RCC vs. Articulated Concrete Blocks for Overtopping Protection

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RCC vs. Articulated Concrete Blocks for Overtopping Protection

Dam Overtopping

Auxiliary Spillway Armoring


1. Performance Limitations

2. Placement Limitations

3. Flow Energy Dissipation

4. Hydraulic Complexity

5. Project Size

6. Service Life

7. Foundation Reliability

8. Technical Complexity

9. Material Availability

10. Cost


Overtopping Depth = 12.7 Feet

Total Drop (Spillway Crest to Stilling Basin) = 82.3 Feet

ArmorWedge®

New Creek Site 14, WV

USSR Tests; 30’ Overtopping, V>75 fps

USBR Tests; 5’ Overtopping 2H:1V Slope


Tarbela Dam RCC Spillway Basin, Pakistan

Ocoee No. 2 Dam, Tennessee …

Brownwood Country Club, Texas …

North Fork Toutle River, Washington …


Damage From Debris Impact

Photo Courtesy of USACE, Jacksonville District


Damage From Debris Impact

Photo Courtesy of USACE, Jacksonville District


Photo Courtesy of USACE, Jacksonville District


Photo Courtesy of USACE, Jacksonville District


Damage From Debris Impact

Photo Courtesy of USACE, Jacksonville District


Photo Courtesy of USACE, Jacksonville District


Photo Courtesy of Darin Shaffer


Prudhoe Bay, Alaska


Pohick Dam No. 4


• Noise

• Dust

• Staging Area

• Traffic

• Public Safety


Source: Public Safety at Low Head Dams,

Kenneth Wright et. Al. ASDSO

Conference, September 9, 2003

Minneapolis, MN


Gilboa Dam, NY


ArmorWedge®


1/2 Inch

FLOW


FLOW

1/2 Inch


Swan-Buffalo #12 (Absaraka) Dam, ND – Flowed for 7 days

Video Courtesy of Erica Althoff, P.E. ND NRCS


Photo Courtesy of Erica Althoff, P.E. ND NRCS


Photo Courtesy of USACE, Jacksonville District


Video courtesy of ARS (Dr. Sherry Hunt. P.E.)


Photo Courtesy of USACE, Jacksonville District


Photo Courtesy of USACE, Jacksonville District


Modeled 4-Foot Overtopping Depth With

Flow Reaching Terminal Velocity >26 fps


Rynearson Dam No. 1, WI


Lake Natalie, PA


Lake Natalie, PA


Lake Natalie, PA


Portugues Dam (Upstream Cofferdam), Puerto Rico

Photo Courtesy of USACE, Jacksonville District


What if this was RCC


Tampa Bay Reservoir

• 350,000 Cubic Yards Soil Cement

• 16-Inch Thick Layer on 1V:3H Slope

• Used Onsite Soils (Screening & Mixing)

• 8 Percent Cement Content (by weight)

Stair-Stepped Soil-Cement

Soil-Cement Plating


Tampa Bay Reservoir

16”Min.

Non-Woven Geotextile


Shavers Creek Dam, PA


RCC:

• Requires Greater Technical Expertise & Oversight

• Requires RCC Mix Design & Specs (ND vs. AZ)

• Must Aggressively Monitor RCC mixing & placement

• Time Dependent Material Placement

RCC Placement Restrictions (Temperature, Rain ...)

• More Involved Drainage Details

ACBs:

• Onsite Technical Representative (Recommended)


• Design of Rectangular Embankment

• 6 Square Mile Lake Area

• Stormwater Management/Irrigation

• ~$15 Million Budget

Fellsmere Water

Management Area


RCC Cost Factors:

RCC Mix Design & Materials Evaluation

• Plant Mobilization & Startup

• Material Costs

• Material Hauling Costs

• Construction Schedule & Placement Restrictions

• Increased risk of weather delays and claims

• Requires Experienced Contractor

• More QA/QC Monitoring, Testing, Observation …

ACB Cost Factors:

• Delivery Cost


Dam Overtopping

Auxiliary Spillway Armoring


Dam Overtopping

Auxiliary Spillway Armoring

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