What is HIV? - Caribbean HIV/AIDS Alliance

caribbeanhivaidsalliance.org

What is HIV? - Caribbean HIV/AIDS Alliance

Empowering

Workers &

Communities in

the Response to

HIV

Flip Chart for Peer Educators

Barbados, 2006

Adapted: Barbados 2008

Supported by the US Department of Labour


HOW IS THE FLIP CHART USED

This Peer Educators Flip Chart was developed to support peer education

activities in the ILO/USDOL HIV/AIDS Workplace Education Programme. The

Flip Chart has been adapted from various regional and global manuals; in

particular, the ILO/FHI Tool-kit- Peer Education guide and those developed

through the counterpart ILO/USDOL programmes in Belize, Guyana and

Ghana. As with the manual, the content and layout of the Flip Chart was field

tested by Peer Educators themselves therefore this tool has also benefited

from the input of those individuals who will be using it in the field. This Flip

Chart complements the Peer Educators manual thus forming a

comprehensive and multifaceted strategy for peer education in the workplace.

The Flip Chart is a simplified educational tool containing illustrations and large

text which make it ideal for educating groups or individuals who are visual

learners. This Peer Educators Flip Chart is designed to act as the following:

1. A simplified learning tool for educating peers in the workplace about the

basics of STI/HIV/AIDS.

2. An interactive tool to promote, encourage and support behaviour change

as it relates to HIV risk and stigma and discrimination.


The Flip Chart covers the

following topic areas:

1. Why is HIV/AIDS a workplace issue

2. What is HIV What is AIDS

3. What is the immune system

4. What are the stages of HIV/AIDS

5. What are some signs & symptoms of HIV/AIDS

6. How is HIV transmitted

7. Protecting yourself from HIV & STIs

8. What is PMTCT

9. What is VCT

10. What are sexually transmitted infections

11. Why is it important to detect and treat STIs

12. Why should you use condoms

13. How do you use the male condom correctly

14. How do you use the female condom correctly

15. How do alcohol and substance abuse increase the risk of HIV

infection

16. What is treatment, care and support

17. What is stigma and discrimination and why is it so important

18. Why use Health Services

19. What are HIV/AIDS Workplace Policies


WHY IS HIV/AIDS A

WORKPLACE ISSUE

HIV/AIDS affects workplaces in many ways:








Decreased productivity of staff that are affected or infected

by HIV due to illness or decline in mental health related to

stress induced by HIV

Increase in absenteeism due to illness or caring for infected

family members

Loss of skilled workers due to sickness or death

Decrease in workplace morale as workers lose their

colleagues to HIV or due to stigma and discrimination in the

workplace related to HIV+ employees

Lost investments (training costs associated with training

individuals who are affected or infected with HIV and who

leave the workforce)

Increased costs for recruiting, employing and training new

staff

Increased costs for medical aid schemes or pension plans.


What is HIV

HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV is short for:

H – Human

I - Immunodeficiency

V - Virus

People become infected with HIV when it enters the body. A person with

HIV can live a healthy life for many years. Such a person is referred to as a

carrier and can pass the virus on to other people. Over time, the virus

begins to destroy the body’s immune system and the ability to prevent

infections. Eventually the person develops symptoms of AIDS.

What is AIDS

AIDS is the late stage of infection caused by HIV. AIDS stands for:

Acquired – this means that HIV, the virus that leads to AIDS, is passed

from one infected person to another person. (See the section for modes of

HIV transmission)

Immuno- this refers to the body’s immune system. The immune system is

made up of immune cells which protect the human body from diseases.

HIV attacks cells of the immune system.

Deficiency - this means not having enough of something – a shortage. In

the case of AIDS, the body does not have enough immune cells which are

needed to protect against infection. The HIV virus invades the body and

enters immune cells. It then sits in the immune cells and waits patiently for

years. After some time, the virus begins to multiply, making millions of new

HIV viruses. These viruses burst out of the immune cells killing them and

attacking new cells. The cycle then starts over. Eventually the virus kills

too many immune cells and the immune system can no longer do its job.

This is when an individual has progressed to AIDS.

Syndrome - a collection of signs and symptoms, illnesses or infections

associated with a particular disease or condition. People with AIDS have

symptoms and diseases that occur together only when HIV infection has

progressed to AIDS.


What is HIV What is AIDS

CD4 immune cell being

infected by the HIV virus

– the tiny blue dots.


What is the Immune

System

Our immune system is like an army – defending us from ‘foreign

invaders’ such as viruses and bacteria. It is a complex system that is

responsible for distinguishing our bodies from everything foreign to

us, and for protecting us against infections and foreign substances.

The immune system works to seek out and kill invaders.

The immune system is made up of white blood cells, which fight

off infections and other diseases in the body.

The white blood cells are like our soldiers who defend our body

against attack from ‘invaders’ – bacteria and viruses like HIV.

HIV attacks and destroys these white blood cells (CD4 cells).

When HIV attacks our ‘army of soldiers’ our body is left without

any defence and it becomes vulnerable to attack from all sorts

of infections and diseases.


What is the Immune

System

HIV ATTACKS THE CD4 CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

AND DESTROYS THEM.


What are the stages of HIV

infection

Primary Infection

When a person becomes infected with HIV there is a stage of infection that lasts

for a few weeks and is often accompanied by a short flu-like illness. This is

called the primary infection. In up to about 20% of people the symptoms are

serious enough to consult a doctor, but the diagnosis of HIV infection is

frequently missed.

Asymptomatic Period

This stage lasts for an average of ten years and generally during this period there

are no major symptoms. The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels but

people remain infectious and HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood, so HIV

tests will show a positive result. Because there are no symptoms, many people

do not know that they are infected and can unknowingly pass the virus on to

others.

Symptomatic Period I – Symptomatic HIV Infection

Over time the immune system becomes severely damaged by HIV. As the

immune system fails, symptoms begin to develop. Initially many of the symptoms

are mild, but as the immune system deteriorates the symptoms worsen.

Symptomatic HIV infection is mainly caused by the emergence of opportunistic

infections (OIs) and cancers. Bacteria and viruses that normally do not cause

illness in a person with a strong immune system, but do cause illness in

someone whose immunes system has been weakened by HIV cause OIs. These

can occur in almost all the body systems. Although treatment for the specific OIs

is often carried out, the underlying cause is the action of HIV as it destroys the

immune system. Unless HIV itself can be slowed down the symptoms of immune

suppression will continue to worsen. HIV is slowed down by the action of a new

class of drugs known as HAART (see section 4 for more about HAART).

Symptomatic Period II – Progression from HIV to AIDS

As the immune system becomes more and more damaged the illnesses that

occur become more and more severe leading eventually to an AIDS diagnosis.

After an AIDS diagnosis, the length of time until death can vary depending upon

the number and type of opportunistic infections and the level of access to

treatment, care and support. If an AIDS patient is untreated, progression to

death can occur very quickly. However AIDS patients receiving treatment and

care can survive for many years. In addition, the importance of psychosocial

support cannot be underestimated in the return to healthy productive lives of

persons with AIDS.


What are the stages of HIV

1

2

3

4

Primary Infection (~ few weeks after first infection)

Asymptomatic Period (~ 6-10 years where HIV+

individual is relatively healthy)

Symptomatic Period (at about 7-10 years symptoms

may begin to show)

Progression to AIDS (~ > 9-10 years CD4 may drop

below 200 cells/µL)


What are some signs &

symptoms of AIDS

In Barbados, doctors diagnose patients with AIDS when their CD4

count drops below 200 cells/μL. This may or may not be

accompanied by clinical signs and symptoms. These signs and

symptoms are usually Opportunistic Infections (OIs). Examples of

some common OIs include diarrhoea, tuberculosis, pneumonia,

encephalitis, oral candidiasis.

In come countries an AIDS diagnosis is based solely on clinical signs

and symptoms. The signs and symptoms of AIDS are grouped into

two categories:

1. Major

2. Minor

Major Signs

1. Diarrhoea for one month or more

2. Persistent fever for more than one month

3. Weight loss of more than 10% of body weight

Minor Signs

1. Night Sweat

2. Generalised lymph gland enlargements

3. Persistent Cough

4. Persistent Weakness

5. Attacks of Shingles

6. Herpes Simplex infection

7. Skin Infections

An adult is suspected to have AIDS when one shows two major and

one minor of the signs and symptoms.

A child must show two major and two minor signs and symptoms and

confirm with the HIV antibody test. These symptoms may be present

all the time or they may come on and off. This is the stage referred to

as AIDS. That is a group of signs and symptoms representing two or

more diseases (illness) in a person.


What are some signs &

symptoms of AIDS

Persistent

weight loss in

AIDS Patients.

Skin Infections in

AIDS Patients.


How is HIV transmitted

HIV IS transmitted by:

Having unprotected sex/intercourse with an infected person

(vaginal or anal) and oral sex if there are open sores/cuts in the

genitals or in the mouth.

From mother to child - Mother to Child Transmission – MTCT. In

some cases, a mother who is infected with HIV may transmit the

virus to her infant during pregnancy, birth, or by breast-feeding.

Sharing needles and syringes with an infected person

(contaminated blood or blood products, this includes accidental

exposure through needle stick injuries).

HIV IS NOT transmitted by:

Donating blood (clean/sterile needles are used to withdraw blood

when for blood bank donation)

Mosquito bites (may transmit other diseases such as malaria but not

HIV)

Toilet seats

Shaking hands

Hugging

Kissing, tongue/French kissing (the extremely small amount of HIV

virus found in saliva is too small to cause infection, however a

person can become infected if they have an open sore or wound in

the mouth and blood from an infected partner enters the wound

while kissing)

Sharing eating and cooking utensils such as knives, forks, spoons,

cups, plates etc.

Sharing tools (including industrial tools) and machinery

Food or objects handled or prepared by people with HIV or AIDS

(this is important to note in hotel and restaurant settings where

workers cite fears of infection from HIV positive co workers)

Spending time in the same house, business, or public place with a

person with HIV/AIDS.


How is HIV transmitted

HIV is NOT transmitted through casual

contact.


PROTECTING YOURSELF

FROM HIV & STIs

Always use a condom when having sex, especially with casual

partners.

Always carry a condom, especially when you are far away from

home, or in situations where you may be tempted to have sex.

Be careful that you do not lose control when drinking alcohol or

using drugs and forget to use a condom.

Remember that you can get STIs which can be passed on to

your sexual partner. STIs can lead to fertility and complications

in newborns.

Prevention of HIV and STIs is as simple as ABC.

A: Abstain from sex

B: Be faithful to your sexual partner

C: Use condoms correctly and consistently for every sexual

encounter


PROTECTING YOURSELF

FROM HIV & STIs

Preventing HIV and other STIs is as

easy as ABC


WHAT IS PMTCT

Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) is a multifaceted

strategy aimed at reducing the chances of an HIV positive mother

passing HIV to her newborn.

HIV can be transmitted from an infected mother to child at three

stages:

1. Pregnancy: The placenta is usually a good barrier between the

mother and the baby and keeps infected white blood cells away from

the baby. But if there is damage to the placenta, it is possible for the

mother’s blood to come in contact with the baby during pregnancy.

2. Childbirth: During childbirth, the baby’s eyes, mouth or nose

can come in contact with the mother’s blood and the virus can enter

the baby. There are ways to reduce this risk, including elective

caesarean sections and the use of antiretroviral drugs.

3. Breastfeeding: HIV can be transmitted through infected breast

milk. This is especially true if the baby has an irritated stomach from a

gastrointestinal infection caused by drinking contaminated water. The

breast milk of infected women contains a small amount of HIV.

Preventing MTCT

1. Prevent HIV infection among women of childbearing age and

prevent unwanted infections among HIV+ women

2. Get tested for HIV

3. Keep the immune system strong

4. Prevent transmission during pregnancy, labour and delivery by

doing the following:

o Give birth in a health facility, this decreases the chances of

complicated and difficult births.

o Get on an Antiretroviral regimen in order to reduce the

amount of HIV in the mother’s body, thereby decreasing the

risk of HIV transmission to the baby during childbirth.

o Don’t breastfeed. Use replacement feeding such as baby

milk formula made with clean water.


WHAT IS PMTCT

What do you need to know about STIs

This Peer Educator’s Flip Chart was developed to train peer

educators and support their activities in the peer education

component of the ILO/USDOL HIV/AIDS Workplace Education

Programme. It has been adapted from various regional and global

manuals, in particular, existing FHI and ILO peer education guides

including those developed through the counterpart ILO/USDoL

programmes in Belize and Guyana. Information presented in the

manual has been tailored to meet the specific needs of employees in

the Banking & Finance, Hotel & Tourism and Manufacturing Sectors

Administration of HAART to the HIV+ mother prevents

transmission of HIV to the child.


What is VCT

VCT stands for voluntary counselling and testing for HIV.

There are 6 important steps in the VCT process:

1. Making the decision to test is a difficult one

2. Getting support of friends, family or someone trusted

3. Meeting the counsellor for pre-test counselling.

4. Discussing confidentiality of the process. This is part of the pretest

counselling, but it is such an important component that it is worth

mentioning on its own. There is still so much stigma and discrimination

surrounding HIV, most people do not want their status to be known.

Therefore, VCT ensures that the process is confidential.

5. Providing blood for the HIV test (normal laboratory test or a rapid

test). The blood will be placed in a tube with a code instead of a name

to protect the identity of the person being tested. This way, only the

counsellor knows whom the test result belongs to.

6. Returning for your results or obtaining results – Post test

counselling. One of the most difficult aspects of testing is returning for

the test result after the agonising wait during the testing period. This is

when a person receives a positive or negative test result. The

counsellor will address the individual differently based on the result.

Fears about Testing:

Fear of positive test result and stigma

Lack of confidentiality

Fear of losing job, family, friends etc.

Fear of death

Benefits of Testing:

Peace of mind

Living longer

Informed planning for the future

Protecting the Unborn Child

Relationship Planning


What is VCT

VCT is an important ENTRY POINT for care. VCT should

refer positive clients to HIV treatment care and support

services.


Getting Tested for HIV:

The Window Period

The test for HIV detests antibodies that are produced by your body

when HIV enters. It takes several weeks after HIV first enters the

body for level of antibodies to be high enough to get a test result. This

means that a person’s test result can be negative even when HIV is

present in their body. This period is referred to as the window period.

If a test a taken during the window period it will have to be repeated 3

months later in order to confirm the result.

The cartoon below illustrates how a health care professional may

advise a client about the window period.

It is important to have an HIV test done after

the window period has passed in order for the

result to be conclusive.


What are Sexually

Transmitted Infections

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a group of infectious

diseases that are spread from one person to the other mostly through

sex. Various germs cause STIs.

Below is a list of some common STIs and the germs that cause them:

Group of Germs

Examples of STIs

Bacteria

Chlamydia, Gonorrhoea Syphilis,

Chancroid,

Viruses

HIV, Herpes, Genital Warts

Parasites

Scabies, pubic lice

Some common signs & symptoms of STIs:

In Women:

More vaginal discharge then usual, sometimes accompanied by

odour

Irritability and itching of the vagina

Pain in the vagina while having sex

Abnormal blood loss between menstruations or after sex

Pain in belly (lower abdomen and sex organs) and fever

In Men:

A drip or discharge from the penis

In Women and Men:

Pain with urinating or only urinating small amounts

Ulcers, warts, blisters, rashes on the vulva or vagina, anus,

mouth

Pain in the throat (after oral sex)

Flu-like fevers, chills, aches

Swelling in the area around the sex organs (swollen glands).

Most STIs can be treated and cured with medication.

Some STIs cannot be cured but they can be treated.


What are Sexually

Transmitted Infections

The pictures above show untreated sexually transmitted

infections in individuals with symptoms.

All persons with sexually transmitted infection do not have

symptoms.


Why is it important to

detect and treat STIs

Early detection and treatment of sexually transmitted

infections (STIs) is extremely important for many reasons:

They are known as silent infections because the majority of

STIs do not have symptoms – they are asymptomatic.

Therefore early detection allows early treatment of the infection.

They can lead to serious complications when left untreated.

Complications such as infertility, blindness in newborns,

disfiguration of genital area, and cancer in some cases.

They increase the chance of HIV transmission. The presence of

some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) greatly increases

the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected sex.

The HIV/STI Co-Factor Effect:

If you or your partner has an STI, and one of you is infected with HIV,

the chances of transmitting the HIV virus is greatly increased. This is

because:

The presence of an STI in the genital area also causes an

‘immune response’ to fight off the infection. This ‘response’

means that immune system cells ‘gather’ at the area of infection

to fight the STI. HIV targets immune cells therefore the

presence of immune cells also means that: (1) more HIV virus

is present or (2) more target cells are present for the HIV virus

to attack.

A genital ulcer or sore caused by an STI leads to exposed

mucous membranes or blood. This provides direct access for

the HIV virus to the blood.

An STI causes increased genital discharge containing the HIV

virus.


Why is it important to

detect and treat STIs

Step 1: Go to the Doctor

Step 2: What is the STI Get Tested!

Step 3: Get Treated

TREATING STIs PREVENTS TRANSMISSION OF HIV AND

LONG TERM COMPLICATIONS OF UNTREATED

INFECTIONS.


Why should you use

condoms

Why use a condom

Condoms, if used properly provide up to 98% protection against most STIs

including HIV.

Wearing condoms allows you to have the pleasure of sex without having to

worry about catching an STI and passing it along to someone else.

Why don’t all People use Condoms

Some common barriers to condom use and appropriate responses are

listed below:

Fear of condom breakage

The primary cause of condom breakage is human error while putting on a

condom. Other factors include, using oil-based lubricants, which destroy

the latex.

Reduction of sensation

Don’t risk a lifetime of future problems for a moment of pleasure of sex

without a condom. Helmets and combat boots are heavy and can be

uncomfortable but a soldier would never consider going into combat

without the protection they provide.

Delay of Orgasm

When condoms are used frequently, most people find that this problem

goes away. If orgasm is delayed it just means that the pleasurable act of

sex goes on longer.

Misinformation such as HIV penetrating through the pores of the

condom

Point out that condoms are electronically tested and that the chance of the

HIV virus passing through the condoms is zero.

Allergies to latex condom

Allergic reactions to condoms are common especially among women of

African descent. Non-latex condoms are available and they are usually

made from polyurethane. This is the same material used for the female

condom.


Why should you use

condoms


How do you use the male

condom properly

1. Check the expiry date and look for signs of wear such as

discoloured, torn or brittle wrappers. Do not use condoms that

have passed the expiry date or seem old.

2. Tear the package carefully along one side. It is better not to do

this using teeth or fingernails, to avoid damaging the condom.

3. Place the rolled-up condom on the top of the penis.

4. Pinch the tip of the condom (to leave space for the semen to

collect).

5. Place the condom on the end of the penis and unroll the

condom down the length of the penis by pushing down on the

round rim of the condom. If this is difficult, the condom is

probably inside out. You should not turn the condom the other

way around as some semen could already be on it. You should

open another condom and unroll it correctly over the penis.

6. When the rim of the condom is at the base of the penis (near

the pubic hair) penetration can begin.

7. After intercourse and ejaculation, hold the rim of the condom

and pull the penis out before it gets soft. Tie the condom in a

knot, sealing in the semen. Dispose of the condom in a safe

place. Use a new condom each time you have penetrative sex.

CONDOMS SHOULD BE USED CORRECTLY AND

CONSISTENTLY WITH EVERY SEXUAL ENCOUNTER.


2. If you are not circumcised, pull back

the foreskin. Put the condom on the end

of the hard penis. Note: If the condom

is initially placed on the penis

backwards, do not turn it around. Throw

it away and start with a new one.

How do you use the male

condom properly


How do you use the female

condom properly

1. The female condom must be properly positioned before any

contact occurs between the penis and vagina and/or rectum.

The female condom may be used for both vaginal and anal

sexual intercourse.

2. For vaginal use, squeeze the smaller ring and insert it into the

vagina. The large end should be place over the vaginal opening

to protect the outer genitalia from infection.

3. Be sure the penis goes directly into the large ring to preclude

unprotected sexual contact between the penis and the vagina

or rectum. Remove the condom immediately after sexual

intercourse and before standing up. To avoid semen leakage,

the large outer ring should be twisted. Carefully pull the condom

out and dispose of it (not in a toilet).

4. If the condom slips during intercourse, or if it enters the vagina,

then you should stop immediately and take the female condom

out. Then insert a new one and add extra lubricant to the

opening of the sheath or on the penis.

CONDOMS SHOULD BE USED CORRECTLY AND

CONSISTENTLY WITH EVERY SEXUAL ENCOUNTER.


How do you use the female

condom properly


How does alcohol and

substance abuse increase

the risk of HIV Infection

Alcohol and drugs can reduce an individual’s inhibitions and

thus lead to high-risk behaviour.

In places where alcohol is served, such as bars, nightclubs and

restaurants, sex workers may also be present. Alcohol and

drugs can reduce a person’s resolve to avoid sex workers or

use condoms.

Alcohol and drugs may also increase the likelihood of having

casual sex among people (not necessarily sex workers)

participating in the ‘partying scene’.

Many workers in the Hotel & Tourism sector (restaurants,

nightclubs, hotels etc.) work late shifts in environments where

alcohol is readily available.

An intoxicated or drunk person may intend to use a condom but

forget.

Alcohol consumption and drug use can impair motor skills

and reduce the likelihood of condoms being correctly used—if

used at all.

Alcohol and drugs causes anger and aggression in some

people which may lead to sexual aggression such as rape;

which may be without a condom.

ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE INCREASE YOUR

CHANCE OF HIV/STI INFECTION.


How does alcohol and

substance abuse increase

the risk of HIV Infection


What is Treatment, Care &

Support

TREATMENT

Treatment is the provision of antiretroviral drugs to PLHIV. Antiretrovirals are

given to PLHIV when they receive an AIDS diagnosis.

The cocktail of drugs currently being used is called HAART- Highly Active

Antiretroviral Therapy. HAART is a strong drug regimen, which stops the HIV

virus from making more of itself. HAART is available free of cost in Barbados.

It is important to take the HAART drugs properly as directed by the physician.

This is called adherence or compliance. When patients do not take their drugs

properly (at least 95% of the time) the drugs begin to fail. This is called

‘Resistance’.

CARE

Care for PLHIV involves monitoring disease progression in order to administer

the drugs when the patients need them. This monitoring involves checking 2

main things:

Viral Load: this is the amount of HIV virus in the blood.

CD4 Count: this is the amount of white blood cells – soldiers – in the

blood.

When the Viral Load increases the CD4 count goes down. The viral load

decreases when patients progress to AIDS. The CD4 count goes up and the viral

load decreases when patients begin to take HAART.

SUPPORT

It is very important for PLHIV to have support systems in their lives. This can be

from family and friends and health care professionals. Support at the workplace

is also very important.

In order for the HAART to work efficiently, patients need to have proper support

systems to ensure that they are mentally and physically coping with the disease.


What is Treatment, Care &

Support

The

Ladymeade

Reference

Unit (LRU) in

Barbados.

THE LRU PROVIDES HIGH QUALITY TREATMENT, CARE

& SUPPORT FOR PLHIV.


What is Stigma &

Discrimination and why is it

so important

What is Stigma

Stigma can be defined as negative thoughts about a person or group

based on a prejudice. For example an HIV+ co-worker thinks his

colleagues are gossiping about him and therefore he begins to worry

that they know he is HIV+.

There are different types of stigma:

Felt stigma: Felt or ‘perceived’ stigma refers to real or imagined

fear of societal attitudes and potential discrimination arising

from HIV/AIDS.

Enacted stigma: Enacted stigma refers to the real experience of

discrimination as a result of one’s HIV status.

What is Discrimination

HIV/AIDS related discrimination occurs when a person is treated

unfairly or unjustly, on the basis of her/his actual or presumed HIV+

status. For instance, an HIV+ worker is discriminated against if he or

she does not get promoted because of his/her HIV + status.

How does Stigma & Discrimination Impact the

Workplace

Increase in worker stress leading to reduced productivity

Reduction of workplace morale

Loss of jobs (self removal/quit or fired)

Loss of family income

STIGMA AND DISCRIMINATION IS ONE OF THE GREATEST

THREATS TO HIV/AIDS PREVENTION, TREATMENT, CARE AND

SUPPORT.


What is Stigma &

Discrimination and why is it

so important


What are HIV/AIDS

Workplace Policies

Workplace policies provide a framework for action to reduce the

spread of HIV/AIDS and manage its impact.

Your workplace policy should be tailored to the specific needs and

conditions in your workplace (considering the language used so that it

is accessible to all employees).

What does a workplace policy do

Makes an explicit commitment to corporate action

Ensures consistency with appropriate national laws

Lays down a standard of behaviour for all employees (whether infected or

not)

Gives guidance to supervisors and managers

Helps employees living with HIV/AIDS to understand what support and

care they will receive, so they are more likely to come forward for

voluntary testing

Helps to stop the spread of the virus through prevention programmes

(Including highlighting universal precautions for the protection of all

employees)

Assists an enterprise to plan for HIV/AIDS and manage its impact, so

ultimately saving money

It provides the basis for putting in place a comprehensive workplace

programme, combining prevention, care and the protection of rights

Depending on the particular situation, it may consist of a detailed

document just on HIV/AIDS, setting out programme as well as policy

issues; it may be part of a wider policy or agreement on safety, health and

working conditions; it may be a short statement of principle.


The ILO Code of Practice

States 10 Key Principles

1. Recognition of HIV/AIDS as a workplace

issue

2. Non-discrimination

3. Gender equality

4. Healthy work environment

5. Social dialogue

6. Screening for purposes of exclusion from

employment or work processes

7. Confidentiality

8. Continuation of employment relationship

9. Prevention

10. Care and support


Existing Resources in

Barbados

EXISTING SERVICES IN BARBADOS

Service

Area

Treatment &

Care

Support

Name Description Telephone/ Email

Ladymeade

Reference Unit

(LRU)

State of the art

treatment free of

charge to all

Barbadians

Ira Waterman PMTCT –

Prevention of

Mother to Child

Transmission

Health Sister

AIDS Information

Centre

AIDS Hotline

Ladymeade

Reference Unit

(LRU)

CARE: Comfort,

Assist, Reach out,

and Educate.

UGLAAB - United

Gays and

Lesbians Against

AIDS Barbados

Information about

HIV and AIDS and

Food Bank

Anonymous

hotline for HIV and

AIDS related

information and

referral

State of the art

psychosocial care

(link to social

services) free of

charge to all

Barbadians

Active support

group for People

Living with HIV

and AIDS

Support group for

gay men (MSM)

and gay women;

including those

with HIV

(246) 436 8215

MOH – (246) 426 5080

(246) 426 5080

(246) 436 2437/ 436 2444

(246) 436 8215

(246) 436-7770

carebdos@hiv-aids.gov.bb

(246) 426 3323

uglaab@caribsurf.com

uglaab@yahoo.com


STI

Diagnosis &

Testing

VCT

Family Care Support group for

Orphans &

Vulnerable

Children (OVCs)

Verdun House Support for

substance

abusers.

Teen Challenge Support for

substance

abusers.

Ladymeade

Reference Unit

(LRU)

All polyclinics,

QEH, private labs

& doctors

All polyclinics,

QEH, private labs

& doctors (9 VCT

counsellors)

Bazil Hunte

State of the art

STI testing free of

charge to all

Barbadians

All public health

facilities offer free

STI testing for

Barbadian

citizens. Wider

array of common

STI testing in

private labs for a

fee. Usually takes

a few days to 2

weeks to get test

results. Drugs to

treat STIs are

available in the

polyclinics or at

your local

pharmacy.

Generally you will

need a

prescription.

Free of charge

public sector;

small fee private

sector. Usually

takes a few days

to 2 weeks to get

results.

Head Counsellor,

LRU

(246) 426 2606

camp_sunflower@hotmail.com

(246) 433 3488

verdun@sunbeach.net

(246) 423 8273

(246) 436 8215

Call MOH – (246)

426 5080 for more

information; or your family

doctor

Call MOH – (246) 426 5080

for more information; or

your family doctor

MOH – (246) 426 5080


Information

The National

HIV/AIDS

Commission

(NHAC)

The National

Council on

Substance Abuse

(NCSA)

Associates for

International

Development Inc.

Community Health

Action &

Transformation.

Government

agency; advise on

plans and policies

and to build

strategic

partnerships to

effectively

manage, control

and reduce the

transmission of

HIV in Barbados.

Government

agency

responsible for

research and

programming

related to

substance abuse

(including HIV)

Private Sector

Agency

conducting

research and

evaluation and

programme

implementation.

Non-profit

organisation

supporting

community action

in health &

development.

(246) 421 8605

hiv-aids@barbados.gov.bb

(246) 429 6272

info@ncsa.org.bb

(246) 429 6859

admin@aidincorporated.org

(246) 429 6859

admin@chat.org.bb


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