Reuse Applications

watereuse.org

Reuse Applications

The Emergence of Water Reuse

Projects in New Buildings and

New Developments

For LEED Credits and Related Sustainability Goals

Presented By: Anni Luck, P.E.

Zach Gallagher, P.E., LEEDAP

1

16 th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference, San Diego, CA, – June 5, 2012


Acknowledgments

■ Ben Stanford, Ph.D.

■ Rick Cisterna, P.E.

■ Paul Knowles, P.E.

■ Mark LeChevallier, Ph.D.

■ Yanjin Liu, Ph.D.

2


Agenda

1) Emerging “Green” Reuse Drivers

2) Objective and Technical Approach

3) Case Study Database

4) Reuse Decision Support Tool

RFP No. WRRF-10-08

5) Progress Update

3


LEED / Green Building Movement is an

Emerging Driver for Water Reuse

4


What is LEED

■ LEED = Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

■ USGBC = United States Green Building Council

■ Points based Certification System:

40-49 50-59 60-79 80+

5


Current Reuse Related LEED Points

LEED Category

Water Efficiency

Innovation and

Design Process

Subcategory

Water Efficient

Landscaping

Innovative

Wastewater

Technologies

Water Use

Reduction

Possible

LEED Points

2 to 4

2

2 to 4

Innovation in Design 2

Total Possible Reuse

Related LEED Points

12

6


Building / Community Scale Reuse

■ Capture, treat and

reuse WW locally

■ Energy savings

■ Infrastructure

savings

■ Depends on

location and

logistics of each

community

7


Elevation

Elevation

Elevation

Energy Implications of Water Reuse

Community

Water

Supply

Community

Water

Supply

Discharge

Discharge

Distance

Distance

Community

Water

Supply

Distance

8


Obstacles to Decentralized Reuse

■ Lack of Knowledge and Familiarity

► Developers

► Planners

► Architects

► Engineers

9


Project Objective

■ Develop support tools:

► Case Studies

► Cost/Benefit Analysis Tool

Reuse Implementation

Guidance Manual

for planners, developers, and

engineers to evaluate potential

reuse projects

10


Technical Approach

Literature Review

Reuse System

Database

Case

Studies

Cost

Curves

Reuse Decision Tool

11

Guidance

Manual


Literature Sources

■ Project Team Internal Database

■ Journal Articles

■ Industry Reports

► EPA

► EPRI

► IWA

► USGBC

► WERF

■ Site Visits

12


Reuse Database Parameters

■ Geographic Location

■ Treatment Technology

Reuse Applications

■ Capital Cost

■ Power Consumption

■ Annual O&M Cost

■ Green Rating/Certification

Reuse Project Drivers

■ Implementation Challenges & Resolution

■ Lessons Learned

Total Reuse

Systems = 52

13


Building/Community Types

3% 10% Residential

12%

14%

47%

Commercial

Office

School

Industrial

14%

Other

14


Reuse Application

4% 1%

Toilet Flushing

20%

30%

Irrigation

Cooling Water

2%

11%

Habitat Restoration

GW Recharge

Cleaning

32%

Other

15


Biological Treatment Process

4% 4% MBR

34%

Activated Sludge

SBR

40%

Fixed Film

Wetland

10%

6%

2%

Lagoon

Other

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LEED Ranking

15%

Platinum

Gold

60%

19%

Silver

LEED Certified

6-Star GB

4%

0%

2%

None*

*Includes International Projects

17


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Case Studies


Reuse System Case Studies

Project Name State Year Reuse System Type

Capacity

(gpd)

LEED

Rating

Gillette Stadium MA 2002 Commercial Building 250,000 -

Wrentham Outlet Mall MA 1996 Commercial Building 100,000 -

Turtle Run South MN 2002 Residential Community 86,300 -

The Solaire NY 2003 Residential Building 25,000 Gold

The Visionaire NY 2009 Residential Building 25,000 Platinum

Jackson Meadow MN 1998 Residential Community 10,900 -

Springs Preserve NV 2007 Commercial Building 8,400 Platinum

Headquarters Park NJ 1991 Office Building 6,000 -

National Great Rivers IL 2010 Institution Building 5,000 Gold

Central Carolina

Community College

NC 2011 School Building 5,000 Gold

Port of Portland OR 2010 Office Building 5,000 Platinum

Oberlin College OH 2001 School Building 2,500 -

Willow School NJ 2003 School Building 4,000 Platinum

Jordan Lake NC 1993 Office Building 1,200 -

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Willow School – Glad Stone, NJ

Reuse System Summary

Startup Year: 2003

Type of Reuse System:

Green Certification:

School Building

LEED Platinum

Population Served: 200

Capital Cost: $70,000

Annual O&M Cost:

System Footprint:

Design Capacity:

Treatment Process:

Reuse Application:

$30,000/yr

3,000 sf

4,000 gpd

Wetland

Toilet Flushing;

Groundwater Discharge

■ Also captures and treats all stormwater run-off from the site

■ Provides educational amenity to the school students

■ Emphasizes the school’s commitment to sustainability

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Willow School Treatment System

Willow School Stormwater/Wastewater Treatment and Recycling System

Rainwater

Reclaimed Water

Storage Tank

Rainwater

Storage Tank

Trash Trap Filters Ozone

Irrigation

Flushing

Water

Groundwater

Discharge Recharge

Filters

Constructed

Wetland

Septic

Tank

Wastewater

21


Battery Park City – Urban Water Reuse

Battery Park City – New York

Reuse Applications:

• Toilet Flushing

• Cooling Tower Make-Up Water

• Landscape Irrigation

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The Solaire 2003 Tribeca Green 2006 The Millennium 2007 The Visionaire 2009


The Solaire – New York, NY

Reuse System Summary

Startup Year: 2003

Type of Reuse System:

Green Certification:

Residential Building

LEED Gold

Population Served: 560

Capital Cost: $560,000

Annual O&M Cost:

System Footprint:

Design Capacity:

Treatment Process:

Reuse Application:

$144,000/yr

700 sf

25,000 gpd

MBR; UV; Ozone

Toilet Flushing ; Irrigation;

Cooling Water

■ 1 st “Green” residential high-rise in U.S.

to incorporate water reuse

■ 48% reduction in water use

■ 56% reduction in wastewater discharge

23


The Visionaire – New York, NY

Reuse System Summary

Startup Year: 2009

Type of Reuse System:

Green Certification:

Residential Building

LEED Platinum

Population Served: 778

Capital Cost: $600,000

Annual O&M Cost:

System Footprint:

Design Capacity:

Treatment Process:

Reuse Application:

$122,000/yr

700 sf

25,000 gpd

MBR; UV; Ozone

Toilet Flushing; Irrigation;

Cooling Water

■ Additional Green Features:

► 48 kW photovoltaic system

► 35% electricity load from

renewable energy

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Solaire/Visionaire Treatment System

Wastewater Influent

Solaire Wastewater Treatment and Recycling System

Mixed Liquor Recycle

Wastewater

“Feed” Tank

Trash

Trap Tank

Anoxic

Tank

Aeration

Tank

Membrane

Tank

To Toilet Flushing

Cooling Tower

Irrigation

Recycled Water

Storage Tank

UV / Ozone

25


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Reuse Decision Support Tool


Architecture of Tool

WateReuse Decision Support Tool

Survey Engine Results

The DST captures the required user input (survey), processes the

information to arrive at conclusions (engine) about system cost, area,

carbon footprint, and provides outputs (results) so that the user can

make an informed selection.

It has been designed to be usable by all and follows

the LEED 2009 in terms of the questions asked.

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Survey Module

28


Survey Module

29


Survey Module

30


Survey Module

31


Survey Module

32


Engine Module

Regional

Variables

Database

Precipitation

Evapotranspiration

Degree Days

Discharge Regulations

Reuse Regulations

Database of

Technology

Curves

CAPEX ($/gpd installed)

OPEX ($/gal treated)

Power (kWh/gal treated)

Footprint (sq. ft)

DERIVED vs. FLOW FOR

DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGY TYPES

33


Normalized Capital Costs

– based on Technology

(mean, upper and lower bounds)

34


Normalized Capital Costs

– based on Complexity

(mean, upper and lower bounds)

35


Normalized Operating Costs

– based on Technology

(mean, upper and lower bounds)

36


Normalized Operating Costs

– based on Complexity

(mean, upper and lower bounds)

37


38

Sample Results

from Reuse Decision Support Tool


Scorecard

39


Potable Water Consumption (gal/day)

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LEED Points Achieved

41


Reuse Treatment – Range of Capital Cost

42


Annual Water/Wastewater Costs ($/yr)

43


Cost $/GPD

General Findings Discussion

Natural Systems Engineered Wetlands Mechanical Systems

LEAST

Energy and O&M Needs

MOST

MOST

Area Requirements

LEAST

Lowest

Effluent Quality

Highest

MBR System Cost Curve

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000

At the block scale,

economic feasibility

becomes competitive

with municipal

infrastructure for triple

bottom line benefits

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Gallons Per Day (GPD)

At the smallest scales, seek alternative lower cost solutions


Thank You

Anni Luck, P.E.

aluck@hazenandsawyer.com

212-539-7201

Zach Gallagher, P.E., LEEDAP

zgallagher@naturalsystemsutilities.com

908-359-5129

45

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