

1127.6 bis).<br />

S. Allu!,u. Agora P 6514. from Athens.<br />

Lid missing. H. 0.112. D. est. 0.135.<br />

Concave wall, inset nange for lid, high ring fOOl.<br />

Inset flange. h:cl and resting surface of foot reserved.<br />

Black. Agur" XII. 174 ::and 327 no. 1289. PI. 43. Dcposil E 13:1.<br />

450·425 B.C.<br />

In contrast to the tall slender proportions and tall tripartite foot<br />

uf pyxides of the Koine Class come a few odd pyxides whose squat<br />

proportions. Iow glazed ring foot and knob type are reminiscent of<br />

the mid fifth century Class of Berlin 3308. The dh'ersity of<br />

pallerns ornamenting lids and boxes is one of the indications that<br />

these pyxides do not form a class. The contour of Ihe I"alls of<br />

these: p)'xides varies from a shallow conca"e curn 10 a C)'linder and<br />

in Ihi.. they re~mble most pyxidcs. tJpe A. of the peri'Jd 4.10-400<br />

B.C.<br />

Athens 1241 (no. l. PI. 75,S) is a pyxis ofsqu31 proportions ~ith<br />

nearly cylindrical walls. The lid and lower keel project slightly<br />

beyond the line of the wall. The foot is of ring formation with a<br />

diagonal line connecting its apex with the lower keel. The lid<br />

sloping steeply from the center towards the outer edge is crowned<br />

by a knob formcd of a conical member surmounting a disk-like<br />

form on a stem swelling towards its apex. The base of the stem is<br />

raised above the level of the lid. A comparison with the pyxis<br />

London E 773 (PI. 62) of the Class of Berlin 3J08 sho"ws lhe<br />

similarity of proportions and forms composing the whole. Equally<br />

striking is the figurative stripping away of excess flesh and the<br />

tightening of the contour lines. It should date ca. 430 B.e.<br />

A pp:is from Aiolou Street (no. 2. PI. 76.2). is known to me onl)'<br />

from photograph.'ii and a bnef report In the Bullt·tl1/ de<br />

n"""!>(lfmdal/cf' Jr{'II~"iquf'.lI The walls arc qlindrK-al • ith a<br />

projecting Imnr keel. I cannot tell whether there is any<br />

articulation betvo·een the wall and the keel. The upper surface of<br />

Ihe lid is flat: the ba.'iie of the stem is raised abm'e the le,·et of the<br />

lid. The knob is similar in general format to that of no. I. but<br />

differs in detail. It is more delicately and elegantly fashioned. The<br />

disk-like form resembles the shallow basin of a fountain ",.jth an<br />

eminence in the


128 THE ATTIC PYXI~ SALLY RUTHERFURD R08EltH 129<br />

pp;s from the Athenian Agora (no. 5). atc clme to ,hose of nos. 1<br />

and 4. The shallow concave CUT'\'C of the wall and black ring foot<br />

3TC analogous to pyxides of IlIb group. It is particularly<br />

unfortunate that the lid is missing for without this member il<br />

seems hazardous to do more than compare this pyxis with the<br />

others. As the black Ceramicus 1462 e


130 131<br />

woman spinning. and woman; maid; ARV. 1023.144; Heydemann.<br />

GrieC'hische Vasenbilder. pI. 8, S.<br />

J. Chicago 92. J25. PI. 77.3.<br />

H. 0.088. H. with lid 0.133. D. at rim 0.077, D. of lid 0.103. H.<br />

(If foot 0.01.<br />

Lid: debased tongue and dot. black band. laurel. Side of /id:<br />

debased tongue and dot.<br />

Black band. reserved line above frieze: lw/a....: debased tongue<br />

and dot. Eusinn Painter. Boreas and Oreithyia. ARV, 798.147.<br />

late.<br />

The profiles of two pyxKles by the Phiale Painter (nos. 1 and 2)<br />

a~ c1~ly akin. The shallov.' concave curve of the wall is much<br />

stttngthened 31 the base and the lid extends further than the<br />

lo.....er keel. The upper surfa~ of the lid of Athens 1587 (no. I. PI.<br />

77.11 is flat in contrast to Ihal of no. 2 (Athens 1588. PI. 77.21.<br />

whose domed contour recalls the outline of lids of type C. Knobs<br />

in the form of pomegranates crown the Iids. u Most curious is the<br />

form of the foot. whose low convex ring is connected by a curved<br />

contour line to the outer ed~ of the lower keel. A comparable<br />

foot type may be found on cenain pyxides of type C. n<br />

Despite the similarity of the profiles of nos. I and 2. the choice<br />

and placement of pattern bands differs. Tongues ornament the lid<br />

flange and lower keel of Athens 1587. while on Athens 1588 the<br />

lid flange is merely glazed and the lower keel has an egg and dot<br />

border. In addition the lid pattern bands differ. The two pyxides<br />

date ca. 430 8.C.<br />

No. 3 (Chicago 92.125. PI. 77.3). by the Euaion Pailller. has a<br />

prolile almost identical with that of no. I. In addition the choice<br />

and placement of pauern bands are the same. The measurements<br />

of no. 3 are closer to those for the Class of Berlin 3308 and it is<br />

interesting to compare the latest example of that class, Athens<br />

1586 (PI. 65.1) also by the Euaion Painter. with this pyxis. The ring<br />

foot of Athens 1586 is connected to the lower flange by a sloping<br />

line. The foot type of nos. 1·3 appears to be an exaggeration and<br />

articulation of features present in Athens 1586 and the key piece<br />

of the Class of Berlin 3308. No. 3 may therefore be seen as a<br />

connecting link betv.een the Class of Berlin 3J08 and the 1""0<br />

ppide!i by the Phiale Painter. The Chicago pyxis dates ca. 440<br />

D.e. or slightly thereafter.<br />

TWO PYXIDES OF SQUAT PROPORTIONS<br />

AND TALL TRIPARTITE FOOT<br />

I. N_ Yurk 40.11.2. from Greece. PI. -S.<br />

Upper pan of terracotta ring handle restored. H. 0.102. H. with<br />

lid 0.142 (as restored). O. of lid 0.116. H. of foot 0.021.<br />

Lid.- fragment of maeander pattern. Muses groups of<br />

maeande~ leftv.ards separated by chequered squares. Side of lid:<br />

groups of interlocking maeanders separated by chequered squares.<br />

Moukling. line abo\'e frieze: bela...·: line and band of maeanders<br />

and chequered squares.<br />

The names of six Nereids are inscribed.<br />

Painter of London 0 14. white ground; Nereids: ARV. 1213.1;<br />

AJA 44 (1940) 428-431. figs. 1·3.<br />

"l::; \" :><br />

2 Lu"dun E 774. from Athens. 1-'1. 79 and Fig. 14a.<br />

Lid alien. H. 0.118, O. at rim 0.096. H. of foot 0.03.<br />

Four lines alternately black and reserved above frieze: belu....:<br />

groups of interlocking maeanders running alternately to right and<br />

left separated by chequered squarC5 with a central raised dot.<br />

BO/tom: dotted circle and tWO closely spaced outer circles.<br />

The nanu..", Glauke, Thaleia. Kymudoke. K)/llothea. Gakne.<br />

Pomomedeia and 0050 are inscribed abo\'e the heads of the<br />

ligures.


132 THE ArTlc Pl'XIS IJJ<br />

slightly beyond the contour of the v'al1. The upper surface of the<br />

lid is flat and is crowned by a ring handle in terracotta (the upper<br />

part restored). This handle type may show the influence of the<br />

predominant type of the period. the pyxis type C. which was<br />

regularly furnished ....ith a ring handle of bronze. In addition the<br />

lid was decorated with a figured frieze," the usual adornment of<br />

lids of type C.<br />

The white ground pyxis. type A. is a rarity and this isolated<br />

exemplar appears about twenty years after the earlter enmples<br />

which were mostly painted by PenthesiJeans 15 in the years ca.<br />

460450 H.C. It differs from these in having a white ground lid.<br />

The simple concave cunc of the wall and the squat proportions<br />

of a pyxis in London (PI. 79 and Fig. 14a), are ,'ery like those of<br />

the white ground pyxis in New York. The lid Ohef: set on it prm'ed<br />

to bt alien. judging from the slight projection of the lower flange<br />

the lid would have elltended little beyond the wall of the boll. At<br />

this period the projection of a lid usually matches or exceeds the<br />

elltension of the lo.....er keel of the box. The concave contour of the<br />

tall tripartite foot emphasizes the form of the box. The black foot<br />

is finely articulated by raised rings in black standing out from<br />

reserved bands on either side. The elegance of form is<br />

commensurate with the exquisite miniature figure style by the<br />

Eretria Painter. The two pyxides date ca. 430-420 S.C.<br />

PYXIDES OF EXTRAVAGANT PROFILE<br />

I. Worcester (Mass.) /935./48. PI.8I,1<br />

Knob missing. H. 0.112, total H. pres. 0.119, D. at rim 0.089.<br />

D. of lid 0.143. H. of foot 0.035.<br />

Lid: tongue and dot. line and dot on central mouldings. frieze:<br />

Erotes with cocks, Erotes with hare. in the field dioros and stone<br />

for a game of ephedrismos. For a representation of the game in<br />

progress by the Shuvalov Painter: Arias, pI. 204. Side of lid:<br />

wreath of laurel leaves with white berries.<br />

Moulding decorated with egg and dot above frieze: below:<br />

stopped interlocking maeanders on projecting keel.<br />

Eretria Painter. mistress and maid: mbtre,,, and maid: 1"-0<br />

maids; ARV. 1250.33; Worcester Art Museum Annual 2<br />

(19.36-37) 28-31. figs. 1-4. The number in ARV is incorrect.<br />

2_ AIII.'IIS. Agora P 6R45 lr., from Athens. Pis. SO.l and 80.3.<br />

lid fragment. H. pres. 0.014. D. est. ca. 0.14.<br />

Upper surface of lid flat. step down to lov..er horizontal rim.<br />

articulated by added red.<br />

Frieze; Niobids; flange of lid; olive leaves with white berries.<br />

Red-ligure.ArltK 6 (1963) 23-32. plo 8. )·2 (Clainnont). Similarities<br />

to the work of the Eretria Painter were nOled by Clainnont and<br />

confirmed b)' Senley.<br />

3. N('t\' York 06.1021.119. fig. 14b.<br />

H. 0.077. H. with lid 0.12. D. at rim 0.083, D. of lid 0.12. H. of<br />

foot 0.016.<br />

Knucklebone handle. lid nanged beneath, box concave with<br />

projecting sloping keel. tripanite foot.<br />

Lid' debased longues on central moulding. then egg and dot.<br />

maeand...rs in groups of three. separated by saltire squares.<br />

U,.derside of lid: laurel.<br />

Black moulding. groove. black moulding above frieze; below:<br />

black moulding, laurel on sloping keel.<br />

Ked-figure: Richter and Milne. fig. 140.<br />

The Worcester pyxis (no. I. PI. 81.\) is onc of the most<br />

playful and extravagant models of type A. The wall has a sloping<br />

contour with a strongly projecting lower keel, whose upper surface<br />

is concave with a groove near the outer edge. The lid projects<br />

equally far beyond the line of the wall. The most prominent<br />

feature of the p}'xis is these two "beaks" enframing the line of the<br />

wall. The tall foot is tripartite and of a concave contour quite<br />

unrelated to the profile of the box. The upper surface of the lid is<br />

flat with a series of low mouldings at the center to suppon a<br />

knob. now missing. Near the outer edge is a groove. Laurel and<br />

white berry adorn the flange of the lid.<br />

A fragmcntary lid from the Athenian Agara (no. 2. Pis. 80.1 and


134<br />

SAIl y<br />

RUTHERFURO RO.FRTS<br />

135<br />

SO.3);s extraordinarily akin 10 that af Worcester in profile...ill,' oand<br />

ornamentation. It projected far beyond the wall of the now<br />

missing box and the flange is decorated .....ith oli,'c lea\'es and<br />

white berries. There is a frieze of figures on the flat upper<br />

surface.<br />

The diameter of the lid is estimated at ca. 0.14 to 0.143 for the<br />

Worcester lid. The projection of the Agera lid appears to ha\'c<br />

been e,'en mo~ extensi,"c Ihan that of Worcester :IS the I,)\cr·<br />

hanging section measuro 0.023 to 0.019 for Worcester.<br />

The profile of no. 3 (New York 06.1021.119. Fig. 14b) is more<br />

exlra\'agant than any other. The wall has a concave cut'\'c<br />

se~raled from a sloping keel at the bast by a moulding. The lid<br />

projects far beyond the line of the wall and Cl'cn beyond the lo.....er<br />

keel. Like no. t the upper surface of the lid is flat with a y;K1e low<br />

moulding at the center which here forms a foundation for a knob<br />

in the form of a knucklebone. The flange of the lid does not cu,""c<br />

downlo\ard to join the line of the wall as in no. 1 but forms an<br />

abrupt angle. The low tripartite foot protrudes widely benealh the<br />

slope of the lower keel of the box. The lid construction diners<br />

from the usual in that there is no inset flange at the top of the<br />

Io\all of the pyxis. Instead the lid is flanged beneath and this<br />

nange fits down within the body of the vase.<br />

The lack of a harmonious relationship between the individual<br />

parts and the whole is somewhat disturbing. The date should be<br />

in the last quarter of the fifth eentury. For a similar crass-girt<br />

chiton cf. that of a woman on a red-figured squat lekythos. Ji The<br />

majority of red-figured ware from the well from which it comes<br />

dates from 425·400 a.c. Another exemplar dated ca. 420·410 D.e.<br />

comes from the PnyxY<br />

The Worcester pyxis (PI. 81,1). by the Eretria Painler. dale.. ca.<br />

430 D.e. and a comparison of its profile with that or Ihe<br />

contemporary London E 774 (pI. 79), by the same miniaturbl.<br />

provokes astonishment. Rather than simply considering them<br />

different odd pyxides, should onc not rather regard them as<br />

different trial pieces from a period of chaotic experimentation<br />

VARIOUS SMALL HYBKIDS<br />

I',Ul~, LWH'n' CA 1443. from Eretria. 1'1. hl.2 and Fig. ISe<br />

It 0.0"'3, H. with lid 0.08. D. at flnt 0.082. D. of lid 0.106. H.<br />

I t'lJ...t 0.009.<br />

!u,>et flange fur lid. slight CQncave cune to wall. resen'ed<br />

mnulding at base Central tondo of lid: representation in relief of<br />

a .... creid. holding a grea,'e, on a sea horse. Reserved, echinoid<br />

..,'ulnur la lid Ilange. Ring foot.<br />

1';llOtl'r III Alhl'n' I 5. ",om3n ,>ealed and y;nmen: AN\'.<br />

1.\0(1.1,<br />

·1 he "1)le of Ihe relief has nothing to do .... ith that of the<br />

pit.ture:- P. Jacobsthal. /Jil' mef'$chl'" ReliefS. 184. figs. 55·56.<br />

1 hI:' number in AR V is incorrect.<br />

2. >1'1\ Yurk 06.1021.123. from Attica. PI. H2.1. Fig. ISb.<br />

H. 0.00.1. H. Io\ith lid 0.102, D. at rim 0.076. D. of lid 0.093.<br />

Il;,>el !lange for lid. slight COllca\'e CUr'iC to wall, con\'ex base<br />

moulding separatt'd Irom '" all by a grou\e. Lid slopes from center<br />

10 rounded con\'ex lid llange. Asymmetrienl knob.<br />

1id rays and dot... black band. egg and dot.<br />

Rc!>ct"


136 r 'IF Arnc I'YXIS 137<br />

The "ases listed above ha.'c certain characteristics of p}'xides of<br />

(\!le A combined with some of type D.<br />

,,,. I (I.oUH(' CA 144J. PI. 81.l) ...h.l\\" the ('onll...·1,:ll"" \\ilh the<br />

11\\1" hpc DU \PI. X2.2}ll1o\t dcarl~. 1 he lid of 111(' 1\1" U p~,i\ I~<br />

flat with a central (ondo surrounded b)' a grou\'c and a<br />

do,", n turned edge. There is no knob. The moulded face of the lid<br />

',.-omplements :I. moulding at the base of the slightly COnC3\'C or<br />

qlindrical wall. The lid of the Louvre pyxis has a rai§Cd ccnlraJ<br />

tnndo decorated with a Nereid on a hippocamp in relieLJ' The<br />

londo of the lid of a pyxis type 0 usually is ornamented with a<br />

figure. object. head or animal. The Nereid relief. how~·er. is a<br />

much more nuld and elaborate composition than any found on a<br />

pyxis type 0 and clearly derh'cs from anOlher source. A Hd "ith a<br />

lundo composition i!> otherwise unknown on a pyxis type A but<br />

the format is Iypical for the pyxi!>, type D.cd abo~·e follo\O.' the<br />

rulC' .


138 I HE ArTlC PYXI5<br />

SALLY RUTHERf'URD ROBERTS 139<br />

NOII-.S:CHAPIFH\<br />

I 4C'ml XIL JIH, Dcpo!lll 0 19,-4 Wdlu\,' lilhn~ 1.'\1 quafltr lillh I.Tnlun"<br />

IluTlIp,.'t:I tilling ahhough tnr l~ mO"i1 PiU! I.·"n,i~lo:nrh .'1 thl." '.I"l~· ~n"d.<br />

.LJlII,Jn,:n11~ n", dcpo"!iUcd I'>ol:lt'fl" Ilk' 2nd I."cnrun B (. P i'll,jq- ., h"l1\ ,IK' ,IUnllll.."C!<br />

IiIhnt:.<br />

1. ~l'\' p. 51 III 1nl.<br />

1 See p. h] (11 1(')(1.<br />

4. Klaus Vierncisel. "Dle Ausgrabungen im Kerameikos," AA I (1964) 432. fi~.<br />

24-25.<br />

5. It should ~ nOled that although the profiles of these an.- similar. in ~ion the,'<br />

diner in detaIl. the cenlral portion ~ithin the ero\l\ning ridge nf the knob being<br />

hollo.... t:d OUI in Ihe case of Ihe Ccramicu~ pp.is.<br />

6. Lut)' Talcoll and olhen;, Smllll OtJj«ts Irum ".,. Pn)'x 11. Jlrs/Wn'u' Suppll'ml'tlt<br />

X IPnn~on '(56) no. 139. p. 35 and fig, J. There daled laIc fifth cenlut}<br />

-. ANV. 1222. '·3.<br />

8. Mls~ Phihppaki undenook 10 unglue the parts of Ihe JOin. The join is all right.<br />

the gla:t.e is the same. 11lc knob belungs to the lid mnd it appears thal no part of the<br />

stem b mi\\ing. I am moch indebted to Miss Philippaki for reexamining this<br />

thtun:.<br />

9. KarlXhefokt. Urul'n",ltulJ1!f'n =u df'n K""ucltr,. Vas,'n (Berlin 1934) 59-W. nos.<br />

5t(2 I!). 5Mb and 5Ma Tllthe li\t 01 ,,'mple. 'lIIg1c p)xi,il''1 of I}JX' A ,hilI/Ill ",-. oI,hh:rl<br />

the follo\\ing examples: Athens 1324 (CC. 19(6) H 0.146, H. \\irh lid 0.245; Athens<br />

1325 (Cc. 19(3), H. 0.134, H. 'Aith lid 0.22 (me:ll>un:ment'l SUPI>lied br Mi\'1<br />

Philippakil; Athens 1320 (CC. 1%4) H 0.13, H 'Ailh hd 0.20; Athens. Ago... P<br />

1(,10'" lid 1'111) D.O 14() IAgnru XII. 177.321S nn. IJ05, 1'1. 431: Halm 1%.1.10. H<br />

0.10":, H. _nh lid 0.26: Oxford 1934.330. hd only, D. 0.118. The salu.:nt<br />

characterblll~ are: lid under influence of p)'llis, IlPC C tdomed \\lIh rim 011 IIJ'Aer<br />

klcll: ho, .. lightly l'\lIlCa\l~ 'Allh prujcl'linJ( Imwr l1al1)te; taflll:lrr\l" Pntfll,rti"n" !.l'.•<br />

H. "'ith lid greater Ihan Ihal recorded for mlXt I:Uer fifth l-cnIUr) ennlplC'!O: knob:<br />

comcill mc:mber surmountmg disk-l1kc: form on stem swelling tlWo,uds its apex. Tbc<br />

hd' ut GOllin~n \Sehefold no. 58..1), WUr/burg H 5333 tA",K I~ Il lr'2] 10. pi 5)<br />

ami Pn\ale Cnlkcllon f(arv11lJ Llld",,/( Cunill~. 148-150. pis. 51·5.1) an: mi.. \il1~<br />

The black glue hd of the laller is alien. It should date ca. 440-420 H.C. and clearl)'<br />

dlXs not belong to the pyxis. The boldly extended lo\\~r ked of the boll requires a<br />

uTlln,ti:l~ pn'JCt·tin,ti: lid a!\o in Tororllu9195.32 (PI. 8·4,,, and 011\0 l'n:ater hel}!hllU the<br />

knob. TlM.'T\" ~m 10 be no cenam cnlcria b) 'AhK'h 10 Jud~ ~hcth~r tht.'\.t' thrl":<br />

hdk...\ p}\ldl"'> 'Aen: ul ~ingle or doubt.: fOf"m For dISCUS\IUn of Ih,' P'XI\ fll douh ....<br />

t}p..' sel'I). IlbffollclI.<br />

10. ARV, 1277.22·25.<br />

I J. .xhefokl. Untt'nuchungf'lJ. 59. no. 583. prov'des a fourth ecntuf) czamplc of a<br />

double pyIis, l)-pr A. lI;th a pp:ic:hon of t)~ C. The lid of Ihe p)xidion is of brunl.t·<br />

(CVA. Iknmark 4. Cupenhagen 4, pI. 163. 5a-bl.<br />

12. The context \uggest\ a date in lhe second quarter oflhe fourth l-entUf).<br />

1.1, Schetold. U",aSIIl f/lll/}.!"". 59. no. 5R4 lpI'. 74. 70, gO. Ihcrl' d:Hl'l.l J70..l00<br />

IH..1: ARV. ISOJ l'ollflm; MUII'n'ul po Adthl'l.J!Uj.!// RWi// 35. p. tl5. pI. Y<br />

14. xhefold, Unt('nuchuRgt-n. 59, no. 580 (p. 76, there dated 370-J60 B.C.);<br />

Arr"Eph 09(2) pis. 5-6. Berlin 33iJ. Schdold. no. 581. pI. 17.2 (pp. 75, % and 9-<br />

and then: dated J()()..3SO B.C.) show\ ,a pyxidion of a different Iype, supported by a<br />

tnpanl{e foot and so IS 01 a form ldenlical to the mam box. The knob of the<br />

p)xidion i.. \imilar in form to thos.e of the \ingle pyllides of lhe Kerch series.<br />

15. Pder F. C~t, "Anle Pottery of the Later Fifth Century:' HOfNntJ 18 (19491<br />

m. pk. i3.1; -0,2; --.3; 82.12; TalCOlt _od Othel"5. Small ObpclS}Tom the Pn)'x:<br />

11, H('ipula Suppif'ml'nt X. pis, 4.29: 9.118; 13.158 lserond quarter of fourth<br />

century): Arias and Hirmer, pl\. 204. 205, 21&<br />

1&, Scht:fold. Untt·nuchuflgt'lJ. 59. 00. 580, 581. 583a. 583b and 584. Unfonunatel},<br />

I do not ha\'e \ufficlent information 10 Ir.""",. the form of no. 584a. As may be secn<br />

b). a comparison ~ith the list of slllgle pyxidn of type A of the Kerch \Cries tstt<br />

3hl}\e n. 91 the latter appear to be shghtl) more numl;'n.u) in contradiclion to<br />

Schefold's indication.<br />

1'. There is a dass of tall-stemmed. elaborately profiled. marble pyxidcs fe~ of<br />

~hich a~ publishtd The diameter of the concave pyxis is lI'ider at lhe top than al<br />

h,l\ al1llrn,:ullenlal ring al the lllp and I flaring bax \UPPllned b} thTff 10-;1 f"'el. It<br />

ha\ .. narms: rtlund nm. the paralld edge


140 THE ATTIC PYXIS SALLY RUTHERFURD ROBERTS 141<br />

19, H"S~rill 18 (1949) m·)()() and J18. no. 21. pt 85 (Corbett).<br />

20. Schcfold Unrcnllclr'mge... 59. no. 581. pI. 16. 17.2.<br />

21. HeH 86 (1962) 644·645, figs. 2·3. pI. 23.<br />

22. The upper surfaC'e of the knob of Athens \241 is similarly formed. ~ the<br />

photograph. CVA. G~~ 2. Athens 2. pI. 20.1.<br />

23. AMV. 1150.28. Three fragments frum the almost cylindrical ""all of a py~is type<br />

A atc prcsen·e' Pamtcr (AI


142<br />

CHAPTER VI<br />

The Pyxis Type C<br />

The proportions of the pyxis type C form a contrast to those of<br />

type A. The pyxis type C is low and broad. The diameter of the<br />

lid is usually more than twice that of the height. The wall is<br />

concave or cylindrical. the low foot of a ring formation or variant<br />

Ihereof. A low tripartite foot is exceptional. The lid is domed and<br />

regularly furnished with a bronze disk and ring handle set at the<br />

renter.!<br />

The pyxis type C is primarily a figured type; few examples are<br />

known in black or plain. l The lid forms the greatest area so it is<br />

natural that Ihe figured frieze of the type A pp.is is moved from<br />

the wall to the lid. The wall is merely decorated with a wreath of<br />

leaves or left black. When exceptionally the wall as well as the lid<br />

is decorated the effect is overty ornate.<br />

The concave curve of the wall and the continuance and<br />

completion of this curve by the side of the lid in examples of ca.<br />

430 a.C. implies 3 dependency on type A. The fact that the type<br />

C appears long after the pyxis type A has been established. is<br />

also suggestive of this derivation. A certain number of artists are<br />

known to have decorated pyxides of type A and C. the Marlay<br />

Painter. Lid Painter. the Sotheby Painter. Painter of London E<br />

777 and the Painter of Athens 1585.<br />

There is a change however in the pattern of production. Pyxides<br />

of type A. numerically speaking. are decorated by cup painters.


144<br />

I IIF ATTIC PYXIS<br />

Su I \<br />

Nt'THFRfl RD ROM~RI~<br />

145<br />

The greatest number of identified artists of pyxides of type C afC<br />

from the circle of the Mcidias Painter. The repertory of shapes<br />

decorated include the hydria. lekanis. squat lekythos. lebes<br />

gamikos and loutrophoros.<br />

Type C is a latecomer. Numbe~ do not appear umit about 430<br />

H.C. but then the type is prevalent until about 390 H.C. After this<br />

there are fewer examples and production stops around 150 B.e.<br />

That this type was made before 430 H.C. is clear fTom IWO<br />

examples. London 1907.5-19.1' dating 450-440 H.C. and a white<br />

ground e:rample in Mississippi by the Sotheby Painter of ca.<br />

460-450 H.C.<br />

It is also c\"ident that a closely related type' was made<br />

contemporaneousl)' in materials other than clay. Lu.xurious marble<br />

examples are kno\\n from Brauron.· The prome of glass pyIides<br />

and especially of thdr lids shows their affinity with clay pyxides of<br />

type C.s There are also parallels in .....ood.'<br />

PRECURSORS<br />

Londol/ /907.5-/9./. PI. 85.3.<br />

Bronze handle missing. H. 0.044. H. with lid 0.073. D. al rim<br />

0.133. D. of lid 0.162. H. of foot 0.005.<br />

Lid domed .....ilh lighlly raised ring around the center. rim<br />

slightly convex offsel by a ridge. Wall of concave curve<br />

exaggerated al the base. ring fool.<br />

Lid: frieze between irregular reserved lines; rim: herringbone.<br />

Wull: laurel pattern.<br />

Red-figure, women; JHS 41 (1921) 145, pI. J; Agora XII. 176.<br />

no. 20.<br />

450·440 D.C<br />

The London pyxis comprises an individual combination of<br />

features. Taken by themselves the single features are not unusual;<br />

D. concave wall strengthened at Ihe base is combined with a dish<br />

foot. The domed lid has a projecting rim.<br />

The contour of the wall owes to the pyxis of type A and may be<br />

In the A-C CIa"". The foot I}pe ho",~\el i~ characterl~til of<br />

1Ill' , ot Athem 1243, rhe prolile of the lid is nOl ex,actl)<br />

Juplic3ted in an~' cia..'>.<br />

:he ~I\-Ie of the lid friele iodic:!te'> a dale around 450 8.C.;<br />

,k(,Jlb. 01 shape set"m 10 gi\'c a slightly laler dale. The conca\e<br />

nll>c tlf the "aw :md debased laurel pallern are characleristic of<br />

lhc ~l"Cond generation ul the Penlhc~ilca W~'r",hop l'ommencing<br />

,Lr,'umt +W B.C. d LoU\re CA bJ6 and LP 2bQ2 IPb. 41.1 and .121.<br />

HI,' t~ pe of fuol may also be lI}und ;n t)PC A 10 lhe Oi,h·li)l,lt Clas..<br />

"I .. bi ThrtHle Wl. M5,2).'


146<br />

TilE ATTIC PYXIS<br />

')"1 LV RLTH£RfLRD ROIIERn<br />

147<br />

THE A-C CLASS<br />

I. Alhens 17983. P1.87.1. Fig.I6d.<br />

H. 0.05. H. with lid 0.07. D. at rim 0.145. D. of lid 0.181. H. of<br />

fool 0.008.<br />

Bronu ring handle preserved. Lid domed with two lightly<br />

raised rings around center, step down to rim articulated by a<br />

ridge. COnC3\'e cUO'C of wall e:raggerated at base. ring fOOl.<br />

Lid: egg and dart. frieze between reserved lines. laurel.<br />

Wall: black.<br />

The Lid Painter. Helios. Selcne and Nyx: ARV. 1282.2.<br />

Cu. 4)0 B.C.<br />

2. A,hnlS /597. from Athens. 1)ls. 86,1. 87.2.<br />

H. 0.05. H. with lid 0.071. D. at rim 0.17. D. of lid 0.195. H. of<br />

fool 0.007.<br />

Ring handle missing. Lid domed with lightly raised ring around<br />

the center. step down 10 rim. Concave cuo'c of wall exaggerated<br />

at base. ring fOOl variant.<br />

Lld: debased tongues. black band. frieze between reserved lines.<br />

black band. debased tongucs. Graffito on undcnide 01 lid.<br />

Wall: black; bouom: area .....ithin the ring fOOl ~rved with<br />

four circles.<br />

Red·ligure. sealed )"oulh with Eras and ike. IwO .... omen. In<br />

the field. column. kalalhoi. wreaths and a fillet. also planlS.<br />

LaSt quaner fifth C('IIIU')'.<br />

3. Athe"s. Agora P /5571. Pis. K6.2 and 87.4.<br />

Lid missing and aboul half the body. H. O.OS. D. at rim esl. ca.<br />

0.125.<br />

Inset flange for lid. concave curve to wall exaggerated at base.<br />

ring fool.<br />

Wall: black; botrom: reserved with two (perhaps three) circles<br />

and outer wide glazed band.<br />

Aguru XII. pp. 176 and 327. no. 1300. pI. 43. lig. JI. There<br />

dated ca. 400 D.e. Deposil H 19;1.<br />

-l -1 thnH. CI·rumlolS /5/1}, Fig. IM.<br />

1{1Il~ handle mi~slng. broken In many piece


148<br />

IllF Arrlc PVXIS<br />

SAllY RUTHERfURD ROBERTS<br />

149<br />

\VtllI: laurel paltern between reserved lines. base line reserved.<br />

BmlOm: dotted circle and two circles. All reserycd portions<br />

reddened.<br />

Grafitto on unden;ide of lid and box match.<br />

Red-figure. Eros presenting swan to woman and woman; Eros<br />

!lying right after Nike. seated woman enframed by vertical bands<br />

01" leaf and belT)' pattern; Richter and Milne. fig. 136: J. Noble.<br />

TIll' Tl'ch"iquf.'s of Puill/oo Aflk Pottery. 26. and note 93. fig.<br />

161.<br />

LUJ"' quunf.'r jiflh century B.e.<br />

1 he preceding pyxides have been loosely grouped together on<br />

the basis of certain common characteristics. The ~'all forms a<br />

concave curn: much streng1hened at the base. The side of the lid<br />

continues and completes the cur\'C~. a characteristic oorrowL'd from<br />

Ihe ppis of type A. The lid carries the frieze as is canonical for<br />

type C and ;n thi:. class the wall ;$ usually black. The proponion<br />

of ht'ight to the diameter of the lid varies and also the<br />

organization of the lid decoration. These pyxides date from ca.<br />

4.10·400 B.C.<br />

The prome of Athens 17983 tno. J. PI. 87.1) is similar to that or<br />

no. 2 (Athens 1597. PI. 86.1): in both ont' may obsen'e the conca\'e<br />

curve of the wall exaggerated at the base. The side of the lid<br />

completes the curve of the box. The main piece (no. I) is intact.<br />

The foot type differs.<br />

The contour of the wall of no. J (Athens. Agora P 15572. PI.<br />

86,2) is similar though the curve is less accentuated at the base. It<br />

is probable that the mi:.sing lid was decorated. as Talcott and<br />

Sparkes noted. for black examples arc rare.<br />

The pyxis from the Ceramicus (no. 4) is the only completely<br />

hlack example of type C which retains its lid. It is \'ery finely<br />

aniC'ulated, The lid is cClO\'ex with two lightly raised rings around<br />

the center such as would usually border a central paltern band as<br />

on Berlin (no. S, Fig. 16a). The wall of the Ceramicus pyxis forms<br />

l\ COnC3\'e curve accentuated at the base and the side of the lid<br />

complctes the curn' of the wall. The underside has three ridges.<br />

Greater care went into the potting of this black example than may<br />

be seen 10 the majority of red-figure pyxides of type C.<br />

Nu. S (Berlin F 2519. PI. bid. Fig.. 16a) like no. I is intact. The<br />

.... all is of a concnc cunC' much strC'ngthC'ned at thC' base and it<br />

ha:. the usual ring foot. The contour of the side of the lid differs<br />

from no. I ,md 2 ;n that it does not l'ompletc the cun'e of the wall<br />

but projectS horizontally. 111 this feature it comes closer to the<br />

characteristic side profile of the pyxis type C (cf. the lid of Athens<br />

1243. Fig. 17a. or for a later fourth century example that of<br />

Munich 2725, Fig. 1%). Thc underside of no. 5 (PI. M7.3) is most<br />

elaborately moulded and decorated. A sequence of concentric<br />

circles and ever wider black bands covers the entire area. A black<br />

raised ring and the ring foot itself are incorporated in the design.<br />

In contrast the decoration of the underside or Athens 1597 (no.<br />

2. PI. 87.2) b simple. The area within the ring foot i~ resen'cd "ith<br />

thn..~ concelllric circles. The area without the ring foot is glazed<br />

and moulded. The decoralion of Athens, Agora P 15572 (no. 3.<br />

P\' 87.4). i... :.Iightl) more elaborate; two (perhaps three) circles are<br />

cnframed b)' a wide black concentric band. The area without the<br />

ring fOOl is black and moulded. The underside of Copenhagen<br />

5380 shows the most elaborate sequence of concentric mouldings.<br />

No. 6 (New York 06.1021.120). like the Berlin pyzis and no. 1<br />

retains its original bronze disk and ring handle. The conca\'e<br />

cune or the wall is strengthened at the base and it has the usual<br />

ring foot. It differs. however, in a number of respects from the<br />

OIhers of the class. It is taller in proponion to its width. In<br />

addilion while the side of the lid is cun'ed it lies ....·ithin the<br />

contour line of the wall so thu there is an interruption or jog in<br />

the continuance and completion of the concave curve of the wall.<br />

Finally the .....all is embellished with a wreath of leaves, which is<br />

canonical for type C in general but odd for Ihis class.<br />

COMPARE<br />

Copenhage" 5380. from Athens. PI. 86.4.<br />

H. 0.03. H. with lid 0.063. D. at rim 0.119, D. of lid 0.157.<br />

lid domed. with central knob handle and IO\\-er rim. groo\'ed at


152 THE ATTIC PYxIS<br />

'53<br />

CLASS OF ATHENS 1243<br />

1. Athens /243 (CC. 1960). PI. 88.1. Fig. 17a.<br />

H. 0.062. H. with lid 0.08. D. at rim 0.121. D. of lid 0.156, H.<br />

of foot 0.009.<br />

Domed lid with lightly raised ring around the center, step down<br />

10 horizontal rim. Slight concave curve to waU with sloping keel.<br />

ring foot.<br />

Lid: frieze bet""een reserved lines. reserved ridgc!, rgg and dot<br />

(inverted).<br />

WDII- wreath of olive leaves. inverted egg and dot on lower keel.<br />

Botlom: dotted circle, circle. Yl'ide black band. rl5erved band.<br />

Matching mitt incised on Hd and bottom.<br />

Painter of Athens 1243. Aphrodite seated and woman; two<br />

Erolts making music al the altar of Aphrodite: ARV. 1319.2.<br />

2. Athens, Agot'P P 23910, from Athens.<br />

Center of lid and bronze ring handle missing. Jnlored. H.<br />

0.OS2. H. with lid 0.064. D. at rim 0.112. D. of lid 0.115-0.135.<br />

Domed lid with lightly raised ring around the center, step down<br />

to a horizontal rim. Very slight concave curve to wall. sloping<br />

lov..er keel. ring foot.<br />

Plain, Agoro XII. pp. 176 and 327, no. IJOI, plo 43. fig. 11.<br />

There dated 400-390 D.e. Deposit Q 15:2.<br />

3. Athen.f, from Athens.<br />

Ring handle mining. H. 0.04, H. with lid 0.06, D. at rim 0.106,<br />

D. of lid 0.13.<br />

lid domed with two lightly raised rings around the center. flat<br />

rim offset by ridge. Wall slightly concave with sloping lower k«1.<br />

ring foot.<br />

Wall: myrtle and berry; lower keel: egg and dot. Boltom: dot,<br />

three circles and two black bands.<br />

Manner of the Meidias Painter. seated woman with Eros.<br />

seated woman and woman, dancing woman and Eros; ArchEph<br />

(1968) 17·19. pI. Z. fJ and y (D. Schilardi); Puralipome"a. 479.<br />

96 bis.<br />

Ca. 400 B.C.<br />

4. London E 782. from Athens. PI. 88.2. Fig. l7b.<br />

Ring bandle missing H. 0.032. H. with lid 0.043, D. at rim<br />

0.082. D. of lid 0.102-0.103. H. of foot 0.003.<br />

Domed lid with rid~ articulating junction with sloping keel.<br />

Wall concave with ridge marking junction with sloping kn!o'er<br />

keel. 10V0 ring foot.<br />

Lid: egg and dot then vertical. circumscribed palmette5 with<br />

leaf below in interstices and above volutes bracket evrry other<br />

palmene. Odd man above head of &OS. Vertical palmene<br />

between two oblique circumscribed palmettes whose central petal<br />

pierces the tendril--this pattern repeated on other side of lid and<br />

in the mid spaces on one sKie a seated Eros and 00 the other a<br />

.·oman with a phiale. Egg and dot.<br />

Wall: myrtle and berry; egg and dot on lower keel. Bottom: dot<br />

and two circles••ide black band.<br />

Manner of the Mcidias Painter. palmettes; Eros; maid: ARV.<br />

1328.97; T. Panofka. Antique.f d" Cabinet d" Comtc de<br />

POUrTulf'$·Gorgiu. pi. 33.3-4.<br />

Ca. 410 B.C.<br />

5. Car/sruhe 296 CB 1873). PI. 88.3.<br />

Ring handle missing. H. 0.056. H. with lid 0.072. D. at rim<br />

0.139. O. of lid 0.17, H. of foot 0.015.<br />

Low. domed lid with lightly raised ring around the centcr and<br />

flat rim. Wall concave with lower keel separated by a groove. Iow<br />

ring foot.<br />

Lid: frieze; n"m: egg and dot.<br />

Wall: olive wreath; lower flange: egg pattern.<br />

Manner of the Meidias Painter, Dionysos seated, and Eras;<br />

woman seated, and Eras; youth and woman (maid); ARV.<br />

1328.95; CVA. Germany 7. Carlsruhe I. pI. 29.3-4.<br />

Ca. 390 B.C.<br />

b. Dresden 385 rJ,V 1645). from Laurion. PI. 89.3.<br />

Ring handle missing. H. 0.047, H. with lid 0.06. D. of lid 0.145.<br />

H. of fool O.Qt.<br />

Domed lid with lightly raised ring around the eeoter and


154<br />

I HE ATTIC PYXlS<br />

IS><br />

sloping rim offset by a ridge. Wall concave with moulding at top<br />

and a sloping lo.....er keel at the base. ring foot.<br />

Lid- frieze between slightly raised ridges. egg and dot (inverted).<br />

Woll: black with egg and dot (inverted), on lowu keel.<br />

Manner of the Meidias Painter. woman sealed and ,>,oman:<br />

Ems and ....'oman: ARV, 1328.94.<br />

7. London E 776. from Athens. PI. 90.1.<br />

Ring handle missing. H. 0.046. H. with lid 0.064. D. al rim<br />

0.057. D. of lid 0.145.<br />

Lid domed with (....·0 lightly raised rings around ~ntu. double<br />

curved moulding and then step down to sloping rim. Wall.<br />

concave with moulding at top and a step down to projecting lmnr<br />

keel. low ring foot.<br />

Lid' debased tongues. black band. frieze between resernd lines.<br />

black moulding. debased tongue and dot.<br />

Wal/: wreath of mynle leaves and berries.<br />

Red·figure, Eos and Selene; Cecil H. Smith. Clua/ague of tllr<br />

Gre,,! and Etruscan Vases in tll,. Bn'tish Museum. Ill. E 776;<br />

JHS 41 (1921) 144.<br />

8. Berlin 2720. from Attica.<br />

H. 0.08. D. 0.17.<br />

Flattened. domed lid with lower horizontal rim. wall cylindrical<br />

.....ith moulding at top and projecting lower keel. ring foot.<br />

Lid: frieze bttw«n reserved lines, black band. egg and dol.<br />

Wul/: addorst:d palmettes linked by a scroll. black band, egg<br />

and dot.<br />

The Painter of Athens 1585. woman seated. with ErO!i and<br />

woman; ARV. 1360,4; Furtwangler. La col/ectiOIl Sabouroff, pI.<br />

64. Companion-piece to Athens 1242.<br />

Ca. 4/0 B.C.<br />

9. Athe"s 1242 (CC. 1958). from Athens. PI. 89.2.<br />

H. 0.075. H. with lid 0.085. D. at rim 0.137. D. of lid 0.17. H.<br />

of fool 0.008.<br />

Lid domed with two raised ringi around the center and lower<br />

horizontal rim separated by • r.ised ring. Wan concave with<br />

mOlllding at top and a projecting lower keel. ring foot:.<br />

Lid: debastd tongue .nd dot, frieze between reKrved lines, egg<br />

and dot. Inten'or of lid: black. Bottom; dot within two small<br />

circles. circ~ and wKle black band.<br />

Wall: addorsed paJmettes linked by • scroll. black band. egg<br />

and dot.<br />

Painter of Athens 1585. ""oman seated. with ""'oman (mistress<br />

and maid) and Eros; woman seated. with woman (mistress .nd<br />

maid); Eros and ,,·oman balancing sticks on their hands; ARV.<br />

1360.5; EpltA,d (874) 485.<br />

Cll. 410 B.C.<br />

10. Toronto 370. from Athens. PI. 89.1.<br />

Ring handle missing. H. 0.058. H. with lid 0.069. D. at rim<br />

0.129. D. of lid 0.162.<br />

Flattened. domed lid with lightly raised ring around the eenter,<br />

flat rim offset by rKlgr. Wall slightly conrave with double ridge at<br />

base articulating juncture with sloping lower k«l. ring foot.<br />

Lid.- frieze. invrrted egg and dot on rim.<br />

Wall: vertical palmettr and spiral plant pattern punctuated by<br />

rtots and circles; lower keel: invened egg and dot.<br />

Manner of the Meidias Painter. woman seated. with Ems and<br />

woman; two women; woman seated and woman: ARV. 1328.%;<br />

Robinson and Harrum. pI. 58.<br />

11. Wl';rzburg 543.<br />

Bronze ring missing. H. 0.058. H. with lid 0.068.<br />

Low domed lid with ridge at junction with nat rim. Wall<br />

conca\'e with step down to convex lower k«l. ring foot.<br />

Wall: myrtle and berry; lower Iceel: egg pattern. Bottom:area<br />

within ring foot reserved with dotted circle. circle and black band.<br />

Wider circle of Meidias Painter. seated woman. Eros with<br />

woman: seated woman. woman running towards her pursued by<br />

Eros; LanglolZ. Gn'echische Vasen ill Wurzbu'l(, no. 543. pI. 202.<br />

Certain common characteristics distinguish the PY1ides of this


\5<br />

\57<br />

da$S. The wall is cylindrical or slightly conca\'c and the lower keel<br />

I~ dislincth'ely set ofT from it. The fOOl is a variant OD the ring<br />

IYpe· A cun'M contour line connects the ring (001 with Ihe lowu<br />

nunge so that the lo.....er third of the pyz"is gh'es the appearance of<br />

a lo~ dish.<br />

The majority of artists connected with this class paint in the<br />

munner of the Mcidias Painter and the period covered is from<br />

about 410 to 390 D.e. A pyxis. type C. dose to lhe Meidias<br />

Painter and .... hich nlay be: by his own hand is of a different<br />

mode!.l.<br />

The profiles of no. I (Athens 1243. Fig. 17.) and no. 2 (Athens.<br />

Agara P 23910). afC much akin. The lower keel is distinctively set<br />

off from the wall. The lid is domed wilh a horizontal rim<br />

projecting above Ihe IOlA"er keel. A curved contour line connects<br />

the ring foot with the JaYo'er keel. Athens 1243 is the name-ptece<br />

of the artist. a follO\\er of the Meidias Painter. No. 2 is plain but<br />

polished: the finish has suggested the influence of pyxKles made<br />

in other materials.<br />

The profile of london E 782 (no. 4. Fig. 17b) is close 10 that of<br />

Athens 1243 (no. l. Fig. 17a). though iu proportions are lower<br />

and broader. The lower keel is distinctively set ofT from the<br />

slightly concne wall. The ring foot is 10\\ and joined to the ~wer<br />

fl"nge by a curved contour. The base clearly echoes the shape of<br />

the lid. the conveJ:ity of one answering to the conH:J:ity of the<br />

other.<br />

The low broad proportions of the standard-sized Carlsruhe<br />

pyxis (no. 5. PI. 88.3) are similar as is the low dish·like foot. The<br />

fOOl, however. differs in detail having a moukting OUtside the ring.<br />

The London pyxis is small in contrast to the other members of<br />

the class. almost as small as the later pyxtdion. Athens. Agora P<br />

12975. 15 The lid is completely articulated with a hole at the center<br />

to receive the usual ring handle. This is in contrast to a lid in<br />

Munich ll of comparable size ID. 0.105) whose central medallion is<br />

unpierced. The same is true for a miniature lid from the Athenian<br />

Agora (P 13097. PI. 72,2).u<br />

A pyxis (no. 3) of standard size in the manner of the Meidias<br />

Painter was recently found in a tomb near the Eriai Gates in<br />

Athens. It appears to conform to the characteristics of the class<br />

and 10 be quite sinlilar to London E 782. It has a ring foot joined<br />

by a cuned contour to the !ovt'er keel as is usual in this class. It has<br />

the ordinary egg and dot pattern ca the rim and I~er flange. Like<br />

London E 782 (no. 4,Pt. 88.2). the wall is embellished with a mynle<br />

wreath.<br />

The angle from which the photograph of the pyxis in Dresden<br />

(no. 6. PI. 89.3) has been taken, emphasized the foot while<br />

di!iltorting the shape of the profile. The ring foot is connected by a<br />

cun·«J contour line to the outer rather than the inner edge of the<br />

lower keel in contrast to no. I (Fig. 17a) and no. 2.<br />

London E 776 (no. 7. PI. 90.1) in its measurements and<br />

proportions comes very close to the pyxis in Dresden. It conforms<br />

to the characteristics of the class in its main features. The wall is<br />

!illightly concav~ and the lower keel is distinctly set off from it.<br />

The 10.... ring foot is connected to the Iowet'" keel by a curved<br />

contour. The profiling of the lid. however, is very individual. The<br />

lid is domed .....ith two lightly raised rings around the center<br />

bordering the pattern band. This is quite usual. but the double<br />

curved moulding setting off the rim from the main convex surface<br />

and the double curved profile of the side of the lid are<br />

refinements unparalleled in the class. The artist in additton is an<br />

outsider. not a member of the Meidian circle. The pyxis is<br />

unatlr;butcd.<br />

No. 10 [Toronto 370, PI. 89.1). has a domed lid some.... hat<br />

naUened in contour. The wall is slightly concave with a sloping<br />

lo.....er keel distinctly offset by a double ridge. There is a simple<br />

ring foot. at variance with the usuaJ foot type of the class.<br />

The rim and lower flange: are omamented by an inverted egg<br />

and dot pattem. This is a favorite pattern formula also found on<br />

Athens 1243 (no. I), Dresden 385 (no. 6), a lid in Heidelberg ll in<br />

the manner of the Meidias Painter. and a fragmentary lid Athens,<br />

Agora P 98.n This inversion of the usual egg pattern may also<br />

sometimes be obsen'ed on lebetes gamikoi and loutrophoroi.<br />

The profile of Wurzburg 543 (no. 11) is very close to that of the<br />

pyxis in Toronto. The wall is concave with a 100000-er flange<br />

distinctly offset by a ridge. The Hd is of a flattened domed


ISO<br />

THIO ATTIC PYIlS<br />

SALLY RUTHEllflillD ROB£IlTS<br />

ISI<br />

either edge. COnC3\'C curve of wall exaggerated at base. Low ring<br />

fool.<br />

Lid: Head of Athena, left. in central tendo. surrounded by two<br />

reserved circles. olive wreath, ulive wreath (only outer leaves and<br />

stalk depktedl.<br />

Wall: black. Bottom: elaborately moulded both within and<br />

without the ring foot.<br />

Group of the Athena·head Pyxidcs. Athena: AIlV. 1224.1;<br />

CVA. Denmark 4. Copenhagen 4. pI. 163.7.<br />

Ca. 410 R.e.<br />

New Yurk 23.160.14.<br />

Fig.loc.<br />

H. 0.035. H. with lid 0.052. D. 31 rim 0.136. D. of lid 0.161. H.<br />

of foot 0.003.<br />

Lid domed with lightly raised ring around the ~n1er. sloping<br />

rim separall.-d b)' ridge. Conca,'c CUTYC of \\311 exaggerated al base.<br />

10..... ring foot.<br />

Lid: debased longue and dol. Head of Alhena right in central<br />

tendo surrounded by two reserved circles. olive wreath (inner leaf<br />

and stalk), olive wreath (inner leaf and stalk).<br />

Wall: black.<br />

Boeotian red-ligure, Athena. ARV. 1224,2 (the inventory<br />

number there given is incorrect).<br />

425-400 H.C.<br />

The Copenhagen pyxis (PI. 86.4) shares many of the characteristics<br />

of this class. The wall is black and of a concue curve much<br />

accentuated at the base. The side of the lid is curved but lies<br />

slighlly inside the line of the wall. Thus there is a jog or<br />

interruption to the curved contour line of box and lid as in no. 6.<br />

The convex lid is furnished with a knob. instead of the customary<br />

ring handle. a The lid is decorated with a helmcted head of<br />

Athena in profile to the left. The knob is placed at ear level.<br />

The decoration of the lid of a Boeotian red-ligure pyxis ll forms<br />

a parallel to that in Copenhagen. The head of Athena is in profile<br />

to the right. Both olive crowns are halved instead of just the outer<br />

one and it is the inner leaves which are shOl\-n rather than the<br />

outer.<br />

The conca\e cune of the wall is much in..:reased at the base<br />

and there IS a low ring foot. The "'all is black. The side of the lid<br />

dOC'i not continue and complete the cune of the wall but projects<br />

almost horizontally above the lower nange. The profile of the<br />

btlCl) may be compared with Athens 1597 (PI. 86.1). Copenhagcn<br />

tPI. 86.4). and Alhens. Agora P IM8J5;u the latter is the dosest<br />

parallel for the contour of the wall.<br />

For another red-figure Boeotian pyxis lid compare Oxford<br />

1914.11 which has a representation of cosmic deities. U<br />

PYXIS TYPE C BY THE PAINTER OF LONDON E 777<br />

MlIllich 2723. from Greece. Fig. 16b.<br />

H. 0.042. H. ",ith lid 0.055. D. at rim 0.145. D. of lid 0.175. H. of<br />

foot 0.005.<br />

Low. domed lid with two lightly raised rings around the center.<br />

ridge at juncturc with sloping rim. Wall. cylindrical with<br />

moulding at tup ;lnd a ridge at junction with sloping lower keel.<br />

lu" ring foot.<br />

Lid: egg (double bordcr and black core) and dot. frieze; dm:<br />

egg (double border) and dot.<br />

Wall: laurel: 100Hr Ic.ul: black.<br />

Painter of London E 777. mistress and m3ids; ARV. 944.85;<br />

CVA. German) O. Munich 2. pis. qg.1 and 102.3. For the subject<br />

cf. Athens 13676a (PI. 69.2). The thcme looks like a footnote to a<br />

lebes gamikos.<br />

This is the only pyxis. type C. decorated by the hand of a<br />

Penthesilean. The pyxis while having a strong family resemblance<br />

10 pyxides of type C in general does not fall into a class. The<br />

c\'idencc at hand suggests that the I'cnthesilea Workshop did 1101<br />

become involved in the production of pyxides of type C.<br />

The low. broad proportions. the cylindrical wall. the projecting<br />

beaks of the rim of the lid and lo.....er nange indicate a date<br />

to\\ard~ the end of the fifth century.


158 I"," 1\ nil I'nlls SAllY Rl,ITHERFURD ROIERTS ISO<br />

~'Ollligur3Iion_ h has a simple ring foot. The dimensions of the<br />

hod} aTC dose to those of Toronto. Unfortunatel)'. the pyxis .... as<br />

damag\'d in World War 11 and it is no longer possible 10 ~<br />

l't'nain of the diameter of the lid. lO Langlotz attributed the pyxis<br />

10 the cia-le of the Mcidias Painter and dated it around 400 B.e<br />

Ueazle}' did nOI include this pyxis in AR V and the style while<br />

dcriH'd from the Meidian manner seems further remO'o·ed Ihan<br />

those there listed. The egg and dOl pattern on the rim of the lid<br />

and on the lower keel is of the normal \'anety.<br />

ODD PYXIDES<br />

l. Af/ll'l/s 1594 (CC. 1540).<br />

H. 0.051, H. with lid 0.058. D. i1t rim 0.125.<br />

PI. Ql.U. Fig. I k<br />

D. of lid 0,143. H.<br />

uf fOUl 0.003.<br />

Flattened domed lid with IwO lightly raised rings Mound the<br />

ccmer. rim with concan: face. Wu/l. slight concave curv~ wilh<br />

slvplng lo.....er keel. 1010\ ring fOOl.<br />

Lld. twO cocks confronted, tongues. frieze betwttn resen'ed<br />

lincs; rim: on upper fa~. tongues. on underside. egg and dart<br />

(im·er.ed).<br />

'Wall: frieze: thrtt pairs of animals confronted and one<br />

~Inglelon 10 right: lower ked. egg and dart.<br />

Red-figure. horscrace. BCH SQ (1965) 9Q-1OO. fig!>. 8-9<br />

(Bruneau).<br />

4JO·41O D.C.<br />

2. LoulIN! CA 1586. PI. QO.J.<br />

AboUI half the wall and nearly a quarter of thc lid reslnred.<br />

Hillg handle preserved. H. 0.034. H. with lid 0.046. D. at rim<br />

0.113. D. of lid 0.135.<br />

lid domed with lighl1y raised ring around the ('enter, rim with<br />

COnC3\'e face offset by a double ridge. Wall. concave with sloping<br />

lower keel.<br />

Lid: frieze: n'm: egg and dol.<br />

Wall and lo.....~r keel black; bOllom: black.<br />

Shmalov Painter. Eros pursuing a woman:<br />

Io\oman; ARV 1210.68.<br />

Eras pursuing a<br />

J. I 0 .. ,'re CA 1589.<br />

Melal disk. loop and pan of ring presen'ed. D. 0.126.<br />

Lid. domed wilh t.....o lightly raised rings around the center.<br />

Light-weight and thin-walled.<br />

Lid egg and dot; vertical palmette and lotus flower linked by<br />

\l::roIl5. The scrolls cunc upward beneath Ihe palmcllcs and<br />

do\\ nward beneath the lotus flowers. the latter with an additional<br />

flourish. dOlled circles above; egg and dot; vertical circumscribed<br />

palmcllcs wilh leaf below in inlerstices and above volutes bracket<br />

evcry other palmette.<br />

Red·figure, patterned. lid only preserved.<br />

4. f!t'ldtdbers: 69.5.<br />

11.0.048. D. of lid 0.13.<br />

LoY. domed lid with lightly raised ring around c:enter and raised<br />

ring articulating junetu~ Io\'ith rim. Wall slightly concave with<br />

projecting lower k«l. Iow ring foot. 1nterior of ring: painted star;<br />

I'xlaior '!" ri"g: series of black mouldings articulated by raised<br />

ring...<br />

Lld.- black with resen'ed medallion at ~nler with N'O glazed<br />

circll..~ around ~ntral dot and OUler reserved band.<br />

Wall' \·enical. circumscribed palmettes alternating with lotus<br />

flowers joined by scrolls. The scrolls curve upward beneath the<br />

palmettes and downward beneath the lotus flowers. Dotted circles<br />

above lotus flowers.<br />

Red·ligure. patterned, R. Hampe. Kala/og der SummJung<br />

IIIII/h'r Klei"kullsr der U"il'ersi'ul Heidelberg: ll. Nl'lwrwuhun­<br />

RI'I/ 1957-1970. no. 80. pI. 56.<br />

Cu. 430 B.C.<br />

S. Bruuro" MUSt'llm 97 fr .. from BrauroD.<br />

Ponion of wall and lower projecting keel preserved. Underside<br />

elaborately moulded (black worn). Egg shell fabric.


I(,() IUF!\III( PYl(], SAllY RUTHERFURO R08ERTS 161<br />

l':l1mclte a1terna[in~ with lotus Ou\\cr (addorsed: lotus abo'"e<br />

f.l1r:lelle. palment' abovt' If'lus!.<br />

I ""T'- k"l>l: egg and dan.<br />

l\.'ll-ligurc. pattcrner!.<br />

('/1.<br />

.f3f) H.C.<br />

Ilwre arc sc\"cral odd thin-walled pyxides of a light and delicate<br />

,.lhru: from the )"cars 4.10-420 B.C.<br />

Athens 1594 lno. I. PI. 90.2) has a Oallcncd domed lid \\11\1\1:<br />

rim halo a conca\'e face. The \\ all is cylindrical with a down-turned<br />

1\lller keel. The low ring foot is joined by a CUfycd conIour 10 the<br />

ha~e of the IO\'ocr keel. "J he protilc is relah:d lO that of the 1;,\Il'r<br />

Cla" of Athens 1243 (er. Fig. l7a).<br />

The central medallion of the lid has cocks confronted y, ith (II,()<br />

drcb for pUn('iU:ltion between thenl. There is a !>li~hl bit uf<br />

"loratiun :H the "cry {'emer. 110 hole remains. It l>C('l1lS likely Ihal<br />

th" hd wa ... unpierccd, for a brOIle di ...k I'.ith a ring h:1I1dk IIIJllld<br />

h"I\." covered the tnmlo composition Egg and dart pattern<br />

,'I nament') the side of the rim :.nd the lower keel, normal below<br />

and ilt\t:rted above making an effe{,tive Ibme for the delicately<br />

\,.'xecutl'd animal frieze.<br />

Thc domed lid 01 a pyxis in the I.ouvre (no. 7. Pt. ~.J) abn llil'i<br />

,I rim with a concave face. The Wit]] is concave with a spreading,<br />

Cl'IUCX base moulding. There is no foot: the box rests on a low<br />

moulding lie! well in from the edge of the lower keel. Thc lack Ill'<br />

foot is a rare IcafUre for a clay pyx;s of type C, occurring also on<br />

the early white ground example in Misllissippi H but frequent on<br />

the related marble type. U<br />

The LOU\Te pyxis ill attributed to the Shuvalov Painter. Only<br />

four figures executed in a delicate miniature style people the lid.<br />

An Eros pursues a woman who looks back at him while neeing<br />

ane! the like. The few figures and amplt> space surrounding them<br />

are in contrast tll Ihe compositionll in the m'lnncr of the Mcidias<br />

I'ai Ilter. l1<br />

.\ li~ht and fragile dOlIll.."


162<br />

-I tiE ATTIC PYXlS<br />

163<br />

J. COfl4'"hugl'n 5379. PI. 91.1.<br />

Bronze ring handle prcscne the largest lid diameter of fifth century pyxides of type C<br />

and heralds a fourth century group which is characterized by<br />

large Jimensions and lavish decor.<br />

It has been atlribult,'d to the manner of the Meidias Painter<br />

and Bculey noted thal it may be by the painter himself.2' Pyxides<br />

of the Class of Athens 1243 are mostly in the manner of the<br />

Meidias Painter and are of a quite different shape (see aOOn pp.<br />

152·158. PI. 88.0.<br />

A ppi!o type C ",ith a tripartite foot is also a rare occurrence in<br />

Ihe fourth century. No. 4 lAthens 1630. PI. 93). is the only<br />

ellanlple of which I ha\'e knowledge. It has a cylindrical wall with<br />

a ",idely projecting 1000'er keel. The lid is of a domed configuration<br />

wilh a rim matching that of the lower keel in extension. The<br />

tripartite foot is relatively tall. It has the large dimensions of<br />

many of the fourth century pyxides of type C. like Oxford SSl<br />

(no. 2). both wall and lid are decorated with a frieze.<br />

THE CHALKI CLASS<br />

I. Munich 2725. PI. 91.2. Fig. 1%.<br />

Ring handle missing. H. 0.06, H. with lid 0,069. D. at rim<br />

0.117. D. of lid 0.15, H. of foot om.<br />

Flattened, domed lid with two raised rings at center and wide<br />

lower rim with a conca\'e face. Wall slopes outward slightly with a


164<br />

SAU_V RUTHERI'UIU) ROIlERTS<br />

165<br />

moulding at the top and a sloping lower keel at the base.<br />

Lid: black band. reserved band between raised rings. frieze.<br />

resen'ed line: n'm: egg and dot.<br />

Wall: mynle; fower leeeL- egg and dOl. BOlIom: area within ring<br />

1"001 reserved. circle with tiny circle within it. band. circle. hand.<br />

Chalki Group. head of Aphrodite. with Eros. }'outh. and maid;<br />

head of Aphrodite. with Eros and maid: ARV. 1503.3; CVA,<br />

Gennany 6. Munich 2. pI. 98,2 and plo 102.4.<br />

2. Lmldon E 778. from Athens. PI. 94.2. Fig. 19a.<br />

Restored: knob and stem. H. 0.065. H. with lid 0.073. D. at rim<br />

0.117. D. of lid 0.15. H. of fOOl 0.007.<br />

Lid domed with slightly raised ring around center and sloping<br />

lo.....er rim. Wall cylindrical with moulding at top. and a sloping<br />

lower keel at the base. ring foot.<br />

Lid: frieze: nOm: egg and dot. Lid inten·or. black with reserved<br />

band around edge; bottom: tiny circle and 1....0 circles. black<br />

band. Wall: myrtle; lowl!r bl!l: egg and dot.<br />

Chalki Group.....oman scated......ilh youlh. Eroles and maid...<br />

Rt:stored: aboul one fourth of the rim. The taenia hanging from<br />

the box held by a ""oman hastening to the right has betn<br />

repainlt~d as ha\'e an Eros to her right and the right leg of Ihe<br />

youth. It may be that the portion of drapery held by the youth<br />

also has been added: ARV. lS03.2.<br />

3. Nt'Vl' Yurk 06./02/,112. PI. Q7.2. Fig. 19c.<br />

Ring handle missing. H. 0.06. H......ith lid 0.07. D. at rim 0.126.<br />

D. of lid 0.16. H. of foot 0.008.<br />

Flattened. domed lid with lightly raised ring around the center<br />

and sloping rim .....ith ridge at the juncture. Wall. concave with<br />

moulding at the top and a sloping. lower keel at the base.<br />

Lid: black band. reserved band. raised ring. frieze; rim: egg<br />

and dol.<br />

Wall: myrtle: lower keel: egg and dot. Lid interior: black with<br />

reserved band around edge; bottom: same.<br />

Compare .....ith the Chalki Group. woman and youth. scated<br />

.....oman. Erotes; maid and seated youth: A. Sambon. Collection<br />

Canessa. 71. no. 245.<br />

4. Vimna 1484. from Greece.<br />

Bronze ring handle presened. H. 0.075. 0.0.16.<br />

Low. domed lid. \\all slopes outward with moulding at top and<br />

a sloping. lo""er keel at the base. ring foot.<br />

Lid: frieze: rim. egg and dot.<br />

Wall. m)Tt.le: luwer kl!eJ: egg and dot.<br />

The Chalki Group.....oman seated .... ith Erotes. )'outh and<br />

....omen: ARV. IS03.1. CVA. Austria I. Vienna t. pI. 50.1-2.<br />

5. BirminRham /610.85.<br />

H. 0.06. H. with lid 0.065. D. at rim 0.10. O. of lid 0.142. H. of<br />

foot 0.012.<br />

Flattened. domed lid wilh two raised rings at center and a third<br />

articulating juncturc with ....-ide. lo.....er rim.<br />

Wall separated from sloping lower k«1 by a raised ring.<br />

Ud: black tondo. reseo'ed band between raised rings. frieze.<br />

n", egg and dot.<br />

Wull- myrtle: luwer k't'l· egg and dol.<br />

Chalki Group. head of Aphroditc..... ith Ercs. youth and maid:<br />

seated woman. with Erns: ARV, 1503.4; Metzger. R .. pI. 6.4;<br />

Puralipomnlu. 499.<br />

COMPARE<br />

6. Athe"s /359. from Athens. PI.lJ4,1 and %.2.<br />

Lid broken and mended. H. 0.038. H. with lid 0.05. D. of rim<br />

0.065, D. of lid 0.09.<br />

Lid domed with raised ring around central un pierced medallion.<br />

anOlher around frieze and a third articulating juncture between<br />

wavc and egg and dot pallcrll. Wall slopes outward slightly with a<br />

moulding al the top and a sloping. lowcr keel separated from the<br />

wall by a raised ring. Dish foot with low ring.<br />

Lid: medallion (tiny circle and circle), friez.e. wave. egg and dot.<br />

WuJl: myrtle. lower keel: egg and dot. BOl/om: circle with tiny<br />

circle within it. circle and black band.<br />

Chalki Group. miniature; Eros and seated woman with a


'66<br />

THE ATTK PYXn<br />

'.7<br />

kibolion between......oman right. Eros and woman. Underside of<br />

the lid groo\'ed. Fool differs from class.<br />

7. Hun'ard 1927.152 (Gift of E. P. Warren). Fig.I9d.<br />

Ring handle restored. H. 0.049. H. with lid 0.06. D. of rim<br />

0.112. D. of lid 0.15. H. of foot 0.011.<br />

Lov. domed lid with sloping rim separated by a ridge. Wall<br />

cylindrical with sloping lower keel. ring foot.<br />

Lid: bead and reel. (rieu between reserved lines. egg and dot.<br />

Interior of lid black wilh reserved oult:r ring.<br />

Wall: white ground. myrtle wreath (fragmentarily preserved) at<br />

top of wall. lo ....er keel: traces of egg pattern. B01wm: dotted<br />

circle and circle. wide black band, circle.<br />

Unattributed. Eras pursuing woman to right and woman lleeillg<br />

left. youth pursuing woman to the left and Eras. In the field two<br />

scrolls and a plant. The diameter of the lid is slightly tOO large for<br />

the box: the lid probably does not belong. CVA. U.S.A. 8. Fogg<br />

Museum and Gallatin Collections. pI. 20. Sa-b.<br />

Pyxides of this class have a distincti\'e shape. The low. nattened<br />

domed lid has a .....idely projecting rim. whose underside has an<br />

indentation or groove. The wall has a moulding at the top and a<br />

projttling lower keel. Both the rim of the lid and the lower keel<br />

of the box project like beaks beyond the wall. There is a ring foot.<br />

The underside of the pyxis within and without the ring foot is not<br />

elaborately moulded. Measurements are moderate. quite like those<br />

of pyxides of type C of the last thirty years of the fifth century.<br />

Egg and dot ornament Ihe rim and lower keel. A myrtle wreath<br />

encircles the wall.<br />

The painters belong to the Chalki Group: the pyxides date ca.<br />

400·390 a.c. Glass pyxides of a type closely related 10 clay<br />

pyxides of type C have lids of a very similar contourY<br />

The characteristics of the shape of the Chalki Class arc most<br />

clearly discerned in Munich 2725 (no. I, Fig. 19b). The<br />

articulation of the different parts of the London pyxis (no. 2. Fig.<br />

19a. PI. 94.2) is less sharp. Onc might say the articulations are<br />

softer. less defined. This is particularly noticeable in the contour<br />

of the lid. The slope from the domed portion to the rim is less<br />

abrupt. On the underside of the rim there is a groO\e next to the<br />

lnnennost portion which rests on the moulding at the top of the<br />

'l\all. The stem and knob are restorations and must be subtracted.<br />

One may see the lightly raised ring around the center outside the<br />

stem on the photograph. On the underside of the lid a bit of<br />

metal still remains in the hole. The Bd therefore once had the<br />

metal disk and ring handle canonical for clay pyxides of type C.<br />

No. 4 (Vienna 1484). appears to be very close to the pyxis in<br />

Munich (PI. 91.2). The wall slopes outward slightly with a moulding<br />

:tI the top and at the base. a projecting lower keel. I ha\'e not had<br />

all opportunity to examine this vase but from CVA the lid appears<br />

,imilar in conlour 10 thal in Munich. The articulation between the<br />

convex portion of the lid and the rim is not clear from the<br />

photograph. The underside of the rim is grooved. There is the<br />

uwal ring foot.<br />

A pyxis in New York (no. 3. Fig. 19


'68 T"h ATTIC PvXIS I.'<br />

lowered. Sometimes the position of the arms is motivated by the<br />

action as in Vienna and New York (PI. 97.2), olher time:. not as on<br />

the Chalki epinelron. u Ad'ens 1359 (PI. 96.1). and London E 783.31<br />

A nude male figure is sometimes similarly posed as on the Munich<br />

lid (pI. 95,1). The male figure un London E 778 (PI. 95.2) was<br />

undoubtedly so positioned but when the vase was festored the<br />

supporting leg was not redrawn correctly so the youth seems to be<br />

lumbering forward instead of slanding securely on his right leg<br />

with his left foot placed higher. The Eroles depicted on these lids<br />

have white flesh with wings reserved. sometimes with added clay<br />

then gilded. Exceptionally. the Eroles on the miniature. Athens<br />

1359. are plain. Eras is often shown running. legs widespread with<br />

both arms forward holding a low dish. The dish may ~ discerned<br />

on the Vienna lid and compare also the Erotes on the Munich<br />

and New York lids. where the pose is the same though no obj«t<br />

may ~ seen. Another stock pose is that of a woman running to<br />

the right carrying a chest and taenia while looking back; compare<br />

the depiction on Ihe Chalki epinelron with those on the Munich<br />

and London pyxides. The bodices of the women's chitons are<br />

embroidered.<br />

The style of Ihe lid in New York is closest to that in Vienna. A<br />

three-figure group is almost a replica of that on the Vienna lid.<br />

An Eras races to Ihe right towards a woman with her foot on an<br />

elevation. who reaches for a fleeing youth. The wings of Eros<br />

depicted on the New York lid are positioned differently from those<br />

of Erotes by the Chalki Group but otherv.·ise the style is strikingly<br />

similar.<br />

The shape of the New York ppis. the patterns and the figural<br />

st}'le resembles the others of the Chalki Class and Group.<br />

The profile of a pyxis at Harvard (Fig. 19


170<br />

rHIIi.: Arnc PvXIS<br />

1'1<br />

eggs tonee gilded).<br />

Red-figure. (woman seated to the right 011 3 klismos holding an<br />

o~n-work basket. woman approaches her from the right. between<br />

them a loutrophoros';lydria); Talcott and others. 5m01l objects<br />

from ,h,' Pnyx: 11. Hf'SperiU Supplemt'lll X. no. 143. plo J I and<br />

fig. 1. For the subject ef. the lid of a pyxis type C. Cambridge<br />

20.23 (CVA. Great Britain 6. Cambridge I. plo 36.2). For the<br />

basket. Richter and Hall. pp. 215-6. no. 169.<br />

175-350 B_C<br />

4. A,hen.l. Ceramicus 3104. from Athens.<br />

Ring handle missing. H. 0.065. H. with lid<br />

0.155. D. of lid 0.19.<br />

0.088. D. al rim<br />

lid domed with two lightly raised rings around ccntcr, rim<br />

tilted upward. Wall slightly concan~ with sloping lower keel. ring<br />

foot.<br />

Lid: frieze framed between reserved groove and reserved line:<br />

nOm: egg (black core with raised dot) and dot.<br />

Wall: palmettes alternately vertical and reversed within<br />

triangular frame; IO\l'('r ked: egg (black core with raised dot) and<br />

dot.<br />

Otchel Group. seated ~'oman with Eros. seated woman wilh<br />

Ems and maid (Epaulia); AthMiu 81 (1%6) 74. Dei!. 48.1.3 and<br />

49.4 (SchJOrb-Vierneisel); AlA 77 (1973) 435-437. For the wall<br />

pallern see the next entry and a pyxis. type C. once Hearst 2395<br />

(Calalogue Purke Berne'S April 1963, no. 29); also Athens. Agora<br />

p 4939 fr. (H. 0.055, D. est. 0.19 found ill Fauvel's huuse Hl'spf'ritl<br />

25 11956] 27 under C); also a wooden pyxis in Ihc Louvf'C (AA<br />

(19551 figs. 7.i and 12).<br />

Ca. 370-360 B.C.<br />

5. Baltimore. Wailers Art Gallery 48.264 (ex Drummer).<br />

H. 0.072. H. with lid 0.093, D. at rim 0.125. D. of lid 0.161. H.<br />

of foot 0.012.<br />

Lid domed with slightly raised ring around the «mer and ridge<br />

articulating juncture wilh wide flat rim. Wall. conca\'e with<br />

moulding at top and a sloping lower keel grooved on either side.<br />

ring foot.<br />

Lid frieze between irregularly resen-ed lines; drn. egg and dot.<br />

Wall palmelt~ alternately \ertical and re\'ersed .... ilhin<br />

triangular frame; lower leeel: egg and dot.<br />

Red-figure. seated ~oman .... ilh Eros. maId. Eros and ....oman.<br />

St)'k contemporaneous with the last but .....ith Meidian m'ertones.<br />

ell..170-]60 B.e.<br />

b. Adolphsf'cle 65. from Athens.<br />

H. 0.087. H.....ith lid 0.105. O. at rim 0.152, D. of lid 0.21.<br />

Domed lid .... ilh lightly raised ring around Ihe center. wide nal<br />

rim, ~an conca\'e .... ith strongl)' projecting convex lower keel, ring<br />

fOOl.<br />

Underside of rim and lower keel of scalloped contour.<br />

Lid Irieze; rim: egg and dot.<br />

W~IJ laurel ~reath; lol'l'l'r Icf'i>{ egg (black core) and dol.<br />

Ked.figure. scaled oman ~ilh Eros and .... oman, sealed<br />

~oman .... ith Eros and oman; CVA, Germany 11. Adolphseck I,<br />

pI. 42, I and 3 (protile, fig. 7).<br />

Ca. .175·]50 8.C.<br />

There arc fe ..... founh century pyxides of type C and of these<br />

most clmtinue the canon of the Class of Athens 1243. The wall is<br />

C)lindrical or slighlly conca\'e with a lower keel clearly offset. The<br />

rim also is distinctly offset from the domed lid. The~ is a ring<br />

fOOl connected by a curved contour to'the lower nange. The trend<br />

is towards larger dimensions: the diameter of the lids arc the<br />

largcst recorded for type C. As fourth century pyxides of type A<br />

(the Doubles) are Ihe tallest so Ihese are the broadest of their<br />

k.ind. Most of the examples stem from the second quarter of the<br />

fourth century and production appears to come to an end about<br />

350 B_Co<br />

No. I (Athens 13(9) is inlact. The lid is domed with an<br />

uptillcd rim: the wall is slightly concave with a sloping lower keel.<br />

The rim of the lid projects slightly furl her than the lower keel.<br />

The foot is a variant on the ring type with a curved section<br />

connecting it with the lower keel. A curious and perhaps<br />

accidental feature is that the sloping floor of the pyxis is lower


172 TIIF ATTIC PYltl~<br />

SALLY RUTUERFIJIlO ROBEaTs<br />

I7J<br />

than the ring fOOl so that the base actually rests on the floor<br />

rather tban Ihe fOOt (Fig. 17d). The diameter of the lid is 0.216, a<br />

larger dimension for the lid than wc ha\c hitherto encountered.<br />

The profile of a fragmentary lid from the Athenian Agora (no.<br />

J) should be compared. Its diameter has been estimated at ca.<br />

0.20. The contour of the lid is ,,'cry similar to no. I and it also<br />

dates from the second quarter of the fourth cemury. The style has<br />

no affinity .... ilh that of no. I.<br />

The shape and mcasurcmcnb of a pyxis in Philadelphia (no. 2)<br />

are dose 10 those of no. I. Onc l>lriking difference is that the<br />

interior of no. 2 is rectangular. whereas in no. I it has the fonn of<br />

a bowl. The wall is slightly COnC3\'C \,1.ith a sloping lo.....er keel. The<br />

profile of lhe rim of the lid shows Ih~ same pro~cting beak with a<br />

shon vertical s«lion below il as In the Athens pp,is. The lid<br />

has a diameter orO.215. Around the l-enter of the lid i~ a moulded<br />

band decorated .... ith an egg and dot pattern. There is a ring foot<br />

joined by a curving contour 10 Ihe lo.... er keel. A groove articulate..<br />

the junction with the lower keel.<br />

A pyxis in Adolphseck (no. 6) has the most exaggerated prolile<br />

of any of the fourth century pyxides of this class. The lid is<br />

domed with a wide flat rim; the wall is conca\'e with a lower keel<br />

whose projection is slightly less than that of th~ lid's rim. The<br />

ring foot is connected by a cun'ed contour to the lower keel. The<br />

dome of Ihe lid is reflected by the shape of the base. The<br />

underside of the rim of the lid and the lo.....er flange are many<br />

times grooved ghing a scalloped contour. There is more extensi\'e<br />

articulation on the underside of the pyxis than on the uppersid~.<br />

A pyxis from the Ceramicus (no. 4) has a slightl)' eonca\'e wall<br />

with a sloping lower keel. The N'o-degree ring foot is connected<br />

by a curved contour to the lo.....er keel. The lid is domed with an<br />

uptilted rim whose projection is matched by that of the lower keel.<br />

The pyxis was found with a red-figure lekanis, three lebetes<br />

gamikoi and olher black and plain pots in an Opfersrelle in the<br />

Ceramicus. Barbara Schlorb·Vierncisel considered the lebetes<br />

gamikoi, lekanis and pyxis all to have been decorated in the same<br />

shop. The wall of the pyxis is decorated with a pallern of<br />

palmettes alternately vertical and reversed within a triangular<br />

frame. This is an unusual pattern to find instead of the customary'<br />

.... re:uh of Iea\·es. The lekanis wall also carries the same pattern<br />

and the subject of the figured fri~ze interpreted by Schlorb­<br />

Vierneisel as Epaulia on both lids is the sam~. Therefore the<br />

theme decorating the pyxis. leaknis and lebetes gamikoi is<br />

coordinated and the vases boughl for onc occasion probably here<br />

(l funeral. One must here envision matched sets of red·figured<br />

vaSL'S made in a shop and decorated Ilo'ith regard to a particular<br />

theme decorating the pyxis, lekanis and lebetC1 gamikoi is<br />

a range of vase: shapes to be made by a potter or pott~rs within a<br />

ghen shop. In addition. it seems logical to expect in time to be<br />

able to auribute \ases .....ithin this vase repertory to a painter or<br />

group of painters, once a t)pe of ,ase Ilo ithin the repertory has betn<br />

attributed to an :artiSI. A proof for the conjectural S~I of '-ase-; is<br />

prodded by Ihe repr~entation on a Kerch lekanis lid. Athens 1190<br />

(Iromispiece). A bride sits on a klisnlos .... ith Ems leaning against<br />

her A full set of vases is grouped around her. To the leH a lebes<br />

galllikus 311d a 10\\ broad pyxis. type C, to the right a tall pyxis of<br />

type A. a lebes gamikos 3nd a lckallis. Another lebes gamikos is<br />

brought by a woman.<br />

Funher evidence of th~ "matched set" comes from the<br />

Athcni:lIl Agor3. 1\ lekanis loo and the lid of a pyxis type AlS ha\'e<br />

the same pallerns. Oblique addorsed palmenes linked by a<br />

running scroll is Ihe main pattern on each. The subsidiary<br />

patterns are also the same on OOth_ These pieces do not have the<br />

same prrn'enance Iol.ithin the Agora but clearly come from th~<br />

same shop.<br />

This paltern seems to emerge around 430 a.C. The Marlay<br />

Painter is known to have decorated leb~tes gamikoi and pyxides<br />

as well as 10utrophoroi. l6 One would expect Itl find the<br />

loutrophoros made .....ithin the same shop from its related them~.<br />

Many lebetes gamikoi. !outrophoro; and a pyx;s are attributed to<br />

the Washing !)ailllerY Loutrophoroi and lekanidL'S have been<br />

attributed to the Mcidias Painter. JI Lebeles gamikoi. loulrophoroi.<br />

lckanides and pyxidcs are among the repertory of shapes attributed<br />

to the manner of Ihe Meidias Paintcr. Jt Lebetes gamikoi and a<br />

lekanis ha\Ce been attributed 10 Ihe fourth century Mars}'3s<br />

Painter.~


174 'tilE ATTIC" PYXIS<br />

SALLY RUTtiEIIFURD Ra.ERn 175<br />

NOTES, CHArTFR q<br />

~Onl" of the: original bront" hand"'" aIT prnt""~. Joo;cph \ "ach l'-oblc:. TI,('<br />

r",/""q,,1'} "/ P"III,..d Aoil' PulI,-,., (:'\I ...... '01'''- 1%5) 16. fi~ 101. Ag /lnl"-"''' J5 lI'liCibl &J. PI 27.... AIso!itt above p. 71 :tnd 1'1. 5.3J.<br />

Ji> ARV 1271.14·15.1718.22·25.<br />

r ARV. 1126·II2K and Illl.I9b; Purvlfpomrnll 454. J hl!\ Ind J tn.<br />

3& AHV I.\IJ.8·IO; IJI.\. 1~-1l1<br />

19 AIo:V, 1J22. 11-18; 1J22·l3. 1~·J2 1«; 1Jlt>·17.11'1O: 1J2!l.92-99: Pllrol.".,<br />

m,nll 4~9. 14 hIS. 20 hIS. 91 blS Ind 96 b,~<br />

40. ARV. 1475.1-2.7,


176<br />

CHAPTER VII<br />

Iconography<br />

of the Pyxis<br />

The iconography of the pyxis is overwhelmingly female and so<br />

the occurrence of tare male subje


178 THE ATIlr PYlrU<br />

Only the animals of the Boston pyxis ' relate to the decoration<br />

of skyphoi by the Group of the Boston Lid. Two sirens frequently<br />

are placed on one wall of a skyphos; 011 the pyxis they appear on<br />

the lid.<br />

One can on1J conjecture for unattributed \'ases or those for<br />

which the group of associated vases is small' that the same<br />

principle is in operation.<br />

The~ seems to be no realization yet that the pyxis requires a<br />

spuial iconography of its own.<br />

A pyxis from a tomb in Myrrhinous. probably by Exckias.<br />

raises questions. The scene depicts the preparation of a chariot<br />

and the name of Stesagoras is written in the field.' Slesagoras was<br />

a member of the Kimonian branch of the Philaid family and<br />

Immerwahr 10 conjectured that he was Slesagoras 11 whose father<br />

Kimon won three Olympic victories with the same team of<br />

horses.1! The fame of the family stables is clearly celebrated on<br />

this "ast.<br />

It is likel)' that the vase was commissioned by Stesagoras,<br />

considering the individuality of the subject matter and the fact<br />

that his name appears on it. But pyxides are only connected with<br />

the graves of women so the pyxis was probably given to a woman<br />

of his family.<br />

Why would a pyxis bear male iconography if it was to be given<br />

to a woman In this case it seems clear that the family pride was<br />

being extended to a female member of the family,<br />

Scenes relating to ~'omen first appear around 500-490 a.c. n<br />

The iconography of pyxides deals over and over again with the<br />

manifold aspects of weddings and mythological paradigms of<br />

marria~ are plentiful, A favorite tale is that of Peleus and<br />

Thelis; the actual wrestling scene is rarely shown but often the<br />

scene of pursuit (Copenhagen 4735 and Munich lex von Schoen.<br />

64J).H And Nereids scatter in alarm anel bring the news to Thctis'<br />

father Ncreus (Cambridge 1933.1. Munich lex von Schoen. 641 PI.<br />

66,2)U who often stands by an ahar with a palm.<br />

That such a scene is a mythological paradigm of marriage is<br />

shown by the meaningful juItaposition of Pe1eus wrestling with<br />

Thetis on the Athens epinetron by the Eretria Painter .....ith !>l't:ncs<br />

of the brides Alcestis (seated befo~ the door of the thalamus) and<br />

Harmonia.a<br />

Another mythological paradigm of marriage is the abduction of<br />

Ordthyia by Uoreas (Athens 1586 [pI. 65,1): Chicago 92.1251. 11<br />

This thcme could be s~'mbolic either of marriage or of death. 17 The<br />

wind gods were intennediaries betvoeen the world abo\"C and<br />

Hades. They were regarded as fenilizing or impregnating but were<br />

also regarded as destructive. A close association between death<br />

and weddings appears again and again in visual and literary<br />

imagery.<br />

There are two examples of the Boreas and Oreithyia theme on<br />

Illlllrllphoroi from the Sanctunry of the Nymph (Bride) in<br />

Athcns. 1I This sanctuary was not dedicated to the nymphs but to<br />

lhe Brirle anel ..he i....till called nymphc today un her ~elldillg<br />

day ill Greece. A boundary stone of the sanctuary, graffiti on<br />

vases, both shape and iconographic characteristics of the vases<br />

make the identification of the sanctuary C'Cnain. The majority of<br />

vases from the sanctuary were loutrophoroi. though other shapes<br />

were included as pyxides. The subjects ~Iated primarily to<br />

weddin~. The vases dated from the middle of the seventh centul)'<br />

to the third century 8.C. 1I<br />

Burcas and Oreithyia also appear on bronze hydriai. some of<br />

which ha~e been found in the graves of women. Indeed Picard<br />

believed all these hydriai 10 have been funerary in purpose,lO In<br />

this case the theme may represent hopes of immonality for the<br />

deceased.<br />

A tomb in Capua included a pair of stamnoi by the Deepdene<br />

Painter. one .... ith a representation of Al I:


ISO<br />

18'<br />

euphemism for sudden and premature de:lIh. Heraklifos relates<br />

that onc called the de:uh (lf a beautiful youth a rape by Eos.n<br />

And to show the interpenetration of wedding and funeral spheres.<br />

Eos pursues Kephalos or Tithonos on a IOUITophoros from the<br />

sanctuary of the Nymph (Bride). n<br />

More dirttt repre2ntations show the .....edding procession of<br />

either a mythical or manal pair. In the sixth century Peleus and<br />

Thclis were often repre!lenled in a chariot surrounded by gods<br />

and led by Hcrmes. Few of the representations have inscriptions<br />

bUI when gods are present it is assumed that the wedded pair are<br />

indeed Peleus and Theti5.J~ A black-figure amphora in NaplcsJS<br />

juxtaposes the wedding procession on A with the wrestling match<br />

betWttn Peleu5 and Thetis on B. Peleus and Thetis ride in a<br />

chariot. behind the horses proceed the gods. Apollo with his<br />

kithara and J\rtemi~ with a young faun. 3nd the hcrakl Herllle


182<br />

1 liE ATfI(" Pl'lllS<br />

IBJ<br />

lll\\ard the door hy a I}TC-playing J-n",-on the other "tek of it she<br />

appears again Hluching the meaningful door '" hik ErO!i Ilie..<br />

IOwards her with it slllall chest. The tramition i~ that from maid tu<br />

matron (ha\'ing passed through the door on her y.ctIdinJ! day).<br />

011 the Fransoi!o \'3"C the nlll!'>elering spirits bring ble~sings from the nether orld to<br />

the ne" I)·- .....t:dded pair.<br />

In contracting marriage the pair prayed to ahe Tritopatores H or<br />

"great-grandfathers" and addressed them as ;{v4Ao1 or dcom>'Tat<br />

aV(/-lvJv and asked for the blessing of children. They .....ere concei..'ed<br />

a~ aeriform ancestor souls .....ho hal'e their seat in the ....·inds. There<br />

is a sanctuary of the Tritopatores ill Delos and another ill ahe<br />

Ceramicus.Sc lemalc .....inged 8enii are placed on ,'ases .....ith nuptial<br />

il.:ollography such a' IclJCtes gamikoi. loutrophoroi. lekanai and<br />

ppidt:!>. Hut the Nikai ha\e al!>o a connection "ith dealh. A<br />

fragmellt of the fourth century in Vienna Unh'ersityss 'ho.....s 1"0<br />

r-:il.:ai l>lmilar to those on lebetes gamikoi hOl'ering placing a<br />

h"lctal ":lse. And il should be said in thil> connection thal in<br />

j-fe,;nd', TI,.·IIWmy Nike i~ said to be the daughter of Styx.~'<br />

1 he nmnectioll of the Nikai Orl pyxide~ .....ith those on Icbctes<br />

gamikoi is most dearly sho..... n on Munich 2720,51 Here the Nike<br />

hovers. a taenia in front of her, by the doorv.·ay. in an exact quote<br />

of the position of those on lebetes gamikoi.


.84 THF ATTIC PYXIS 185<br />

Many lebetes gamikoi depict a file of .....omen bringing presenlS 10<br />

the bride in a ~'Clll' which ha~ been interpreted a~ Ep


"'"<br />

TIlt, ATTIC P, XIS SALLY RlITffERFLaD RO.Ean 187<br />

A much mor~ curious representation may be set'n on a pyxis in<br />

the British Museum (Pis. 62 and 103.1)." 11 there '>'ere no<br />

inscriptions it would be enlill«l women in the home or in German<br />

text. "Frauengcmach," But the inscriptions gi\'c us the names of<br />

Argh'c heroines. Helen, scated at a wool basket, and KI)1aimcstra;<br />

a woman (unlabeled) and Kassandra: Iphigeneia. binding her head<br />

for her bridal. stands in the doorway. while Danac brings her a<br />

chest.<br />

Now when an author ventures an opinion as to the destination of<br />

a pyxis it is usually said to be a wedding gift. But. however one<br />

'Inderstands the SIOI'J of Iphlgencia. v. het her aetually ~acrili('Cd and<br />

killed at Aulis or snatched away by Anemis to become her priestess<br />

lir~l at TauTis and later 31 Brauron. it would \eem highl) unlikel)'<br />

in mid fifth-century Athens 10 proffer a p)'Iis with a represenlation<br />

of Iphigeneia 10 a young. neal·ankled bride,<br />

'I he ppi" in Ihe Brilish Museum i" one ofa pair. the olher being<br />

London E 772 (PI. 63)." The profiles 3re similar bUI nOI idenlical.<br />

as Ihere are "right rh)'lhmical diffcrcnce" in det~til. The handle of<br />

the ~el'ond Tlllly om:e have been it Icrflll:Olla loop,<br />

The lids arc the same with circumscribed palmettt..'S placl.'d in a<br />

Vitruvian wave pattern. Beazley remarked "The lid ilo by Ihe same<br />

hand as in London E 773. bUI Ihe figure·work seems nol." Uoth are<br />

b~ followers of Douris.<br />

The representation on this pyxis is of the Hesperides (PI. 103.3)<br />

quite surely and withoul a question mark. though thought of in an<br />

unusual and delightful way. There is a Hesperid standing by a<br />

fountain waiting for her h)'dria to fill. another follows and a third<br />

runs loward the tree. while Thetis is Ihe one galhering Ihe apples.<br />

Then: is the Iree and the Hesperides. given fanc)' names. arc<br />

tending if. Thetis is not the name of a Hesperid bUI is a fa\'orite in<br />

depictions of mythological marriage. This is especially so in the<br />

decoration of pyxides of this class (Class of Berlin 3J(8).<br />

Onc might say that the representation of Ihe Hesperides pyxis is<br />

a paradigm of marriage as Apollodorus 7o and Olhers tell us that<br />

when Hera was wedded to Zeus. Ge gave a wedding present of the<br />

golden apples of immonalilY. But probably onc should inlerprel<br />

the iconography as a paradigm of immonality. Reading the twO<br />

,"')h III~l·ther nllo; undCr'ltand" Ihal tI llI,1iden. d~lIlg ~nUII~ ",-'Inn."<br />

Ihe age of marriage \loas given a picture of Iphigeneia as a bride<br />

and also hopes of immortality in the depiclion of lhe tree of Ihe<br />

Ik~pl'rHIo:"" III olh..... \\llrd". IIIl' 1"'0 \:l'~ \loefl' ;I IUller:l1 Jo!ilt 1\1 a<br />

\\'Iln~ \\llll!an .tIlll IIl'fl' prnhJhl} plal'c


188 Till! ATTIC PYXI~<br />

SALLY RUTlfERFUIlD ROBERTS 189<br />

NOTFS CHAPTER VII<br />

I. ABV. 636. MJ-644; PiUflllpom.·,.~. 311.<br />

2. ABV. 54tl·54"-; 500: 558·~.<br />

J. "'BV. 558-559.<br />

;4. A8V, 5...'"'6: 561.<br />

S. ASV; 650. 6.J.b4. ~ number or Ih\' Edinburgh '"liS!! ha~ Mn dun~.<br />

b. AllV. 181. 49.<br />

• ABY. 6Ib.11; Pprq1lpo",..".,. J06; IJMf'"A 01 (1%3) M-5.<br />

11. Ne.. York pyXIS related 10 lhe Ne..' York ilmphori~kOi and 10 lhl: I'ainln of<br />

MUnich 1842. AHV 455. J.<br />

9. ARV, 169':1; BCH 86(1%2) 66Q. fill. 17; P"ru/,pom..nu. 61.<br />

10 Talk pt•.....,ntnllo APA, Chm10l3) 1"l~2 \>\ IkllO' H. Irnm"""3h" tni",,...il) or<br />

N"rlh ll1rolina.<br />

11. H~..~t"IU' h.ICJ.l.<br />

12. Athens "cr. 560: ARV. 47'1. ,l,\l> ,,,"1 4~1l: l.a"lI J7.llJO'l; CVA Ft;J'wC 211. L..,'n<br />

I.p1.I!.',],<br />

13. ARV. 025. 95: CVA. IJcnmark 4. Co~nhaBcn 4. pI. 162.4; ARV. tI06. 'IJ:<br />

Lulhn. £h,'"" lhe) ...·"'re pe.ha", g"",n a) .edding pl'C'KntJi 10 )oung hrldn .<br />

liCK lhe qUl'SIMln arises if a ~uh;.:c-t .e1al.... 10 100'''' and ....~ddmg'l I'- lhe .a'of<br />

llC'e"uanl, a .'edding llift~ LtbC'IC1 Ramikoi appear in rcprcscntation$ of ..cdding<br />

prepata\lons (London E'iN; FR. pi. 57. JI and )'tlthey ha.·t bottn found mOSlly in<br />

lombs and In the sancluary of Artcmi$ ilrauronia on the Acropulls and al Htauron.<br />

21. ARV. 498. 1. 5: AlA 49 U945) 157 (lkazlcyl; Philippaki. .,.1It A/IIe Swm"OJ<br />

tOdutd 1%7183; Web_In. 1'0//'" "'Id PUlm". 2'lfl.<br />

22. RE ).~. Eos and cspceiall)' p. 1268; IOAI J I (19J9) 89; Hcrakldtos e. b8; OXlurd<br />

("1111.1;(:..1Oiclim,o,)' s.'·. F..o-..<br />

23. ARV. 957.45; Webster. Pmu" ulld PUI",n. 107.<br />

H. E. GOlt... F,uu


190 'I HE ATIll PVXIS SALLY RUTH£REUIlD ROJl;£RTS '91<br />

SanlJnd. 1'1,0: t.fUl p.vrmr,,, QI ,11., f"mpl, "I Znu ul Olj-m/H" !G;;;'cbofJ 19701<br />

105-10', IIp. 09--0 and rcfefYoc"): the" bride lin her _n undal on a Ic:bn<br />

gam'kOlo \AN V. Ul2. 11: AI~'m J21190~1 pi ":). 800b had fu ....r;aI ronl1«llOI1S in<br />

the Geom"'nc pc'riod. Tau t"nK'O'llil pal. "en found in a gU.H: VlrJ,..._ 18 119491<br />

282.2%-29-, ph. 6-. ·0). OIM: paIr .. ",re found In IM glue of a "oman al Eku~t..<br />

and "()tIll.cn put fCOlard ,"" lhcon that the OOob "o:re an offcTlng tor the U$(" of the<br />

~I'''ll ..1 the dead on Itw " ..... rn..·' h' italiC' U ......ben. fJu· 1),1"11.",/(",,,,,,. ,,,,J J,,'<br />

I)lpyl"".(Uf'J'l. JO.JIl. The 5'


In<br />

,.3<br />

SElFCTED UIBlIOGRAPH'<br />

Bibliography rde-mog 10 special probleml, Of to indindual vases. lS given<br />

in t~ catalogue rrnm and DotC5 chapter by chapter.<br />

PIUMARY SOURCES<br />

Aristotle pcJilin<br />

Arislophancs Birds<br />

£CCh:JiQZNJQ~ (Loch aassical Library). vol. J.<br />

Lui.ururu<br />

Euripldes Akest;s<br />

IphiRent!ia in Aulis<br />

(phigt',wiu in Taun"ra<br />

Hesiod Tht! J/omeric Hymns and HomrricQ<br />

P1alo Symposium<br />

Xenophon Of'C'OIwmicus<br />

ATTRIUUTIONS<br />

BEAZLEY. JOIIN DAVIDSON. Attic Bluck-jigun Vuse-pai"'f.'n;,<br />

Oxford, 1956.<br />

Auk Rtd-figurt' Vus('"ptli"un. OKfOfd, 1942.<br />

A/tic Rffi-jigllrt. VllSI'-paintuJ. 2nd W. Odord. 1%3.<br />

--, "Groups of Early Attic Black-figure:' He-speriu 13 (1944) 38-57.<br />

--. Purolipomf'1llJ. Orford. 1971.<br />

SIIAPES Of ATHENIAN VASES<br />

BFAZLEY. J.O. PfJ/fl'f' ,,/Id P"inlt" in Anrif"nf A,ht'n.L london. 1Q46.<br />

BOTHMEtI, DIETlurH YON. "Lids by Andokides." 8rrli'lf'r MII$('.'n 14<br />

(1 %4) 38·4 l.<br />

BI OFSCH. HANSIORG. FOrflwll ottiJrhl'r Srllo/nl. Berne, 1940.<br />

HASPEI s, C. H. E~ULlE. Af/ir Bfork·)i/llln.'d L.'JeylhOl: Paris, 1936.<br />

PtUlIl'PAKI. BAMtiARA.. Thl' AI/ir S,anlllol. Oxford. 1%7,<br />

SPARKU. BRIAs A. ASO TAIf·on. LucY. BlurJe and Plain Por,.'')' vi rhl'<br />

Sixth, Fifth and FVlmh C~nlllries B.C, Athrnian Agoi'll XJI.<br />

Princeton. 1970,


194<br />

19'<br />

NAMES OF VASES<br />

HlrllTER. G'~FI" M. A.. AND Mu NE. MAkJORIE M. Shtll"'S and N""wJ,<br />

0/ A,Ir",,;,,,, Vast's. Ne .. York. JlUS. .<br />

SPARKES. BM tAl" A •. AND "I Al rOTT. Lut'Y. Blurk "nd Plui" Pot/.,I')· of ,h.,<br />

5;:011. fifth. "lid Fuu"''' C..I/lIIri,'J B.C. Athl'fliu" Agoro XII.<br />

Pr;ncl:lOn. 1970.<br />

Mu NE. MARJORII: J. "Kllichnb:' AlA 43 (1939) 241-54.<br />

St HI 181 ER. (NCEBORC. "EJ(a!ciplra:' Jahrbur:h un DeuHr:hl'tI ArchuQ­<br />

(ugiu'"'''' hmif"'J. 7911964J 72·108.<br />

WU:-KERT. "hfJollWTQ4," Pouly- Wwo..·u. Rru/·Efll'yC'lQpQdi.. dt'r /duJJisehrn<br />

AItI'NUmJIO'J.j(·nJf'lruft. Vu\. XIII. Cols. Il·JJ.<br />

SITES<br />

GHALI-KAliIL. LILI_Y. "Quelqu~ vases du sanetuai~ d'Anl'mls a<br />

Brauron:' Amii.. KUl1sr. Supplement I (l%J) 5-19<br />

I'''OFM!>. I LlllA "Slu..he~ in Ihe Treasurc Rl~'unh 01 Atlcmi~ Brauronia<br />

I-ound in Alhcn..:· ,""tu ".)rttulI Ath.Il1f,u/I 1'1llq"ZI q·11<br />

,'HMII'I MM \. S. L" ,\•• "'1101, d/\I"lIu III \,,,11. T,.,..bbu \0J... I and 1.2.<br />

Rom~. 1lJtl). 1%:',<br />

CULT<br />

nIl K"LM. L. /J,..Al/luh., fnt".<br />

f-AR"FI •. I.. R, Th, eulll'" Ih" G,.".·k SIUI"~, Vol. 2<br />

I


'96<br />

~AllY<br />

RL'THFaFURD Ron:RTS<br />

'97<br />

C.J~nda,.<br />

SI'H-' AIR. T. A. H"SI,)!I W"r,h und nun. I.ondon. Iq];<br />

Mt III IT. B. D. Th,- Alfw"iu/I Y,'ur. Bcrk~k}. 1%1.<br />

MIKAI ~ON. Jos U. Ih,- Sucn'jl u",1 e"if Cul",,,I,,r"f th,- A,J"'mu/I r""r.<br />

I'rin~clon. I97,S.<br />

Addenda<br />

Various pr_Ides have come 10 my notice SIDl"e the book ."as ('omplctcd. Such<br />

infOM1\"ion as is aVlil.ble is appended hCR.<br />

I. Athens I59J. rlJ. 16c.<br />

Lid domed. WaD conean orlth inKr fta.tll"= to rettift lid. Rin, rooc.<br />

lAurel (half) on bod,. Lid: woman with hll,h05 and wom.n ...hh boJl. Eroli and<br />

"·om.n.<br />

RM·figure pyla. 'ype C. Iller lifth ('('nlury B.e.<br />

Hut)' slyle not rat from lilt Lid Painter and M.rl.y Painter. Profile similar 10<br />

Athens 1597.<br />

2. Bo$ton J8 1971 on anoQ}"Il\OOs ptnoancnt dCl'O'il.<br />

H....ith lid 0.11. H...ithoul lid 0.1 IS, D. of lid O.IU.<br />

Red-figure pylis type A. women wod:lng ...ith wool. u. -450 8.C.<br />

J. Dallas, Muscum of Fine Arts.<br />

H. 0.239. D. at rim 0.138. D. or lid 0.158.<br />

Lld: tongue5, blatk band. ~nkal dmlmscnbed palmct1e" black band, t'U and<br />

d...<br />

Rcd-flgll~ py.lis. Iype A, b)' or near the Abmietll Painter, HerWrt Hof'fmann.<br />

T". C..lltllri..S fllllr SltupI'd'M Wu,. 110. 191; ror ring knob d. Vitnna 3119<br />

(CVA Auslria I. Vienna I. pi. 48.7); rCM" profile d. Penthesiln WCM"uhop 11, u.<br />

440-430 a.c.<br />

4. Ikn~C1" An. 97.<br />

H...ith lid 0.05. D. 0.11, D. of lid 0.145. H. or rOOl 0.003.<br />

W~ath on bod" cu pallenl on klwct keel. Lid: &os and seated wontan,.omen.<br />

Red·figu~ py:a:is. type C, latc fifth - carl, rounh R.C.<br />

S. Etnria Mu:!C'um.<br />

5latlt·glaze py..is or type A.<br />

6. Houston. D. and J. de MCI'll CoUe


''10<br />

,..<br />

8. Mapl~ood. JOKph V. Nobllr.<br />

Ro:d-figure ppis. l)llt C.<br />

9. Marathon MUKum. Marathon..<br />

Fragments of lids of mi·figumi pysMks of type C.<br />

10. Thebes MUKum from Kanapitsa.<br />

AIit'D lid.<br />

Boeotian red-fiiufe py.is, type A. profile of Penthc:~i1ta Workshop 11, ,.'nlding.<br />

end of fifth century a.c.<br />

11. Tlleualonih, Archaeological Museum.<br />

81ack-figun:. concave pyxis of Swan Group.<br />

Line of XXXI, s.... aRS upright.<br />

12. WUnburg H 53JJ.<br />

Lid and foot mioisinl. H. 0.10. D. a' lip 0.085<br />

C,ltndrical ..all ..ith pro;eetinlloortt ked. Ea and dOl: on 1

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