Exploring English - Pearson

longmanafrica.co.za

Exploring English - Pearson

Exploring English

Key Concept Chart

Form 2

Punctuation

You should know how to use the following punctuation marks

correctly. Wrong use of these marks can change the whole

meaning or sense of a sentence!

full stop . apostrophe ’

comma , colons :

quotation marks “ ” semicolons ;

question mark dashes –

exclamation mark !

Most of these are very easy to use, as shown in these two

sentences.

1. “Have you seen my cell phone I can’t find it anywhere!” said

Tshenolo.

2. There are three things to remember about crossing the road: look

both ways to see cars from both directions; cross at a pedestrian

crossing, if possible; cross quickly and safely.

The most common errors in punctuation are:

• not using semi-colons to separate clauses (look at

sentence 2 again).

• misusing apostrophes in abbreviations, e.g. writing do’nt instead

of don’t. Remember the rule: the apostrophe goes where a

letter is left out, not where two words are joined together.

• misusing the apostrophe showing possession, e.g. writing

Obakengs’ book instead of Obakeng’s book, or writing The

book is their’s, which shouldn’t have an apostrophe.

• putting the punctuation in the wrong place in direct

speech. (See the section on Direct and indirect speech

later on in this chart.)

Nouns

◗ Types of nouns

• Common nouns are everyday objects, such as table,

dog, porridge.

• Collective nouns are the names for groups of things, such

as the herd of cattle, the team of soccer players.

• Proper nouns are the names of places, people or things.

Some examples are Mrs. Moremi, Maun, Wednesday.

• Abstract nouns are things we cannot see or touch, such as

happiness, success, pride.

• Beware of making mistakes when using countable and

uncountable nouns.

Uncountable nouns cannot be counted, and cannot have

plurals, e.g. sugar, milk, advice, bread, water, equipment, work, money.

So you cannot say an advice or two moneys. (Note: This is a

common mistake and is often tested in exams.)

Some nouns can only be used in the plural form, e.g. scissors,

jeans, pants. Don’t say I have a new jean. However, you can say

I have a new pair of jeans, as the word pair is countable.

Words

◗ Forming words with prefixes and suffixes

• Prefixes go before a root or basic word. They change the

meaning: unable, disabled, bilingual, anti-retroviral.

• Suffixes go at the end of a root or basic word. They change

the part of speech: amuse (verb), amusement (noun), amusing

(adjective), amusingly (adverb).

◗ Parts of speech

Mothusi has understood the new poem easily.

noun verb article adjective common noun adverb

We ate rice and stew on Saturday.

pronoun verb nouns conjunction proposition noun

Sometimes a word is pronounced differently when it is used

as different parts of speech. Stress the underlined syllables in

the following examples:

Put the refuse in the bin.

I refuse to listen to this horrible music!

The coach subjected the players to difficult fitness training.

What is your favourite subject at school

◗ Antonyms and synonyms

• Antonyms are words with opposite meanings, e.g.

short – tall; comfortable – uncomfortable; inside – outside

• Synonyms are words with similar meanings, e.g.

kind – concerned – caring; sad – depressed – down;

hardworking – industrious

Hint: if you have used the same word over and over again in

your writing, try to think of synonyms. So, instead of writing

We went for a nice swim in the nice river because the weather was

nice you can write We went for a refreshing swim in the clear river

because the weather was warm.

Definite and indefinite articles

• Definite articles are the words the, this, these and that.

We use them when we talk about something specific. If you

know the book you want to read, you can ask the librarian

Please may I have that book / Please may I have the book that

is over there

• Indefinite articles are the words a and an. If you don’t

know which book you want to read, you can ask the librarian

Please may I have a book to read

We cannot use definite or indefinite articles with

uncountable nouns. For example, ask your visitors Would you

like some/any sugar with your tea It is wrong to ask Would you

like a sugar/the sugar But you can ask Would you like a biscuit

Why Because while biscuits are countable, sugar is not.

Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English in Action English Exploring English Exploring


Verbs

Make sure you use the correct tense in your writing. In English

language exams, you are often asked to fill in the correct form of the

verb, e.g. The police officer (to interview) the witness to the crime yesterday.

Answer: interviewed

Verb tense Use Example sentence Verb

Past simple actions in the past Yesterday, she washed washed

the dishes.

Past

progressive

actions that

continued for a

time

Masego was washing the

clothes when it started

to rain.

was

washing

Past

perfect

Present

simple

Present

progressive

Present

perfect

Future

simple

Future

progressive

Future

perfect

actions that were

finished by the time

another event in

the past took place

actions that are

happening now

actions ongoing

now

actions now but

completed

I had finished the book

by the time the teacher

explained it to us.

had

finished

She exercises for an hour exercises

every day.

He listens to music while is

he is exercising. exercising

She has exercised already has

this morning, so she feels exercised

wide awake.

actions that will

happen later

We will visit our cousins

next week.

actions that The teacher will keep

continue over a the other students quiet

period in the future because we will be

writing the exam.

actions that will be By the time I am 21, I will

completed in the have finished studying to

future

become a technician.

Progressive tenses are often called continuous tenses.

will visit

will be

writing

will have

finished

• The verb form will be determined by the tense. The

table on the left shows different verb tenses.

• Beware of the present simple tense. Many people think

this is the most simple tense and therefore the easiest.

But in fact we only use it in specific situations, e.g. for

actions that happen regularly or for things that are true

or scientific: School starts at 7am every day. Water boils at

100 ºC. She looks just like her mother.

• Avoid the common mistake of using the present progressive

tense when you should use the present simple tense, e.g.

I am having three brothers or We are owning a car instead of I

have three brothers or We own a car.

◗ Auxiliary and modal verbs

• Auxiliary verbs are used to make different forms of

verbs. Examples are have read, is waiting.

• Modal verbs tell us more about the mood of a verb.

These are the most common modals: must, should, would,

ought to, used to, can, could, might, may. Using the correct

modal may make a sentence seem more or less polite, e.g.

You may join us is more polite than You must join us.

• One common mistake is to use can when you mean may.

Don’t ask Please can I use your calculator The correct

form is Please may I use your calculator

◗ Phrasal verbs

• Phrasal verbs have two or more words. They have their

own meaning, e.g. Sit in your chair means just that: sit down

in your own chair. But sit in has another meaning when it

is a phrasal verb. It means to take the place of. For example:

I will sit in for the committee secretary today, because he could

not be here.

The passive voice and active voice

• Most sentences use the active voice, and this is what you

should use most of the time in your writing. In the active

voice, the subject of the sentence shows the person or

thing that does the action of the verb, e.g.

Our team won the debating competition.

A leopard killed a small buck.

• In the passive voice, the subject of the sentence shows

who or to what the action was done, e.g.

The debating competition was won by our team.

A small buck was killed by a leopard.

There are three main reasons for using the passive voice.

1. When we don’t know who did the action, or it is not

important, e.g. My bag was stolen.

2. When we want to disguise who did the action, e.g.

Unfortunately, my homework has been left behind.

3. In scientific writing, e.g.

The solution was made up of 50 ml water and 10g sugar. It

was boiled for 5 minutes.

• Sometimes in language questions you will be asked to rewrite

a sentence in either the passive or the active, like this:

The chocolate was eaten last night. (passive)

We ate the chocolate last night. (active)

My homework has been left at home. (passive)

I left my homework at home. (active)

The building will start next year. (passive)

We will start building next year. (active)

Direct and indirect speech

Examination papers often have questions where you have to

change direct to indirect speech, e.g.

“Have you finished your homework” asked the teacher.

The teacher asked the class whether they had finished their homework.

When you make this change several things will happen:

• Don’t use quotation marks.

• Tense usually goes “one back”, e.g. from past simple finished

to past perfect had finished.

• Pronouns change, e.g. from you to they, and from your to their.

• Use a conjunction to introduce the actual words, e.g. whether.

• In direct speech, remember that all the words and the

punctuation belonging to those words go inside the

quotation marks. A common mistake is to put exclamation

marks or question marks in the wrong place, e.g.

“Where are my keys” asked my sister. ✓

“Where are my keys” asked my sister X

Chinua Achebe wrote the novel “Things Fall Apart”. ✓

Chinua Achebe wrote the novel “Things Fall Apart.” X

• When direct speech contains another quote inside it, use

double and single quotation marks, e.g. “Which R&B superstar

sang ‘The Storm is Over Now’” she asked.

Here are some other examples of how to do it correctly:

“Yes! I’ve passed my exams!” shouted Neo.

Neo exclaimed that she had passed her exams.

“Quotation marks should go here,” explained the teacher.

The teacher explained that quotation marks should go in that place.

Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English Exploring


Sentences

◗ Statements are straightforward sentences, e.g. I like to braid

my hair.

◗ Directions or instructions tell someone what to do, e.g.

Switch off your cellphones during the film.

Do not leave candles burning when you go to bed.

Turn left at the crossroads.

◗ Imperatives are a stronger form of command, e.g.

Don’t do that!

◗ Exclamations express strong emotions, e.g.

I thought that was great!

◗ Questions

There are different ways of forming questions.

1. Using question words such as who, which, why, how, where, e.g.

Where is the nearest garage

Who would like some more supper

2. Changing the word order:

He can speak two languages changes to a question like this:

Can he speak two languages

3. Using question tags:

Use a positive tag with a negative sentence, e.g.

He can’t speak three languages, can he

Use a negative tag with a positive question, e.g.

You will remember to bring the book, won’t you

◗ Simple, complex and compound sentences

1. Simple sentences have only one clause, e.g.

Lesedi likes curry. Lesedi likes hot curry.

2. Complex sentences have clauses that tell us more about

the main clause. The subordinate clause is joined to the main

clause with a conjunction such as because, when or if, e.g.

Lesedi likes curry, because he likes spicy food.

(subordinate clause of reason)

Lesedi eats curry when he is at his grandmother’s house.

(subordinate clause of place)

Lesedi likes curry if it is made with lots of chilli.

(subordinate clause of manner)

3. Compound sentences have two or more main clauses, e.g.

Lesedi likes curry but his brother Thato prefers burgers.

◗ Subject, object and predicate

• Sentences always have a subject and a verb.

The referee whistled loudly.

subject verb

• Sentences can have an object as well. The verb and object

together are called the predicate.

The referee whistled at the offside player.

subject verb object

predicate

The player kicked the ball with his right foot.

subject verb direct object indirect object

predicate

◗ Subject-verb agreement

This is also called concord. The form of the verb has to agree

with the subject. This is one of the most common mistakes.

This is also often tested in language examinations.

◗ Subject-verb agreement of regular verbs

Notice that for regular verbs, the verb gets an –s if the subject

falls into the category of third person singular.

Subject

first person singular (I)

plural (We)

second person singular (You)

plural (You)

third person singular

(He/She/any name)

plural (They)

Dictionaries

Read this extract from a dictionary:

Verb form

I wear smart clothes.

We wear smart clothes.

You wear smart clothes.

You all wear smart clothes.

He/She/Naledi wears smart clothes.

They wear smart clothes.

◗ Subject-verb agreement of irregular verbs

Notice that for irregular verbs, the verb form changes completely.

Subject

first person: singular (I)

plural (We)

second person singular (You)

plural (You)

third person singular (He/She)

plural (They)

Verb form

I am in Form 2.

We are in Form 2.

You are in Form 2.

You all are in Form 2.

He/She/Naledi is in Form 2.

They are in Form 2.

◗ Relative clauses

1. Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns, e.g. who

if the clause refers to people, and that or which if the clause

refers to things or places, e.g. Our examination which/that was

written on Monday was easy!

2. We can usually use either that or which. But some grammarians

prefer to be strict about this, and use which for less important

clauses. Those clauses should also be in commas, e.g.

The day that I won the competition changed my life.

Note: Use that because the clause is essential.

My shoes, which are black, are made from leather. Use which and

put the clause in commas, because the information about the

shoes being black is extra to the meaning of the sentence.

3. A common examination question is to ask you to explain the

difference between two relative clauses, e.g.

My uncle, who lives in Francistown, is a doctor.

My uncle who lives in Francistown is a doctor.

The first sentence means the speaker only has one uncle, so the

fact that he lives in Francistown is extra. The second sentence

means the speaker has more than one uncle, and it is the one who

lives in Francistown who is a doctor.

Headword Part of speech Pronounciation Meaning

Chicken (n) tshi-ken (1) A bird used in farming, for poultry

or eggs. (2) The meat of this bird, eaten: We had chicken

stew for supper. (3) (adj) cowardly (slang): The bullies were

too chicken to confront anyone bigger than themselves.

Example sentence

A thesaurus is a dictionary that gives synonyms. It does not

explain meaning. Read this extract from a thesaurus:

Cold: chilly, freezing, frozen, icy, wintry, cool

Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English in Action English Exploring English Exploring


This course is supported by the online

A NEW teaching experience!

For new curriculum implementation in Botswana

Heinemann Exploring English Form 2 covers all the requirements of the Revised Junior

Secondary School English syllabus for Form 2.

Exploring English Form 2 helps students to understand the subject:

• Each chapter lists the learning objectives helping students to clearly understand what

they need to be able to do

• The wide range of varied activities and additional information enables students

to explore the content

• Clear and concise language makes the content accessible for students

• A comprehensive glossary defines and explains new and difficult words.

Exploring English Form 2 helps students to pass the subject:

• Exercises help students test their understanding of the subject and build confidence

• Chapter summaries reinforce learning

• Revision exercises expose students to a variety of commonly used examination questions

• A sample examination paper provides valuable exam practice.

Exploring, a new teaching and learning experience!

Heinemann books are printed on quality

paper, and have sturdy, long-lasting covers.

Brigid Conteh, Matlhoatsie Masendu, Deborah Sanoto

Pronouns

Pronouns are confusing to many people!

• Subject pronouns are easy, e.g.

I am short.

We/You are short.

He/she/it is short.

• Object pronouns are as follows:

Give the ball to me/you/him/her/us.

Here are some of the common pronoun mistakes, e.g.

Can my brother and me go to the library X

Can my brother and I go to the library ✓

The teacher wants to see you and I. X

The teacher wants to see you and me. ✓

He and her are prefects at school. X

He and she are prefects at school. ✓

• Possessive pronouns show that something belongs to

the person or thing, e.g.

That bicycle is mine. Is this your bicycle Is this yours

Each candidate must write his/her name on the paper.

• Other possessive pronouns are my, our, ours, hers, its, their

and theirs. Look out for these mistakes, both in your

writing and as examination questions.

The dog ate it’s food. (should be its)

Here is you’re coffee. (should be your)

Reading comprehension

• Context: Before you read the text, try to work out

where it comes from. Is it a magazine article, a newspaper

report, an extract from a textbook, etc This will help you

understand the text.

• Skim: Read the text very quickly, casting your eye over the

headings, sub-headings, illustrations and captions. This will

help you work out what the text is about.

• Identify the question type:

1. Multiple-choice questions ask you to choose the best

answer. Be careful: sometimes there is one option that is

almost right, but another that is better.

2. True/false questions ask you to agree or disagree with a

statement. Often you are asked to provide evidence or to

quote from the text to support your choice.

3. Quotes: when you are asked to quote, use quotation marks!

4. Analytical questions: these are the more difficult

questions that ask you to give your opinion, to comment

on the writing style or on the author’s point of view.

5. Questions about an advertisement will ask you

to explain how words are used to sell a product or

idea. Adjectives and adverbs can be persuasive. Some

advertisements use exaggeration, such as promising that

you will look more attractive if you use a product.

6. Read the marks: use the mark allocation as a guide as

to how much to write. If a question is worth 1 mark,

then don’t write five lines in your answer!

Likewise, write more if a question Exploring is

English

worth more.

Contact details

Pearson Botswana: Tel: +267 3922969 Fax: +267 3922682

Plot 14386, New Lobatse Road, G-West Industrial Site,

Gaborone, Botswana. Website: www.longmanafrica.co.za

Form 2

Student’s

Book

Exploring English Form 2 Student’s Book

Exploring

English

Form 2

Student’s

Book

FREE

KEY CONCEPT CHART

WITH STUDENT’S

BOOK

Figures of speech

Use the following to make your writing and your speech

more interesting.

• Idioms are well known phrases or sayings, e.g.

The corruption is just the tip of the iceberg, there is a lot more

to be uncovered.

• Metaphors are comparisons, e.g.

You are an angel to help me so much.

• Similes: similes are very similar to metaphors. They use

the words like or as in the comparison, e.g.

Her eyes are as cold as ice.

• Imagery is to draw a picture of something by using words.

Note: metaphors and similes are types of images!

I have a ton of homework to do!

When I finish school, I will be starting my journey on the river

of life.

Writing papers

◗ Short pieces include letters, reports, dialogues or

interviews, speeches, emails and curriculum vitaes. You might

even be asked to design an advert.

• Layout for letters: remember that the address and date

go on the right, and the opening goes below that, on the

left. Formal letters end with Yours faithfully followed by your

name. Informal letters can be ended with Yours sincerely or

the even more informal Best wishes or All the best. Formal

letters have an underlined subject line such as “Application for

employment” or “Order of books”.

• Layout of a curriculum vitae (CV): use lots of sub-headings

to make your CV look very clear. Give your personal details

first, such as age and address. Then have sub-headings such as

Education qualifications, Work experience and References.

• Instructions and directions are another type of short writing

text. Here you use imperatives, such as Turn left at the street.

Keep your sentences short, and make sure the order is clear.

◗ Essays

There are different types of essays:

1. Creative essays, which include narratives or stories and

descriptions. Typical topics are Describe an event that changed

your life or A rainstorm.

2. Factual essays, which ask you to explain information on a

topic, such as Choose any Botswana tradition and explain it.

3. Argumentative essays, where you might be asked to

discuss more than one opinion, or you could be asked to

argue strongly in favour of one opinion. For example, you

could be asked to explain the advantages and disadvantages of

cell phones. Or you could get a topic like this: Should the legal

age for drinking alcohol be increased to 21 Explain your opinion.

What examiners like:

1. Write a strong introduction and a strong conclusion as

these leave a good impression on the examiner.

2. Make sure that the body of your essay is divided into

paragraphs that have a clear topic sentence.

3. Edit your work for mistakes, so that your final draft is as

good as possible.

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines