CO - Expert Group on Clean Fossil Energy

egcfe.ewg.apec.org

CO - Expert Group on Clean Fossil Energy

3

Advanced Clean Fossil

Energy Technologies

Nsakala ya Nsakala, Ph.D.

Presented at

APEC Clean Fossil Energy Technical Policy Seminar

Cebu, Philippines

January 26-29, 2005

1

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• Ultra-supercritical steam

conditions

‣ Increase efficiency

• Circulating Fluid Bed (CFB) and

“advanced CFBs”

‣ Low costs, low emissions, fuel flexibility

• Emissions controls

‣ For new and existing, and integrated and post

ong>COong> 2 Capture

‣ Oxygen firing

2

Roadmap for Coal Combustion

Power

‣ Chemical Looping/novel processes

‣ Systems integration and ancillary components

ALSTOM’s view includes four (4) legs to advance

coal combustion based power technology

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CFB Technology

CFB

Why CFB

for Philippines

3

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CFB Process Schematic with

Flash Dryer Absorber (FDA)

Limestone

Crusher

Limestone

Day Bin

Superheat and/or

Evaporative Surface

Evaporative Surface

Superheat or Reheat Surface

Refractory Surface

Ash

Limestone Storage

Gravimetric

Feeder

Blower

Drum

Superheat and / or Reheat Surface

Coal Storage

Coal

Crusher

Secondary Air In

Coal

Day Storage

Gravimetric

Feeder

Furnace

Cyclone

Seal Pot

Fluid Bed

Heat

Exchanger

Air Heater

Economizer Surface

Air Out

Fabric Filter

Air In

Water

In

Fabric Filter

or

Electrostatic

Precipitator

I.D.

Fan

Ash Cooler

Cooling Water

Primary

Air In

Evap. Superheat /

Surface Reheat

Surface

Primary

Air Fan

Secondary

Air Fan

Mixer /

Hydrator

Stack

Ash

Silo

oday’s 4 CFB with state-of-the-art SO 2 emissions control Boiler Segment system


State-of-the-art CFBs:

Meeting customers’ needs for proven, reliable, economic, and

clean power

Economic

• Fuel flexible

• Waste fuels

ALSTOM

CFBs

Low Risk

• Proven

technology

• Track record of

high availability

Steam Cycle Options

• Subcritical

• Supercritical

Clean Power

• Low inherent

NOx and SOx

emissions

5

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ALSTOM Power CFBs

Clean Power

• Inherent Low NOx

• As a result of low combustion temperatures (815-980 o C)

and staged combustion

• Amenable to secondary measures such as in-furnace

ammonia injection

• Typical NOx emissions of 100 - 400 mg/m 3 stp (0.06 - 0.25

lbs/MM Btu) - lower end of range for emission sensitive

areas, e.g. 0.1 lbs/MM Btu

• Inherent Low SOx

• As a result of limestone injection

• Typical removals of 90 - 97%+

• Removals as high as 98% with secondary equipment

6

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CFB Technology

Philippine Coals

QUEZON

MINDORO

SEMIRARA

NEGROS

ZAMBOANGA

BUKIDNON

ULTAN KUDARAT

SARANGANI

CAGAYAN VALLEY

BATAN-POLLILO

CATANDUANES

MASBATE

SAMAR

CEBU

SURIGAO

DAVAO

SOUTH ong>COong>TABATO

7

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8

CFB Technology

Philippine Coals

Average Coal Quality

location Moisture Ash

Volatile

Matters

Fixed

Carbon

HHV

Sulfur

content Rank

% (ar) % (ar) % (ar) % (ar) BTU/Lbs kCal/kg % (ar) (ASTM)

Western Mindanao 5,6 12,1 19,7 62,7 11 100 6 200 0,8 hvBb

Eastern Mindanao 22,4 17,8 34,3 25,3 7 100 3 900 2,0 sub B

Eastern seaboard

Samar-Bagacay 25,6 10,0 36,7 27,7 7 600 4 200 3,2 sub C

Samar-Giporlos 17,3 24,6 30,6 27,7 7 000 3 900 1,8 sub B

Catanduanes 3,6 16,5 24,0 55,9 12 100 6 700 2,0 mv B

West Batan 10,4 9,6 37,9 41,6 10 500 5 800 1,6 hv Cb

East Batan 23,3 9,5 34,6 32,4 8 000 4 400 2,1 sub C

Polillos 12,1 6,9 37,0 44,5 10 700 5 900 0,5 hv Cb

Visayas Block

Danao/compostela 13,6 14,6 36,2 35,6 9 300 5 200 1,1 hv Cb

Toledo/Balamban 7,7 19,9 34,9 37,4 9 800 5 400 3,3 hv Cb

Uling/Alpaco 15,3 14,4 36,9 33,3 9 000 5 000 1,9 sub A

Argao/Dalaguete 9,5 9,9 37,7 42,8 11 500 6 400 1,2 hv Bb

Negros 14,5 16,4 33,2 34,9 8 100 4 500 2,9 sub B

Bohol 13,4 19,5 38,2 28,9 8 700 4 800 2,8 hv Cb

Masbate 8,7 15,7 35,1 40,7 9 800 5 400 2,0 hv Cb

Western Seaboard

Mindoro 23,4 5,3 40,6 30,7 8 500 4 700 3,6 sub B

Semirara 22,8 19,0 32,7 25,6 7 000 3 900 1,0 sub C

Luzon Block

Cagayan Basin 50,0 13,8 25,1 14,8 4 600 2 600 0,9 lig A

Lagmac 5,4 7,8 43,6 42,3 12 000 6 700 0,4 hv Bb

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CFB Technology

Fuels within CFB Experience vs. Philippines Coals

ong>COong>NSTITUENT

ALSTOM EXPERIENCE

PHILIPPINES ong>COong>ALS

HIGH LOW HIGH LOW

HIGHER HEATING VALUE (HHV), Btu/lb 14000 1050 12100 4600

HIGHER HEATING VALUE (HHV), Kcal/kg 7880 570 6700 2600

MOISTURE, Wt. %, AS RECEIVED 62 3 50 5

ASH, Wt. %, AS RECEIVED 76 4 25 5

CARBON, Wt. %, AS RECEIVED 71 19 63 15

SULFUR, Wt. %, MAF 13 0.3 5 0.5

All Philippines coals are well within ALSTOM’s

CFB experience

9

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• Ultra-supercritical steam

conditions

‣ Increase efficiency

• Circulating Fluid Bed (CFB) and

“advanced CFBs”

‣ Low costs, low emissions, fuel flexibility

• Emissions controls

‣ For new and existing, and integrated and post

ong>COong> 2 Capture

‣ Oxygen firing

10

Roadmap for Coal Combustion

Power

‣ Chemical Looping/novel processes

‣ Systems integration and ancillary components

ALSTOM’s view includes four (4) legs to advance

coal combustion based power technology

Boiler Segment


Power Plant Efficiency Evolution

11

1. Plant efficiency has improved steadily over the years

2. Efficiency increase from Subcritical to USC can, for

example, yield up to 30% ong>COong> 2

emissions reduction

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ALSTOM ong>COong> 2 Capture for

Power Studies:

# Project Name Sponsors Years

1

T echnical Feasibility of a C O 2 /O 2 Combustion Retrofit to an Existing Coal-Fired

Boiler for ong>COong> 2 Extraction

ABB 1998

2

Preliminary Design and Costing of a ong>COong> 2 /O 2 Com bustion Retrofit to an Existing

Coal-Fired Boiler for ong>COong> 2 Extraction

TransAlta Corp. 1999

3

Integration of Ceramic Oxygen Transport Membrane Processes with Coal Fired

Power Plants

ABB 1999

4

5

6

CFB Boiler Integrated with 300 Tonnes per Day ong>COong> 2 Removal System for

Suncor Thermal Solvent Process Project

ong>COong> 2 Capture Project: An Integrated, Collaborative Technology Development

Project for Next Generation ong>COong> 2 Capture, Separation and Geologic

Sequestration

ong>COong> 2 Capture in a Coal-Fired Boiler: Economic and Performance Sensitivity to

ong>COong> 2 Capture Percentage for Amine-Based Processes

Suncor 2000

BP Amoco Corporation 2000

ALSTOM Power Inc. 2001

7

Engineering Feasibility and Economics of ong>COong> 2 Capture on an Existing Coal-

Fired Power Plant

OCDO/DOE NETL 1999-2001

8

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized

Bed Boilers

DOE NETL 2001-2004

9 GRACE - Chemical Looping Combustion - Feasability study EU 2002 - 2003

10 ong>COong>2 capture (cascade cryogenics) - ECS/BUB ADEME 2003 - 2004

11 ong>COong>2 Capture - Calcium cycle ADEME 2003 - 2004

12 EDF - 2015 ADEME 2003 - 2005

13 ENCAP (Oxyfiring - Chemical Looping) EU / IPFP6 2004

12

14 EnCap EU 2003 - 2006

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Example:

Summary of DOE GHG Project

DE-FC26-01NT41146 Results

13

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Cases Studied: All ~ 210 MWe Gross

Combustion Cases

CASE 1: Base Case, Air-Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Boiler

CASE 2: New Compact Cryogenic O 2 -Fired CFB with ong>COong> 2 Capture,

Purification, Compression and Liquefaction

CASE 3: New Compact Cryogenic O 2 -Fired CFB with “Dry” Flue Gas

Compression and Liquefaction

CASE 4: O 2 -Fired Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) with ong>COong> 2 Purification,

Compression and Liquefaction

Cryogenic

Oxygen

CASE 5: Air-Fired CMB with High Temp. Regenerative Carbonate

Process

CASE 6: Case 4, Integrated with Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM)

CASE 7: Indirect Combustion of Coal and ong>COong> 2 Capture via Chemical

Looping

14

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Cases Studied: All ~ 300 MW Gross

Texaco-Based IGCC Cases

CASE 8: Base Case, Built & operating IGCC w/o ong>COong> 2 capture

CASE 9: Built & operating IGCC w/ ong>COong> 2 capture, purification,

compression and liquefaction

CASE 10: Base Case, Commercially offered IGCC w/o ong>COong> 2 capture

CASE 11: Commercially offered IGCC w/ ong>COong> 2 capture, purification,

compression and liquefaction

Advanced Chemical Looping

CASE 12: Base Case, Indirect gasification of coal via Chemical

Looping w/o ong>COong> 2 capture

CASE 13: Indirect gasification of coal & ong>COong> 2 capture via Chemical

Looping

15

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NET PLANT EFFICIECNY, %HHV

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

16

Net Plant Efficiencies, % HHV

ong>COong>MBUSTION

CASES

IGCC

CASES

ADV. CHEM. LOOPIN

CASES

41.4

37.6

36.9

35.5

34.5

30.2

30.9

30.0

29.8

27.4

24.8 25.3

24.6

1. BASE CASE: AIR-

FIRED CFB

2. O2-FIRED CFB

w/ASU & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

3. O2-FIRED CFB

w/ASU & FLUE GAS

SEQUESTRATION

4. O2-FIRED CMB

w/ASU & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

5. AIR-FIRED CFB CFB

w/CARBONATE REG.&

ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

6. O2-FIRED CMB

w/OTM & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

7. CMB CHEM.

LOOPING

ong>COong>MBUSTION w/ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

8. BASE CASE: BUILT &

OPERATING (B&O)

IGCC

9, B&O IGCC w/ASU &

ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

10. BASE CASE:

ong>COong>MMERCIALLY

OFFERED (ong>COong>) IGCC

11. ong>COong> IGCC w/ASU &

ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

12. BASE CASE: CHEM.

LOOPING

GASIFICATION (CLG)

13. CLG w/ ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Boiler Segment


17

ong>COong> 2 Emissions

2.00

1.81 1.98

1.71

0.19 0.21

0.23 0.25

0.16

0.03

0.02

0.01 0.01

1. BASE CASE: AIR-FIRED CFB

2. O2-FIRED CFB w/ASU & ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

3. O2-FIRED CFB w/ASU & FLUE GAS

SEQUESTRATION

4. O2-FIRED CMB w/ASU & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

5. AIR-FIRED CFB CFB w/CARBONATE

REG.& ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

6. O2-FIRED CMB w/OTM & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

7. CMB CHEM. LOOPING ong>COong>MBUSTION

w/ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

8. BASE CASE: BUILT & OPERATING

(B&O) IGCC

9, B&O IGCC w/ASU & ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

10. BASE CASE: ong>COong>MMERCIALLY

OFFERED (ong>COong>) IGCC

11. ong>COong> IGCC w/ASU & ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

12. BASE CASE: CHEM. LOOPING

GASIFICATION (CLG)

13. CLG w/ ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

10.00

1.00

0.10

0.01

0.00

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Boiler Segment

ong>COong>2 Emissions, lbm/kWh


18

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

-

Total EPC Investment Costs,

July 2003, $/kW, Gulf Coast Site

ong>COong>MBUSTION

CASES

IGCC

CASES

ADV. CHEM. LOOPING

CASES

2,481

2,553

2,369 2,375

2,179

2,052

1,677 1,663

1,565

1,451

1,304

1,383

1,120

1. BASE CASE: AIR-

FIRED CFB

2. O2-FIRED CFB

w/ASU & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

3. O2-FIRED CFB

w/ASU & FLUE GAS

SEQUESTRATION

4. O2-FIRED CMB

w/ASU & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

5. AIR-FIRED CFB CFB

w/CARBONATE REG.&

ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

6. O2-FIRED CMB

w/OTM & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

7. CMB CHEM.

LOOPING

ong>COong>MBUSTION w/ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

8. BASE CASE: BUILT

& OPERATING (B&O)

IGCC

9, B&O IGCC w/ASU &

ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

10. BASE CASE:

ong>COong>MMERCIALLY

OFFERED (ong>COong>) IGCC

11. ong>COong> IGCC w/ASU &

ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

12. BASE CASE:

CHEM. LOOPING

GASIFICATION (CLG)

13. CLG w/ ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Boiler Segment

TOTAL EPC INVESTMENT ong>COong>STS, $/kW


19

Levelized Costs of Electricity, Cents/kWh

ong>COong>MBUSTION

CASES

IGCC

CASES

ADV. CHEM. LOOPING

CASES

10.00

9.00

8.00

7.00

6.00

5.00

8.25 8.41

7.98

7.05

7.15 7.18

5.95 5.84

5.30 5.22

5.22

4.53

4.28

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

1. BASE CASE: AIR-

FIRED CFB

2. O2-FIRED CFB

w/ASU & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

3. O2-FIRED CFB

w/ASU & FLUE GAS

SEQUESTRATION

4. O2-FIRED CMB

w/ASU & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

5. AIR-FIRED CFB CFB

w/CARBONATE REG.&

ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

6. O2-FIRED CMB

w/OTM & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

7. CMB CHEM.

LOOPING

ong>COong>MBUSTION w/ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

8. BASE CASE: BUILT

& OPERATING (B&O)

IGCC

9, B&O IGCC w/ASU &

ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

10. BASE CASE:

ong>COong>MMERCIALLY

OFFERED (ong>COong>) IGCC

11. ong>COong> IGCC w/ASU &

ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

12. BASE CASE:

CHEM. LOOPING

GASIFICATION (CLG)

13. CLG w/ ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Boiler Segment

LEVELIZED ong>COong>ST OF ELECTRICITY, Cents/kWh


20

ong>COong> 2 Mitigation Cost, $/ton Of ong>COong> 2 Avoided

43

41

35

27

23 23

14

13

11

2. O2-FIRED CFB

w/ASU & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

3. O2-FIRED CFB

w/ASU & FLUE GAS

SEQUESTRATION

4. O2-FIRED CMB

w/ASU & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

5. AIR-FIRED CFB

CFB w/CARBONATE

REG.& ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

6. O2-FIRED CMB

w/OTM & ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

7. CMB CHEM.

LOOPING

ong>COong>MBUSTION w/ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

9, B&O IGCC w/ASU

& ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

11. ong>COong> IGCC w/ASU &

ong>COong>2 CAPTURE

13. CLG w/ ong>COong>2

CAPTURE

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11 13

Boiler Segment

ong>COong>2 Mitigation Cost, $/Ton of ong>COong>2


Oxygen Fired CFB

Fuel Flexible

Fuel

• PET Coke

• Coal

• Biomass

Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

1,550 o F

(850 o C)

Steam

Air

Emissions

Control

21

Future - O 2

Membranes

Steam

ASU or other

O 2

Source

O 2

N 2

Recirculation

EOR

Steam

ong>COong> 2

Recycled cooled

solids in CFB

help control

combustor

temperature

Boiler Segment


Preliminary Economics of Oxy-Fuel CFB for

EOR Application

9

8

7

Levelized ong>COong>E (Cents per kWh)

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

-1

-2

-3

-4

3.95

Credits:

1. 17 $/ton 17 $ of / ton ong>COong>ong>COong>2

2

Credit

2. 4 $/ton of N 2

3.95

Fuel

Variable O&M

Fixed O&M

Financial

N2 Credit

ong>COong>2 Credit

-5

Air-Fired CFB w/ Petcoke

O2-Fired CFB Retrofit w/ Petcoke and ong>COong>2

& N2 Credits

22

Boiler Segment


Commercialization Development

Timeframe for Oxy-Fuel CFB Plant

PHASE I: DESIGN & TECHNO-Eong>COong>NOMIC ANALYSIS OF

VARIOUS POWER PLANT ong>COong>NCEPTS WITH AND WITHOUT

ong>COong> 2 CAPTURE

PHASE II: PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF O 2 -FIRED CFB

ong>COong>NCEPT, REFINE DESIGN & Eong>COong>NOMIC MODELS

PHASE III: ong>COong>MMERCIALIZATION OF DEVELOPMENT OF

O 2 -FIRED CFB FOR GREENHOUSE GAS ong>COong>NTROL

ong>COong>MMERCIALIZATION DEMONSTRATION

ong>COong>MMERCIALIZATION

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

23

Short range development, because this technology uses commercially available enabling

Technologies, such as Cryogenic Air Separation & Gas Processing

YEAR

Boiler Segment


SUMMARY

• ALSTOM STATE-OF-ART CFB TECHNOLOGY:

Offers environmentally friendly use of all grades

of coals, petcoke, biomass, low grade fuels….

• ALSTOM ADVACED TECHNOLOY DEVELOPMENTS

FOR GREENHOUSE GAS ong>COong>NTROL:

ong>COong> 2 Capture-Ready Plants with Super Critical/

Ultra-super Critical Steam Conditions

Oxygen-Fired Commercial CFB Plant Demonstration

for Enhanced Oil Recovery Application or Carbon

Sequestration

24

Chemical Looping Process Development Unit (PDU)

--- Hydrogen production

--- Syngas production

Boiler Segment


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