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<strong>Tone</strong> <strong>of</strong> voice<br />

Macmillan’s writing guidelines<br />

<strong>Tone</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Voice</strong> 1<br />

Macmillan’s writing guidelines 1<br />

How we write 2<br />

Personal, inspiring, straightforward, active 2<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> personal looks like 2<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> inspiring looks like 3<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> straightforward looks like 3<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> active looks like 5<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> else to consider 5<br />

Positive yet realistic 5<br />

Writing about people and cancer 6<br />

Real people, real stories 9<br />

Writing in a convers<strong>at</strong>ional style 10<br />

Sight, sound, smell, taste, touch 12<br />

Different audiences, different channels 12<br />

Our style guide 19<br />

The legal bits 20<br />

Top style tips 22<br />

Here’s some we made earlier 23<br />

Further reading 25<br />

Macmillan Cancer Support, registered charity in England and Wales 261017, Scotland SC039907 and Isle <strong>of</strong> Man 604 1 <strong>of</strong> 25


How we write<br />

The way we write (and talk) is a key part <strong>of</strong> Macmillan’s personality – and helps to build<br />

our brand. Our ‘voice’ is an important tool for helping people understand who we are and<br />

wh<strong>at</strong> we do. It helps them to trust us, encourages them to use us, and inspires them to get<br />

involved.<br />

With lots <strong>of</strong> different people writing on <strong>be</strong>half <strong>of</strong> Macmillan, it’s essential th<strong>at</strong> we<br />

demonstr<strong>at</strong>e one voice – one th<strong>at</strong>’s consistent, and easy to understand. So when people<br />

read our communic<strong>at</strong>ions they feel confident th<strong>at</strong> we know wh<strong>at</strong> we’re talking about.<br />

Our style is simple. We talk clearly, and honestly. We say how things really are – but<br />

always <strong>of</strong>fer ways to help. We talk as a friend would, with warmth and encouragement.<br />

We’re also passion<strong>at</strong>e – we’re speaking on <strong>be</strong>half <strong>of</strong> millions <strong>of</strong> people and when we need<br />

to speak out – to get <strong>at</strong>tention, change minds, and raise funds – we must <strong>be</strong> loud.<br />

Everything from the annual report to a two line email should <strong>be</strong> written in the Macmillan<br />

style.<br />

Personal, inspiring,<br />

straightforward and active<br />

Writing for Macmillan Well, we want you to think P.I.S.A. Not the city famous for its<br />

leaning tower but our guiding principles: Personal, Inspiring, Straightforward and<br />

Active. These principles help make Macmillan’s ‘tone <strong>of</strong> voice’.<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> personal looks like<br />

We’re inclusive. One in three people will get cancer. They’re people from all walks <strong>of</strong> life<br />

and all cultures and we want to reach them all. We want people to know th<strong>at</strong> they can get<br />

involved with us or turn to us no m<strong>at</strong>ter who they are. We want them to join our gang. To<br />

do this, we use personal language.<br />

We tre<strong>at</strong> people as individuals. Whenever we write something, we think <strong>of</strong> it as a one-toone<br />

<strong>be</strong>tween us and the reader. And we think the reader’s much more likely to stay<br />

interested in wh<strong>at</strong> we’re saying if we’re direct and refer to them as ‘you’. Wouldn’t you<br />

agree So say, ‘you can make a difference’ r<strong>at</strong>her than, ‘people who don<strong>at</strong>e money to<br />

Macmillan can make a difference.<br />

We also try to bring the services we <strong>of</strong>fer to life by focusing on the people who actually<br />

provide them. Th<strong>at</strong> means we don’t talk about our helpline service – we talk about the<br />

<strong>Tone</strong> <strong>of</strong> voice , Macmillan, [February 2013] 2 <strong>of</strong> 25


experts on the end <strong>of</strong> the phone. And we talk about the people, not the product – this<br />

makes it so much warmer.<br />

We use quotes and case studies. Want your writing to paint a real picture Then use a<br />

quote from a real person. It’s one <strong>of</strong> the <strong>be</strong>st ways to make your message strikes a chord.<br />

But it’s important to pick quotes th<strong>at</strong> work hard. Look for ones th<strong>at</strong> are emotive, succinct<br />

and express personal feelings. For instance, here’s someone with cancer talking about<br />

how he struggles to pay his he<strong>at</strong>ing bills:<br />

‘You can really feel the cold when you have cancer. But <strong>of</strong>ten I have to leave the he<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

<strong>of</strong>f.’<br />

‘I’m already wearing two pairs <strong>of</strong> trousers, two jumpers and a woolly h<strong>at</strong> indoors, and the<br />

worst <strong>of</strong> the winter is yet to come. Sometimes I go to <strong>be</strong>d during the day r<strong>at</strong>her than put<br />

the he<strong>at</strong>ing on.’<br />

To find the quote th<strong>at</strong>’s right for you, just head to our online library.<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> inspiring looks like<br />

We speak from the heart. If we want to convince people to join us, then we need to speak<br />

about wh<strong>at</strong> we stand for with <strong>be</strong>lief, determin<strong>at</strong>ion and conviction. We need to show wh<strong>at</strong><br />

a passion<strong>at</strong>e bunch we are. We need to use inspiring language.<br />

We are fearless. We’re never afraid to say when we think something’s fantastic and when<br />

we think something isn’t. So don’t hold back. For instance, you could say, ‘Volunteers. We<br />

love them. We couldn’t do wh<strong>at</strong> we do without them’. Or you could even say, ‘Thousands<br />

<strong>of</strong> people with cancer are struggling to pay their fuel bills. It’s simply not fair. Th<strong>at</strong>’s why<br />

we’re calling on the government to help people with cancer stay warm without the worry.’<br />

Remem<strong>be</strong>r – if you’re pointing out a problem make sure you suggest a solution too.<br />

We grab <strong>at</strong>tention. We use language th<strong>at</strong>’s bold, rousing and engaging. You’ll see this<br />

style in most <strong>of</strong> our fundraising m<strong>at</strong>erials. For example, ‘You see, we’re not bashful. Our<br />

services are brilliant. Th<strong>at</strong>’s wh<strong>at</strong> we’re told and th<strong>at</strong>’s wh<strong>at</strong> we always strive for them to<br />

<strong>be</strong>. But, and you might have seen this coming, there aren’t enough <strong>of</strong> them out there<br />

changing people’s lives – which is where you come in.’<br />

We avoid exclam<strong>at</strong>ion marks. They’re not big, they’re not clever. Don’t <strong>be</strong> fooled into<br />

thinking th<strong>at</strong> they’ll make your writing inspir<strong>at</strong>ional. As F Scott Fitzgerald once said,<br />

exclam<strong>at</strong>ion marks are like laughing <strong>at</strong> your own jokes. So, use them sparingly, and only if<br />

you’re absolutely sure you need a big effect. If in doubt, just say no.<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> straightforward looks like<br />

Oftentimes workforce mem<strong>be</strong>rs scri<strong>be</strong> in a manner th<strong>at</strong> the layman may find somewh<strong>at</strong><br />

impenetrable.<br />

Transl<strong>at</strong>ion: Sometimes we write in a way th<strong>at</strong> might confuse your average Joe. Th<strong>at</strong>’s<br />

why it’s so important to use straightforward language.<br />

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We understand th<strong>at</strong> when people are affected by cancer it’s an extremely sensitive time. It<br />

can also <strong>be</strong> a confusing time. Th<strong>at</strong>’s why we need to provide all the inform<strong>at</strong>ion they<br />

require in the clearest and most simple way.<br />

Just follow these handy tips and everyone will c<strong>at</strong>ch your drift:<br />

Keep it simple – Always use plain English. This means using short words r<strong>at</strong>her than long<br />

ones. It’s not about dumbing-down – it’s about <strong>be</strong>ing easily understood.<br />

Steer clear <strong>of</strong> jargon – Here <strong>at</strong> the big, green machine, we’re surrounded by jargon. But<br />

the problem is, those in the know understand – the rest don’t. Anything readers don’t get<br />

makes them feel left out. They may even stop reading. So avoid jargon such as medical<br />

terms whenever you can.<br />

Avoid using acronyms and abbrevi<strong>at</strong>ions – If you really have to use them, spell them out<br />

the first time they appear eg WBCM (The World’s Biggest C<strong>of</strong>fee Morning).<br />

Do the Mum Test – When you’ve finished writing something, ask yourself, ‘Would my<br />

mum understand this’ If the answer’s no, you probably need to rewrite it.<br />

Examples<br />

Don’t use<br />

utilise<br />

in order to<br />

ascertain<br />

give consider<strong>at</strong>ion to<br />

prior to<br />

commence<br />

assist<br />

<strong>at</strong> this point in time<br />

Use<br />

use<br />

to<br />

find out<br />

consider<br />

<strong>be</strong>fore<br />

start<br />

help<br />

now<br />

… You get the gist.<br />

Don’t use – We raise more than £100m per annum.<br />

Use – We raise more than £100m a year.<br />

Don’t use – I’d like to advise you on our recruitment policy.<br />

Use – I’d like to tell you about how we recruit people.<br />

Don’t use – In the event <strong>of</strong> a fire, start panicking.<br />

Use – If there’s a fire, start panicking.<br />

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How readable is your writing<br />

To find out how straightforward your copy really is, head to <strong>of</strong>fice.micros<strong>of</strong>t.com , search ‘Test your <strong>document</strong>’s readability’ and type a bit.<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> active looks like<br />

We want to give people energy. The energy to live with cancer. The energy to help others.<br />

And the energy to get involved with Macmillan. A gre<strong>at</strong> way to do this is by using active<br />

language.<br />

We don’t just talk about a problem – we suggest a solution. For instance, we say things<br />

like, ‘Two million people are living with cancer in the UK today. We aim to support every<br />

one <strong>of</strong> them.’<br />

We should always <strong>be</strong> positive. So don’t use, ‘The government has decided not to make<br />

parking free for people with cancer.’ Use, ‘The government has abandoned its plans to<br />

make parking free for people with cancer.’ Copy is more engaging if it descri<strong>be</strong>s<br />

something th<strong>at</strong> is happening r<strong>at</strong>her than something th<strong>at</strong> isn’t.<br />

We love the active<br />

Activity is interesting. So try to write sentences with subjects th<strong>at</strong> are doing things, and not<br />

subjects th<strong>at</strong> are simply having actions done to them. Compare these two sentences:<br />

The m<strong>at</strong> was s<strong>at</strong> upon by the c<strong>at</strong>.<br />

The c<strong>at</strong> s<strong>at</strong> on the m<strong>at</strong>.<br />

The first is an example <strong>of</strong> wh<strong>at</strong> grammar geeks call the passive voice; the second is the<br />

active voice.<br />

Don’t <strong>be</strong> put <strong>of</strong>f – it’s really very simple.<br />

Active voice: A does B.<br />

Passive voice: B is done (usually by A).<br />

The active voice will make your writing more … well … active. It’s also clearer, more<br />

immedi<strong>at</strong>e and uses fewer words. So use it whenever you can.<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> else to consider<br />

Positive yet realistic<br />

It’s vital th<strong>at</strong> we are honest. People must trust us.<br />

This means th<strong>at</strong> we must never shy away from writing about things th<strong>at</strong> are difficult and<br />

upsetting. We must <strong>be</strong> realistic. People need to understand how difficult living with cancer<br />

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can <strong>be</strong>, and people experiencing cancer need to <strong>be</strong>lieve th<strong>at</strong> we understand how they<br />

feel.<br />

To help us understand wh<strong>at</strong> people going through cancer really experience, we have a<br />

guide called the ‘communic<strong>at</strong>ions pl<strong>at</strong>form’. It explains people’s feelings in depth and uses<br />

their own words to descri<strong>be</strong> just how difficult things are.<br />

However, we must always – always – also explain wh<strong>at</strong> Macmillan, and others, can do to<br />

help. We must never add to people’s level <strong>of</strong> fear.<br />

Positive. Honest. Realistic. Keep these words in mind when you’re writing about cancer.<br />

Writing about people and cancer<br />

Our work is primarily about people, not a disease.<br />

So when we’re writing about Macmillan, we need to demonstr<strong>at</strong>e th<strong>at</strong> we always put<br />

people affected by cancer <strong>at</strong> the very heart <strong>of</strong> our work.<br />

We almost always write about ‘people with cancer’ r<strong>at</strong>her than ‘p<strong>at</strong>ients’. This is <strong>be</strong>cause<br />

people <strong>of</strong>ten tell us th<strong>at</strong> they don’t want to <strong>be</strong> defined by their illness. If in doubt, avoid<br />

using the term ‘p<strong>at</strong>ient’.<br />

Try not to descri<strong>be</strong> people with cancer as having things done to them, as if they are<br />

passive recipients <strong>of</strong> care and support. Instead, use empowering terms such as ‘people<br />

living with cancer’.<br />

Never use language th<strong>at</strong> suggests people are victims or heroes, such as ‘b<strong>at</strong>tling cancer’.<br />

However we do use ‘fight language’ in certain contexts.<br />

We are using fight language <strong>be</strong>cause we have <strong>be</strong>en mindful <strong>of</strong> how real people speak<br />

about their cancer experiences. We’ve listened to the online community, our<br />

pr<strong>of</strong>essionals, the people we support, and, <strong>of</strong> course, our supporters. And the fact is th<strong>at</strong><br />

every day, people are referring to their own experiences as a fight. It’s about restoring<br />

agency during a disempowering time. There are some factors to think about when using<br />

this type <strong>of</strong> language though:<br />

We now use ‘fight’ in the context <strong>of</strong> ‘cancer is the toughest fight most <strong>of</strong> us will<br />

ever face’ and ‘in the fight’, ‘we help PABC in the toughest fight <strong>of</strong> their lives’.<br />

Using ‘fight’ in these ways is acceptable.<br />

We DO NOT use fight when referring to a winning or losing situ<strong>at</strong>ion – no one<br />

‘wins the fight against cancer’ and we certainly do NOT wish to imply th<strong>at</strong><br />

someone ‘lost’ <strong>be</strong>cause they didn’t ‘fight hard enough’ or wasn’t enough <strong>of</strong> a<br />

‘fighter’.<br />

Steer clear <strong>of</strong> b<strong>at</strong>tle, struggle and suffer language when using it to descri<strong>be</strong> the<br />

person’s <strong>at</strong>titudes or action, this can get very complic<strong>at</strong>ed and bogged down in the<br />

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neg<strong>at</strong>ive. ‘Sue’s struggles weren’t over’ or ‘when she got her blood tests back she<br />

knew she was in for another b<strong>at</strong>tle’ or ‘she was ready to b<strong>at</strong>tle through the chemo’<br />

are all incorrect and should <strong>be</strong> avoided.<br />

We also don’t ever say: ‘Macmillan fights cancer’ (like Cancer Research does), it’s<br />

only in the individual context, as in ‘cancer is the toughest fight Mary has ever<br />

faced’ or ‘we’re here to help support Mary in the toughest fight she’ll ever face’. We<br />

don’t fight cancer, we’re not a medical charity, we’re a people-centric charity, so<br />

we <strong>of</strong>fer support to people who are currently in the toughest fight <strong>of</strong> their lives.<br />

So:<br />

Don’t use<br />

P<strong>at</strong>ients (unless you’re talking about a hospital situ<strong>at</strong>ion, for example)<br />

Cancer victims<br />

Cancer sufferers<br />

People b<strong>at</strong>tling cancer<br />

People fighting cancer<br />

People struggling with cancer<br />

‘All clear’ – as each cancer is different and each person’s recovery time will vary it is <strong>be</strong>st<br />

to avoid the phrase ‘all clear’<br />

Use<br />

People with cancer<br />

People living with cancer<br />

People affected by cancer<br />

People living with and after cancer<br />

People living with and <strong>be</strong>yond cancer<br />

People getting on with life despite cancer<br />

People with a cancer experience<br />

People whose lives have <strong>be</strong>en changed by cancer<br />

People whose lives have <strong>be</strong>en touched by cancer<br />

Carers / people who look after someone with cancer<br />

Use with care<br />

Cancer survivors<br />

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Definitions<br />

People living with cancer/people with cancer<br />

Those who have <strong>be</strong>en diagnosed with the disease and are currently receiving tre<strong>at</strong>ment.<br />

People living with and after cancer/people living with and <strong>be</strong>yond cancer<br />

Anyone who has <strong>be</strong>en diagnosed with the disease and is still alive; it doesn’t m<strong>at</strong>ter<br />

whether they’re receiving tre<strong>at</strong>ment or their tre<strong>at</strong>ment has ended. This means th<strong>at</strong> ‘two<br />

million people are living with and after cancer in the UK’ can also <strong>be</strong> written as ‘two million<br />

people living in the UK today have had a cancer diagnosis’.<br />

People affected by cancer/people getting on with life despite cancer/people with a<br />

cancer experience/people whose lives have <strong>be</strong>en changed by cancer/people whose<br />

lives have <strong>be</strong>en touched by cancer<br />

Anyone who is affected by a person’s cancer diagnosis, eg the person with cancer, their<br />

partner, their children etc. If you have the space in your copy using examples <strong>of</strong> people<br />

who are affected by cancer can <strong>of</strong>ten bring this to life for the reader (eg you may <strong>be</strong> a<br />

carer, a friend, a mem<strong>be</strong>r <strong>of</strong> the family)<br />

Carers<br />

A ‘carer’ is an unpaid family mem<strong>be</strong>r, partner or friend who helps a disabled or frail<br />

person, such as someone with cancer, to cope with daily chores. These could include<br />

cooking meals, washing-up or grocery shopping. We don’t use ‘carer’ to descri<strong>be</strong><br />

someone who is in a paid caring job or pr<strong>of</strong>ession.<br />

The term is important <strong>be</strong>cause carers are entitled to a range <strong>of</strong> <strong>be</strong>nefits and services th<strong>at</strong><br />

depend on them recognising themselves as carers.<br />

It is <strong>of</strong>ten advisable when speaking to carers to use the phrase ‘people looking after<br />

someone with cancer’, as evidence shows carers <strong>of</strong>ten do not associ<strong>at</strong>e themselves with<br />

th<strong>at</strong> word. In a campaign for carers awareness we defined ‘carer’ in these simple terms,<br />

but with detailed examples <strong>of</strong> a range <strong>of</strong> typical carers’ situ<strong>at</strong>ions, for those unaware <strong>of</strong><br />

their st<strong>at</strong>us as ‘carer’.<br />

A word about survivorship<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> is a ‘cancer survivor’ When should we use the term Does everyone know wh<strong>at</strong> it<br />

means<br />

A ‘cancer survivor’ is someone who isn’t in the terminal phase <strong>of</strong> the illness. In other<br />

words, we mean someone living with and <strong>be</strong>yond cancer.<br />

The truth is th<strong>at</strong> we need to <strong>be</strong> careful when we use the words ‘survivor’ and ‘survivorship’<br />

<strong>be</strong>cause not everyone knows wh<strong>at</strong> they mean. Some people also object to the term,<br />

especially if they have a friend/rel<strong>at</strong>ive who didn’t survive. But if you follow our handy dos<br />

and don’ts <strong>be</strong>low, you can’t go wrong.<br />

Do<br />

Try to use ‘people living with and <strong>be</strong>yond cancer’ or ‘people living with and after cancer’<br />

r<strong>at</strong>her than ‘cancer survivors’ wherever possible.<br />

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Feel free to use ‘survivor’ and ‘survivorship’ when writing to decision makers, such as<br />

MPs, about our ‘survivorship’ agenda.<br />

If you use the term ‘survivorship’, explain wh<strong>at</strong> it means immedi<strong>at</strong>ely and clearly.<br />

Don’t<br />

Use an upper case S when you write about Macmillan’s work on ‘survivorship’.<br />

Writing about cancer<br />

If it’s necessary to mention de<strong>at</strong>h, don’t shy away from it. Acknowledge the fear, pain and<br />

confusion th<strong>at</strong> people affected by cancer can feel – but never use language th<strong>at</strong> might add<br />

to th<strong>at</strong> fear. And always try to explain how Macmillan and other <strong>org</strong>anis<strong>at</strong>ions can help.<br />

It’s fine to descri<strong>be</strong> cancer as either an ‘illness’ or a ‘disease’.<br />

But don’t assume people will understand medical terms unless you’re writing for<br />

healthcare pr<strong>of</strong>essionals. Instead, use common terms, eg ‘skin cancer’ r<strong>at</strong>her than<br />

‘melanoma’. For definitions <strong>of</strong> medical terms, check out our glossary .<br />

Real people, real stories<br />

We love using people’s quotes and stories <strong>at</strong> Macmillan. Because individuals are <strong>at</strong> the<br />

heart <strong>of</strong> our work.<br />

Quotes and stories help to …<br />

add colour and character<br />

give a personal reaction to a situ<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

descri<strong>be</strong> feelings<br />

illustr<strong>at</strong>e bald facts<br />

change the pace <strong>of</strong> a story.<br />

Make sure you use real quotes from real people.<br />

Avoid using quotes th<strong>at</strong> are more than one or two paragraphs long.<br />

For headlines 8 words in the maximum length a quote should <strong>be</strong>.<br />

Never use a word other than ‘said’ when introducing a quote.<br />

PS Before you use someone else’s words, it’s important th<strong>at</strong> you ask for their permission.<br />

They may have <strong>be</strong>en happy for us to use their story for its original purpose. But th<strong>at</strong><br />

doesn’t mean they’ll autom<strong>at</strong>ically let us use it for something else.<br />

Run the quote past them every time you want to use it. You can do this by getting in touch<br />

with the Macmillan person who supplied you with it. They’ll either contact the kind soul<br />

who gave us the quote or hand you their details so you can.<br />

The chances are they’ll say yes. But don’t f<strong>org</strong>et – ask first.<br />

<strong>Tone</strong> <strong>of</strong> voice , Macmillan, [February 2013] 9 <strong>of</strong> 25


Shh! We’re in the library<br />

To find the quote th<strong>at</strong>’s right for you, visit our online library . It’s an easy-touse<br />

stash <strong>of</strong> photos, videos and stories from people affected by cancer – why not check it<br />

out today We promise there are no borrowing fines.<br />

Writing in a convers<strong>at</strong>ional style<br />

By now you’ve probably noticed th<strong>at</strong> Macmillan writes in an informal kind <strong>of</strong> way. It’s not<br />

just <strong>be</strong>cause we’re a bunch <strong>of</strong> ch<strong>at</strong>terboxes (although we don’t half love a good gas). It’s<br />

<strong>be</strong>cause convers<strong>at</strong>ional, language is easier to read, and th<strong>at</strong>’s wh<strong>at</strong> we’re aiming for.<br />

Follow the tips <strong>be</strong>low and keeping it simple will <strong>be</strong>come … well, simple.<br />

Use contractions. F<strong>org</strong>et wh<strong>at</strong> your English teacher told you about saying ‘it is’ r<strong>at</strong>her than<br />

‘it’s’ and ‘they are’ r<strong>at</strong>her than ‘they’re’. We’re giving you full permission to use<br />

contractions – they’re a gre<strong>at</strong> way <strong>of</strong> making your writing easier to read.<br />

Vary your sentence lengths. Short sentences are the <strong>be</strong>st, so try to avoid any th<strong>at</strong> use<br />

more than 25 words. But mix it up. A combin<strong>at</strong>ion <strong>of</strong> long sentences and short sentences<br />

will keep your writing pacy and interesting.<br />

Start sentences with conjunctions. It’s okay, you’re allowed. Beginning a sentence with<br />

‘and’, ‘but’ or ‘so’ is a fantastic way to keep your writing flowing. And it can also make a<br />

sentence stand out. So why not give it a go<br />

Keep it real. Use descriptive words th<strong>at</strong> people can rel<strong>at</strong>e to – words th<strong>at</strong> are accessible,<br />

down-to-earth and ch<strong>at</strong>ty. Sprinkle your writing with everyday feelings, sounds, tastes and<br />

colours and w<strong>at</strong>ch it come to life.<br />

Read wh<strong>at</strong> you’ve written out loud. Does it sound n<strong>at</strong>ural when you say it Does it flow<br />

easily Is it the sort <strong>of</strong> language you’d use to ch<strong>at</strong> with a friend If any <strong>of</strong> these answers<br />

are no, then make a few tweaks and repe<strong>at</strong> the process.<br />

Advice on adjectives<br />

Keith W<strong>at</strong>erhouse, the veteran Daily Mirror and Daily Mail columnist, once said,<br />

‘Adjectives should not <strong>be</strong> allowed unless they have something to say. An adjective should<br />

not raise questions in the reader’s mind, it should answer them. Angry informs. Tall invites<br />

the question, how tall The well-worn phrase: his expensive tastes ran to fast cars simply<br />

whets the appetite for examples <strong>of</strong> the expensive tastes and the makes and capacity <strong>of</strong><br />

the fast cars.’<br />

In other words, if an adjective adds to your copy, it can stay. If not, ditch it. Too many<br />

writers <strong>be</strong>lieve th<strong>at</strong> adjectives inevitably add colour and style. Vague ones add nothing.<br />

‘Use specific words (red and blue),’ says W<strong>at</strong>erhouse, ‘not general ones (brightly<br />

coloured).’<br />

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Advice on abstract nouns<br />

Abstract nouns are things th<strong>at</strong> our five senses can’t detect. We can’t see, hear, taste,<br />

touch or smell them. Try to avoid using abstract nouns as they tend to make writing sound<br />

dry.<br />

Examples <strong>of</strong> abstract nouns include:<br />

rel<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

recommend<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

improvement<br />

observ<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

reference<br />

applic<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

development<br />

achievement<br />

R<strong>at</strong>her than using an abstract noun, try to use the verb root <strong>of</strong> the noun instead:<br />

rel<strong>at</strong>e instead <strong>of</strong> rel<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

recommend instead <strong>of</strong> recommend<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

improve instead <strong>of</strong> improvement<br />

observe instead <strong>of</strong> observ<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

refer instead <strong>of</strong> reference<br />

apply instead <strong>of</strong> applic<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

develop instead <strong>of</strong> development<br />

achieve instead <strong>of</strong> achievement<br />

‘We recommend th<strong>at</strong> you take part’ sounds much livelier than ‘Our recommend<strong>at</strong>ion is th<strong>at</strong><br />

you take part.’<br />

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Sight, sound, smell, touch, taste<br />

Your English teacher may have given you dodgy advice about where a liter<strong>at</strong>ure degree<br />

could get you. But she had a good point when she said, ‘Liven up your writing by referring<br />

to the senses.’<br />

Try describing wh<strong>at</strong> things look, sound, feel, smell and taste like. This is a gre<strong>at</strong> way to<br />

paint a picture with your copy, especially if it’s a quote.<br />

Example<br />

‘I was dangerously underweight <strong>be</strong>cause <strong>of</strong> my cancer, so I started drinking special<br />

milkshakes to put on the pounds. But they had a revolting metallic taste which made me<br />

feel sick. Fortun<strong>at</strong>ely, my Mac nurse gave me the idea <strong>of</strong> mixing nutritional powder into<br />

delicious rasp<strong>be</strong>rry jelly. Thanks to her, I got back to a healthy weight in no time.’ Linda,<br />

support group mem<strong>be</strong>r<br />

Different audiences, different channels<br />

We have one tone <strong>of</strong> voice, and its core principals – personal, inspiring, straightforward,<br />

active – apply to everything we do.<br />

However, there are some vari<strong>at</strong>ions for different audiences.<br />

For example, when fundraising or campaigning, we write in an inspiring and active way –<br />

demanding action, expecting change. With people affected by cancer, our writing is still<br />

authorit<strong>at</strong>ive – so people trust us – but more straightforward.<br />

Specific guidelines – different audiences<br />

People affected by cancer<br />

Clarity is paramount. Keep your copy as straightforward as possible. Imagine you are<br />

speaking to someone.<br />

Pay special <strong>at</strong>tention to sentence length and structure. When a sentence has lots <strong>of</strong><br />

num<strong>be</strong>rs, <strong>be</strong> wary. It may <strong>be</strong> clearer to break the sentence down. For example: You will<br />

usually <strong>be</strong> given 2–3 tablets, containing 30mg <strong>of</strong> the drug, three times a day for 5–6<br />

months would <strong>be</strong> <strong>be</strong>tter as You will <strong>be</strong> given a dose <strong>of</strong> tablets three times a day for 5–6<br />

months. Each dose will <strong>be</strong> 2–3 tablets, each tablet containing 30mg <strong>of</strong> the drug.<br />

Be sensitive. We write about delic<strong>at</strong>e issues and <strong>of</strong>ten need to <strong>be</strong> gentle and reassuring.<br />

Our normal style encourages the use <strong>of</strong> ‘you’. In writing about cancer, it’s appropri<strong>at</strong>e to<br />

use a mixture <strong>of</strong> first and third person, depending on wh<strong>at</strong>’s <strong>be</strong>ing said. So for difficult<br />

topics, we might say ‘some people find’ r<strong>at</strong>her than ‘you may find’.<br />

Similarly our style discourages use <strong>of</strong> the passive. However, it may <strong>be</strong> less frightening –<br />

and more accur<strong>at</strong>e - to sometimes use the passive. So for example ‘a CT scan may <strong>be</strong><br />

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used to guide the needle to the right place’ is <strong>be</strong>tter than ‘you will have a CT scan to guide<br />

the needle to the right place’.<br />

Macmillan’s house style avoids jargon and acronyms – this is especially important when<br />

talking about health care. Terms such as palli<strong>at</strong>ive care aren’t universally understood.<br />

Similarly avoid words th<strong>at</strong> are rarely true: unique (rare is safer), prove (show or<br />

demonstr<strong>at</strong>e), <strong>be</strong>st (define, by wh<strong>at</strong> measure) and most <strong>of</strong> all in a medical context, safe<br />

(no drug is totally safe (use, e.g., fewer side effects)) and cure (consider defining, e.g.<br />

living longer than five years after tre<strong>at</strong>ment).<br />

Writing for people <strong>at</strong> Macmillan<br />

We’re a pretty chilled bunch <strong>at</strong> Macmillan. So when you’re writing internal<br />

communic<strong>at</strong>ions, try to sound as though you’re ch<strong>at</strong>ting to a m<strong>at</strong>e down the pub – except<br />

without all the swearing.<br />

Example – Staff Stuff poster<br />

Copy<br />

Too old Pah. You try doing wh<strong>at</strong> I do. S. Claus<br />

Not many people can pull an all-nighter like Santa. The guy hits the sherry, sc<strong>of</strong>fs mince<br />

pies and still flies around the world, all the while carrying a massive sack on his back. And<br />

to think, <strong>be</strong>cause <strong>of</strong> his age, he could <strong>be</strong> one <strong>of</strong> the people told he’s too old for tre<strong>at</strong>ment.<br />

Un<strong>be</strong>lievable, huh So please help us right this wrong by pledging your support for The<br />

Age Old Excuse campaign from 18 Decem<strong>be</strong>r <strong>at</strong> <strong>macmillan</strong>.<strong>org</strong>.<strong>uk</strong>/ageoldexcuse<br />

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Parliamentarians and policy makers<br />

Our style should <strong>be</strong> just as clear, and universal. And even more passion<strong>at</strong>e. However, we<br />

also need to acknowledge how important these audiences are to us – and thank them for<br />

wh<strong>at</strong> they’ve done.<br />

We also need to use even more facts and figures for this audience – it’s wh<strong>at</strong> they<br />

respond to and helps us drive forward our arguments to change things for the <strong>be</strong>tter.<br />

And we may use terms such as ‘survivorship’ th<strong>at</strong> this audience fully understand.<br />

Pr<strong>of</strong>essionals<br />

Like parliamentarians – we can use terms th<strong>at</strong> this audience fully knows and understands,<br />

like palli<strong>at</strong>ive care. But it’s a good idea to explain the term, or put it in context, to ensure<br />

every reader is clear. When talking to pr<strong>of</strong>essionals it’s a good idea to imagine we’re<br />

talking to a business partner as opposed to having a ch<strong>at</strong> with a friend. Th<strong>at</strong> means<br />

dialling down the inspiring and personal tone in our writing and dialling up the<br />

straightforward.<br />

Specific guidelines – different channels<br />

Writing for the web<br />

Ready to put cursor to screen Before you start chiselling away <strong>at</strong> sub-clauses and<br />

semicolons, have a quick squiz <strong>at</strong> our handy hints …<br />

There are some quick and easy tips to remem<strong>be</strong>r th<strong>at</strong> can help improve your web writing<br />

skills. For example, people tend to read website pages in an F-shaped p<strong>at</strong>tern. So make<br />

sure you put all your important info first.<br />

And keep your copy as short and as sharp as possible – stick to 250 words or fewer per<br />

page.<br />

Remem<strong>be</strong>r: short paragraphs = good – long paragraphs = bad. One-sentence paras are<br />

fine for the web.<br />

Bullet points, lists and subheadings are a gre<strong>at</strong> way to break up your web copy.<br />

And, finally, don’t use boring old ‘click here’ to direct people to another page.<br />

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News and fe<strong>at</strong>ure articles<br />

News article intros<br />

As Tony Harcup puts it in Journalism, Principles and Practice, ‘A well-written intro will<br />

encourage the reader to stay with you on the strength <strong>of</strong> the inform<strong>at</strong>ion and the angle you<br />

have started with.’<br />

Your intro needs to engage the reader instantly and sum up wh<strong>at</strong> your story is about.<br />

A good intro should announce the most important, newest, most interesting, most<br />

<strong>at</strong>tention-grabbing aspect <strong>of</strong> your story.<br />

It’s not a summary <strong>of</strong> everything yet to come. The <strong>be</strong>st intros contain two or three facts<br />

max.<br />

Example<br />

A police <strong>of</strong>ficer is under investig<strong>at</strong>ion after he lost a gun when he drove <strong>of</strong>f with it still on<br />

the ro<strong>of</strong> <strong>of</strong> his car.<br />

The rest <strong>of</strong> your story<br />

Once you’ve nailed your intro, it’s time to amplify your story, adding new info, providing<br />

detail and using quotes.<br />

Journalism students are taught about the five Ws: who, wh<strong>at</strong>, when, where and why.<br />

These are a handy tool to check you’ve covered all the bases.<br />

Fe<strong>at</strong>ure article intros<br />

These will <strong>of</strong>ten set the scene, r<strong>at</strong>her than giving a solid reason why the reader should <strong>be</strong><br />

interested (the hook or angle).<br />

Example<br />

Is the Royal Veterinary College café the weirdest in Britain Jon<strong>at</strong>han Glancey has a<br />

delightful cuppa surrounded by the skulls and bones <strong>of</strong> dead animals.<br />

The rest <strong>of</strong> your story<br />

Fe<strong>at</strong>ure articles <strong>of</strong>ten provide more <strong>at</strong>mosphere, emotion and colour than news articles.<br />

They can paint a picture and take the reader to the scene <strong>of</strong> events.<br />

Fe<strong>at</strong>ures <strong>of</strong>ten include the following elements:<br />

an analysis <strong>of</strong> news, eg an article about healthcare cuts<br />

detailed description to give readers an insight into something they don’t have firsthand<br />

experience <strong>of</strong>, eg a heart-rending description <strong>of</strong> someone suffering in a<br />

hospital<br />

a different slant on something the reader will already know, eg a view from Ciarán<br />

in a Macmillan newsletter<br />

a summing up <strong>at</strong> the end, <strong>of</strong>ten looking to the future and calling for action.<br />

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Here’s some we made earlier<br />

Freeze out fuel poverty campaign<br />

Here, the headline immedi<strong>at</strong>ely grabs the reader’s <strong>at</strong>tention. And the design – a hot w<strong>at</strong>er<br />

bottle and a thermometer th<strong>at</strong> actually measures the temper<strong>at</strong>ure – brings the copy to life.<br />

Using the thermometer helps the writer clearly explain, and demonstr<strong>at</strong>e in a tangible way,<br />

the impact th<strong>at</strong> the cold can have such on those living with cancer. The leaflet lets people<br />

know, simply and clearly, th<strong>at</strong> if you’re one <strong>of</strong> the people affected then we are there for<br />

you.<br />

In the flyer to promote the campaign there’s the all-important quote. Our advice is, use<br />

quotes sparingly but powerfully, keeping them short and to-the-point. Which is exactly<br />

wh<strong>at</strong> the writer does here. The quote doesn’t repe<strong>at</strong> inform<strong>at</strong>ion already provided in the<br />

flyer. R<strong>at</strong>her, it paints an emotive picture, using details such as wh<strong>at</strong> Ge<strong>org</strong>e wears to<br />

really hook the reader.<br />

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Example – ‘Not Alone’ campaign ads<br />

Our new brand ads are all about spreading the message th<strong>at</strong> ‘no one should face cancer<br />

alone’. And it asks everyone to join the Macmillan team and help make sure no one has<br />

to.<br />

The simple but emotive language <strong>of</strong> the ads works well with the everyday n<strong>at</strong>ure <strong>of</strong> the<br />

items used to show how cancer affects our everyday lives. Making it personal by<br />

mentioning people the reader may know powerfully gets across the message th<strong>at</strong>, from<br />

<strong>be</strong>st friends to work friends, we want to <strong>be</strong> there for everyone affected by cancer.<br />

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It’s also good to note how effectively the writer uses devices such as repetition to really<br />

engage the reader.<br />

Repetition can give structure to your writing. Repetition taps into the part <strong>of</strong> our brain th<strong>at</strong><br />

loves rhyme and meter. Repetition pulls the reader into the flow <strong>of</strong> your copy, here with<br />

the word ‘no’. Repetition isn’t difficult to use. But … repetition is annoying if overused.<br />

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Writing headlines<br />

A headline is the first thing a reader sees so it needs to command <strong>at</strong>tention. It needs to<br />

make someone read on. It needs to <strong>be</strong> written with care.<br />

Whether you’re writing an ad or a flyer, a web page or a letter, your headline should <strong>be</strong><br />

captiv<strong>at</strong>ing and it should scream Macmillan. But how do you do it Follow the tips <strong>be</strong>low<br />

and you won’t go far wrong.<br />

Make verbs your friends. Beginning a headline with an active verb will make it dynamic<br />

and involving as well as encouraging the reader to act. For instance, ‘Do something<br />

amazing. Join us.’<br />

Ask a question. If you want to instantly engage your reader, why not turn your headline<br />

into a question For example, this headline was used on a brochure for people planning<br />

their wedding: ‘Want your big day to give more good days to people affected by cancer’<br />

Surprise with st<strong>at</strong>s. We’ve got some mind-boggling num<strong>be</strong>rs knocking around <strong>at</strong><br />

Macmillan. St<strong>at</strong>istics can <strong>of</strong>ten cre<strong>at</strong>e intrigue, so why not include one in your headline<br />

For example, here’s a headline for the Longest Day Golf Challenge: ‘72 holes. 300 shots.<br />

20 miles. Have you got wh<strong>at</strong> it takes’<br />

Keep it short and sweet. We don’t want our readers to get bored. If a headline’s long or<br />

complic<strong>at</strong>ed, they may lose interest and head <strong>of</strong>f to look <strong>at</strong> something else. So it has to <strong>be</strong><br />

short, succinct and snappy. For example, the headline for an article about a challenge<br />

event was, ‘Blood, swe<strong>at</strong> and cheers.’<br />

Be provoc<strong>at</strong>ive. We want people to read our writing and stop in their tracks. A gre<strong>at</strong> way to<br />

do this is by using a shocking headline. One staff poster which encouraged people to take<br />

heed <strong>of</strong> health and safety rules said, ‘Warning! Setting fire to your colleagues can <strong>be</strong><br />

hazardous’. It divided opinion, but it was a gre<strong>at</strong> headline <strong>be</strong>cause people stopped wh<strong>at</strong><br />

they were doing to read it.<br />

Our style guide<br />

As a leading charity, people listen to wh<strong>at</strong> we say. If we make mistakes, or are<br />

inconsistent, it’ll have an impact on our credibility.<br />

Th<strong>at</strong>’s why we have a ‘house style’. This includes how to write certain words and phrases,<br />

how to show num<strong>be</strong>rs and d<strong>at</strong>es, and when to use capital letters and other useful<br />

inform<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

It also explains why we avoid certain words in our general language – such as ‘p<strong>at</strong>ient’,<br />

‘heroism’, ‘remission’ or ‘cure’.<br />

Don’t worry, you don’t have to remem<strong>be</strong>r it all. We’ve put together a fabulous guide to all<br />

things wordy – from abbrevi<strong>at</strong>ions to the spelling <strong>of</strong> zeitgeist, our style guide has the<br />

answers.<br />

You can access the style guide here.<br />

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The legal bits<br />

Using our name, charity num<strong>be</strong>rs, and company details<br />

The first time you write our name in a communic<strong>at</strong>ion, write it in full: Macmillan Cancer<br />

Support. After th<strong>at</strong>, you can just use Macmillan. (Never abbrevi<strong>at</strong>e to MCS.)<br />

You must put Macmillan's full name and registered charity num<strong>be</strong>rs on all communic<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

m<strong>at</strong>erials and resources:<br />

Macmillan Cancer Support, registered charity in England and Wales (261017), Scotland<br />

(SC039907) and the Isle <strong>of</strong> Man (604).<br />

Here’s our full legal st<strong>at</strong>ement and registered company inform<strong>at</strong>ion. We need to put this<br />

on websites, emails (this is done autom<strong>at</strong>ically for you), letterheads and faxes, as well as<br />

on all <strong>of</strong>ficial, financial and legal items, e.g. purchase orders and annual reports.<br />

You may not use only the English num<strong>be</strong>r. All num<strong>be</strong>rs must <strong>be</strong> used <strong>at</strong> every use.<br />

Macmillan Cancer Support, registered charity in England and Wales (261017), Scotland<br />

(SC039907) and the Isle <strong>of</strong> Man (604). A company limited by guarantee. Registered<br />

company in England and Wales (2400969) and the Isle <strong>of</strong> Man (4694F). Registered <strong>of</strong>fice:<br />

89 Al<strong>be</strong>rt Embankment, London SE1 7UQ. (Welsh transl<strong>at</strong>ion available.)<br />

If you need help deciding whether your m<strong>at</strong>erial should contain the st<strong>at</strong>ement, please<br />

email legal@<strong>macmillan</strong>.<strong>org</strong>.<strong>uk</strong><br />

Copyright<br />

All Macmillan public<strong>at</strong>ions should carry a copyright st<strong>at</strong>ement. This includes the copyright<br />

symbol, our full name and the month and year <strong>of</strong> public<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

© Macmillan Cancer Support, July 2012<br />

Gift Aid<br />

Gift Aid is a scheme th<strong>at</strong> enables charities to claim, from HM Revenue & Customs, the tax<br />

th<strong>at</strong> supporters have paid on their don<strong>at</strong>ions. Whenever you ask people to give money,<br />

you should ask them to confirm they are taxpayers and ‘Gift Aid it’.<br />

This is the l<strong>at</strong>est Gift Aid text to use in your communic<strong>at</strong>ions:<br />

Do you pay tax If so your gift will <strong>be</strong> worth almost a quarter more to us – <strong>at</strong> no extra cost<br />

to you.<br />

All you have to do is tick the box <strong>be</strong>low, and the tax <strong>of</strong>fice will give 25p for every pound<br />

you give. We will only use your details to claim Gift Aid.<br />

Please tre<strong>at</strong> all the don<strong>at</strong>ions I make or have made to Macmillan Cancer Support in the<br />

last 4 years as Gift Aid don<strong>at</strong>ions, until I notify you otherwise.<br />

I confirm I have paid or will pay an amount <strong>of</strong> Income Tax and/or Capital Gains Tax in<br />

each tax year, th<strong>at</strong> is <strong>at</strong> least equal to the tax th<strong>at</strong> Charities & CASCs I don<strong>at</strong>e to will<br />

reclaim on my gifts. I understand th<strong>at</strong> other taxes such as VAT and Council Tax do not<br />

qualify and th<strong>at</strong> Macmillan Cancer Support will reclaim 25p <strong>of</strong> tax on every £1 th<strong>at</strong> I give.<br />

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If you need any more inform<strong>at</strong>ion on Gift Aid such as when to use it or how to use it,<br />

please contact Macmillan’s Supporter Services department (email<br />

supporterservices@<strong>macmillan</strong>.<strong>org</strong>.<strong>uk</strong>|), your regional Gift Aid Champion, or see the Gift<br />

Aid section on the green rooms (Macmillan’s intranet).<br />

D<strong>at</strong>a Protection<br />

We all have the right to know how our personal contact details will <strong>be</strong> stored and used. So<br />

don't f<strong>org</strong>et to fe<strong>at</strong>ure Macmillan's d<strong>at</strong>a protection st<strong>at</strong>ement on any<br />

communic<strong>at</strong>ion/resource th<strong>at</strong> asks for someone’s name, address and/or phone details.<br />

For more inform<strong>at</strong>ion on d<strong>at</strong>a protection, and the correct st<strong>at</strong>ements to use, please<br />

contact Macmillan’s Supporter Services department (email<br />

supporterservices@<strong>macmillan</strong>.<strong>org</strong>.<strong>uk</strong>|), or see the D<strong>at</strong>a Protection section on the green<br />

rooms (Macmillan’s intranet).<br />

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Top style tips<br />

Hold your horses – <strong>be</strong>fore you start typing away, have a think about wh<strong>at</strong> your reader<br />

wants to know – not just wh<strong>at</strong> you want to tell them.<br />

Sort out your sentences – Avoid using more than 25 words per sentence. And you’ll need<br />

to mix it up to keep it interesting, so vary the length <strong>of</strong> your sentences and the words they<br />

<strong>be</strong>gin with too.<br />

It’s all about you – Try to call your reader ‘you’, even if you’re talking to more than one<br />

person. Eg say ‘you can get involved’ r<strong>at</strong>her than ‘supporters can get involved’.<br />

Don’t f<strong>org</strong>et contractions – Words such as ‘won’t’, ‘you’ll’ and ‘we’ll’ will make your copy<br />

sound friendlier.<br />

Looking good – subheadings, quotes, bullet points and boxes <strong>of</strong> text draw people into the<br />

page and make it look more interesting.<br />

Three is the magic num<strong>be</strong>r – Humans are predisposed to like the num<strong>be</strong>r three. We<br />

dunno why – they just are. So when you write, list things in threes to make your words<br />

easy on the ear.<br />

And finally – it’s fine to start sentences with joining words such as ‘and’, ‘but’ and ‘so’.<br />

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Here’s some we made earlier<br />

Example – The little green book <strong>of</strong> fundraising ideas<br />

The little green book <strong>of</strong> fundraising ideas knocked everyone’s socks <strong>of</strong>f when it was<br />

published, and was showered with industry awards. Well, technically, just the one award,<br />

but who’s counting<br />

And why did it make such an impact Well, just look <strong>at</strong> the copy. It’s fun and it’s<br />

unexpected. For instance, it says, ‘It has loads <strong>of</strong> inform<strong>at</strong>ion about how to turn you event<br />

into a bobby dazzler.’ And when it comes to describing things, the writer has chosen to<br />

avoid tired clichés and <strong>be</strong> original, for example, ‘Have a read through and jot down any<br />

ideas th<strong>at</strong> sound more fun than Christmas morning for a five-year-old and look like<br />

potential money-spinners.’<br />

Spending a little time making your writing descriptive and fun really pays <strong>of</strong>f – it keeps<br />

people reading and stops them dozing <strong>of</strong>f. So don’t always go for the obvious option. Try<br />

to use language th<strong>at</strong> stands out. If in doubt, just think ‘bobby dazzler’.<br />

<strong>Tone</strong> <strong>of</strong> voice , Macmillan, [February 2013] 23 <strong>of</strong> 25


Example – Pass it on card<br />

Simplicity and positivity – th<strong>at</strong>’s Macmillan all over. And this little Pass it on card<br />

demonstr<strong>at</strong>es it admirably. Designed to fit snugly into our cute Macmillan Support Line<br />

travel wallet, the copy had to <strong>be</strong> short, sweet and effective.<br />

It achieves this through using simple language th<strong>at</strong> doesn’t go over the top. For example,<br />

it says wh<strong>at</strong> the Macmillan Support Line does, no more, no less. Then it appeals directly<br />

to the reader (‘you’), saying how they can help make a difference. It feels like a real oneto-one<br />

<strong>be</strong>tween the writer and the reader. And the pièce de résistance The subtly-written<br />

– yet hard-hitting – final line th<strong>at</strong> makes the reader feel like a key part <strong>of</strong> our movement:<br />

‘Together, we can make a real difference’.<br />

<strong>Tone</strong> <strong>of</strong> voice , Macmillan, [February 2013] 24 <strong>of</strong> 25


Further reading<br />

In a crowded field, these stand out:<br />

The Guardian style guide <br />

The Plain English Campaign <br />

Essential English for Journalists, Editors and Writers, Harold Evans<br />

E<strong>at</strong>s, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctu<strong>at</strong>ion, Lynn Truss<br />

Confessions <strong>of</strong> an Advertising Man, David Ogilvy<br />

Write to Sell: The Ultim<strong>at</strong>e Guide to Gre<strong>at</strong> Copywriting, Andy Maslen<br />

The Copy Book, Alastair Crompton<br />

Journalism Principles and Practice, Tiny Harcup<br />

The Universal Journalist, David Randall<br />

Happy reading!<br />

<strong>Tone</strong> <strong>of</strong> voice , Macmillan, [February 2013] 25 <strong>of</strong> 25

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