Chapter 1 The Science of Biology 22012.pdf

Chapter 1 The Science of Biology 22012.pdf

Chapter 1: The

Science of Biology

1.1 What is Science

Science: organized evidence to study

natural world

• Way of knowing natural world

• Goal: To gather info-look for pattern

• Ever changing ex: technology

Scientific Methodology

1. Observation: use senses to gather info

2. Inference: logical interpretation based

on prior knowledge

3. Hypothesis: testable educated


• 4. Controlled Experiment: hypothesis

tested using only 1 changing variable

• Independent Variable (IV): changed variable

• Dependent Variable (DV): respond to IV, usually

a measurement ex: mm

• Control group: exposed to same conditions


5. Data: recorded observations

• Quantitative: numbers usually measured

• Qualitative: descriptive characteristics not


6. Conclusion

• Either support, refute (not support), or cause

revisions of hypothesis

1.2 Science in Context

1. Where Science ideas come from:

• Scientific Attitude: curiosity,

skepticism, open-mindedness,


• Practical Problems: observed

issues lead to questions=


• Technology: gather data in new ways

2. Communicating Results:

• Peer Review: Lab reports are shared, tested

evaluated by peers

• Sharing New Information: peer reviews generate

new ideas

3. Scientific Theory

Theory: ties several related hypotheses


• Thoroughly tested

• Dominant view

• May be revised with new evidence

4. Science and Society: influences and is

influenced by society!

• Ethics and Morality: not included in pure science

(Fetal alcohol experimentation)

• Bias: a personal, not scientific, viewpoint

1.3 Studying Life

• Key Terms

Biology: Study of life/living world

• Biologist: Person using scientific method to

study living things

Characteristics of Living


• Have cells

• Universal Genetic Code—DNA

• Obtain/use materials & energy: metabolism

• Grow & develop

• Reproduce—most important

• Respond to environment (stimulus)

• Maintain stable internal env’t (homeostasis—


• Group can change over time (evolve)

Big Idea

Cellular basis of life

Information and heredity


Living things are made of cells.

DNA is the universal code

Matter and Energy

Growth, development, and reproduction

Life requires matter that provides raw materials,

nutrients, and energy.

All living things reproduce



Living things maintain a relatively stable internal


Living things change over time

Structure and Function

Each major group of organisms has evolved

structures that make particular functions


Unity and Diversity of Life

All living things are fundamentally similar at the

molecular level.

Interdependence of Nature

All forms of life on Earth are connected into a

biosphere—a living planet.

Science as a way of knowing

Through observations, questions and


Fields of Biology:

• Based on type of organism

• Different levels of organization

• molecules—cells—group of cells—



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