Learning Cities

images.torino.internazionale.org

Learning Cities

Learning Cities

Cases, Modalities, Lessons

Torino Internazionale

9 July 2009

Tim Campbell, PhD

Senior Fellow, Comparative Domestic Policy

Program, German Marshall Fund

Urban Age Institute


Content

• Introduction– GMF

• What is learning

• Emerging forms of exchange

– Shadow economy of knowledge

• Illustrations– 3 cases

• Lessons

– Where does knowledge reside

– approaches to competitiveness

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

2


Focus of GMF Fellowship

Mechanisms of innovation and learning

• Barcelona, Turin, Portland, Charlotte

• Similar models:

organizational change in corporate world

knowledge regions in Europe

• Builds on previous work

– web-based survey of 27 cities

– article in Habitat International

• policies can affect the pace of change in cities


What is learning in cities

Learning

– Data, information, news, gossip

– Something worth remembering--acquired

knowledge

• Use

– More effective lives, more efficient actions

• Storage

– Documents, computers, heads


Significance of learning in

cities

• Global pressures pushing cities

together

Cities are becoming aware of outside

experience and pressures to be up to

date (protective walls fallen away).

• They are at an early, formative stage

• Leading cities pointing the way–

Europe, US, China, LAC

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

5


Number of cities

by size, 2015

Population size

(Millions)

World

Total

Economic status

More

Less

Dev’d

Dev’d

10 M > 21 4 17

5-10 M 37 6 31

1-55 M 496 118 378

.5-1 1 M 507 107 400

Total .5-10M

1061 235 826

62 of 133 countries < 10 million

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

6


analytical

work in the

World Bank

singles out

“importance

of fostering

exchange of

knowledge

among

cities” to

encourage

innovation

and reform


Trends Shaping the

Learning Environment

Decentralization

– More than 70 governments decentralizing, sharing power

Democratization

– Popular elections and reforms

• Decentralization

• Democratization

• Globalization

– Protective walls are down

– increased cross-border trade flows

– greater speed of transactions

– structural shifts in economy (frontier expands in

export led, knowledge intensive)

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

8


Emerging Market for

Learning

• City to city experiences (Sisters, ICMA,

other, e.g., Seattle) becoming more known

• Proliferation of associations– Keiner counts

more than 50 on sustainability, alone

• International confederations

• Knowledge economies for cities and regions

• Competitiveness and the private sector

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

9


OL to Competitiveness

Organization ----Unit of Analysis--

-- Interactive Milieu

Organiza-

tional

learning

The firm and

firms in

clusters

New

Regional

develop-

ment

Managing

complex

networks

Innovative

Millieu,

Concept of

“Ba”

Learning

city

< 1970s 1990s 2000 >

Churchman

Schon

Polyani

Marshall

Penrose,

Porter

Sabel

Saxenian

Castels

Senge

Sotarauta

Comagni

Kostiainan

Kitson,

Nonanka

Italian

small

producers

Silicon

Valley,

SE

England

Tampere

Minneapolis

Deputy

Prime Min.

UK

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

10


Typology of actors

Modality

Organized Agency

Example

Characteristics of

Learning

Individual Cities

City/Regional

Development

City Networks

Active

City Networks

Passive

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

11


Typology of City Learning: Agencies and Networks

Modality

Organized

Agency

Dedicated Agency

Close, but Not

Dedicated

Individual Cities

Example

Curitiba,

Ho Chi Minh

Bilbao, Seattle

Shanghai,Tangin

Tampere, Finland

Metro Research Institute,

Budapest

Characteristics of Learning

Full or part time staff dedicated totally

or mostly to city questions

Closely connected and frequently

consulted, but independent agencies

Cities One on One

City/Regional

Development

One on many in

Europe and US

ICMA City Links

Federation of Candadian

Municipalities

Sister Cities

Seattle, US; Birmingham,

UK; Silicon Valley;

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Minneapolis; South

Urban Age Institute

One on one exchanges over one to

two years

Assembly of knowledge intensive

firms, buttressed by universities;

special purpose learning events

12


Typology of City Learning: Agencies and Networks

Modality

Organized

Agency

Dedicated Agency

Close, but Not

Dedicated

Individual Cities

Example

Curitiba,

Ho Chi Minh

Bilbao

Shanghai,Tangin

Tampere, Finland

Metro Research Institute,

Budapest

Characteristics of Learning

Full or part time staff dedicated totally

or mostly to city questions

Closely connected and frequently

consulted, but independent agencies

Mandate widens

Cities One on One

City/Regional

Development

One on many in

Europe and US

ICMA City Links

Federation of Candadian

Municipalities

Sister Cities

Seattle, US; Birmingham,

UK; Silicon Valley;

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Minneapolis; South

Urban Age Institute

One on one exchanges over one to

two years

Assembly of knowledge intensive

firms, buttressed by universities;

special purpose learning events

13


City Networks

Active

Cluster on

Cluster

City Networks

Passive

City Network

Conveners

City Network

Managers

UNESCO World

Heritage Cities

Bertlesmann Cities

of Change

ICLEI

Metropolis

World Technopolis

UCLG,

InfoCity, , .

Asia City Net

UN Habitat Best

Practice

LOGIN

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

City members of a class

involved in more or less

sustained, regular

program of exchanges,

punctuated by intermittent

technical meetings and

visits

Apex agencies convene

and work on class action

basis

Largely “passive”

networks.

External agent

provides a

forum for a

designated

‘class’ of cities

in formal

network

Mandate widens

External agent

for open

network of

cities, broad

agenda

Focus blurs

External agent,

learning

depends on

initiative of

cities.

14


Focus on Agency in Typology

Modality

Organized

Agency

Dedicated Agency

Close, but Not

Dedicated

Individual Cities

Example

Curitiba,

Ho Chi Minh

Bilbao, Seattle

Shanghai,Tangin

Tampere, Finland

Metro Research Institute,

Budapest

Characteristics of Learning

Full or part time staff dedicated totally

or mostly to city questions

Closely connected and frequently

consulted, but independent agencies

Cities One on One

City/Regional

Development

One on many in

Europe and US

ICMA City Links

Federation of Candadian

Municipalities

Sister Cities

Seattle, US; Birmingham,

UK; Silicon Valley;

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Minneapolis; South

Urban Age Institute

One on one exchanges over one to

two years

Assembly of knowledge intensive

firms, buttressed by universities;

special purpose learning events

15


Known Learners– Case

Studies

City

Bilbao

Seattle

Curitiba

Modality

Formal, elected

Informal,

Technical

Characteristics of

Learning

Outsiders brought in

to present

City, business and

NGOs travel outbound

International experts

in-house

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

16


City Vision--Bilbao

1980s European

Union

1989 Formation of

Assembly

1991 Creation of

Metropoli 30

1992

Revitalization

Plan

1993 Bilbao Ria

2000

External Port


Bilbao overview

New Port ----------------12 kms-----------------

Downtown


Abandoibarra

Abandoibarra and RENFE

Rail yards 50 ha 1990

Cesar Pelli’s Site Design, with

Guggenheim, Convention

Center, hotel and housing


Relocated Port of Bilbao


• Abandoibarra, footbridges, Ribera Park

• 1995 Metro System

• 1997 Guggenheim Museum

• 1999 Bilbao 2010: The Strategy

• 2000 Airport


Bilbao Riverfront Axis

Museum

Civic Center


Ribera Park


Footbridge at Campo Volantin,

Santiago Calatravo, 1997

Nervion River

Bilbao Spain


Metro Scheme


Learning and Future

• 1990-2005 more than 40 seminars

from World class thought leaders

• 2006 World Forum on Values for City

Development

• 2008 European Institute for City

Development


2. Seattle Study Tours–

Team Building

Seattle Trade Development Alliance

• Leadership elite (100 civic leaders)

Boeing, Microsoft, Amazon, Starbucks,

elected and appointed officials

• The objective of study missions is to

broaden members’ understanding of

the position of a city, region and state

within the global economy.

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

27


Seattle TDA

• 1992 Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Stuttgart

• 1993 Vietnam

• 1994 Kansai (Kobe, Osaka)

• 2995 Hong Kong

• 2997 London Bristol

• 1998 Singapore

• 1999 Sydney

• 2000 Shanghai

• 2003 Barcelona

• 2004 Munich

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

28


Applications in US

Densifying Seattle


Transit Changes from

Europe, Korea, Brazil

• Dynamic curbside parking

San Francisco, Seattle

• New regulations-- no

parking requirements on new buildings

downtown


Shanghai and Barcelona

• Shanghai

– The tables turned--

--Seattle saw speed in

implementation

• Barcelona

– Insights into regional management

– Prompted a Seattle retreat to launch new

strategy

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

31


Seattle Exchanges 2002.

154 Delegations; 700 visitors;

3,000 Seattleites engaged.

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Business

Figure 6. Purpose of Delegation by Type of Delegation, WAC

2002

Gov Off

Elect Off

Education

NGOs

Health

Unknown

Security

Techno

Soc Svs

Health

Arts/Cult

Env

Civil Soc

Media

Edn

Govt

Business

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

32


Six underlying goals of study

missions:

• Ongoing process of relationship building among

and between city’s s civic leadership

• Study and learn from the practices and

programs of other cities and cultures that may

provide solutions to own urban problems

• Promote region’s business opportunities

• Build relationships with the people and

institutions in the cities visited

• Organize special business and educational

opportunity meetings

• Develop the most sophisticated civic leadership

in our country on international issues

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

33


3. Curitiba and IPPUC

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

34


Curitiba Timeline

• 1943 Agache Plan

• 1965 IPPUC created

• 1967 Pedestrian mall

• 1972 continuous planning

• 1978 integrated transport network

• 1982 regime change

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

35


Flower street

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

36


Skyline and zoning

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

37


oundabout

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

38


The “surface metro”

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

39


Timeline, cont

• 1982-1987 1987 downturn

• 1989 Lerner elected

• 1994 Parks touted

• 1996 Historic quarter

• 2000 intensification of participation

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

40


Summary of cases

“…the process of

learning may be as

important as the

product in

contributing to

competitiveness,

that policies can

helpful

to facilitate learning.”

Habitat International 33 (2009)

195–201


Case Studies

City

Bilbao

Seattle

Curitiba

Modality

Formal, elected

Informal,

Technical

Characteristics of

Learning

Outsiders brought in

to present

City, business and

NGOs travel outbound

International experts

in-house

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

42


Observations of Learning

Cities. They …

• Have tight focus

• See transformation as a “felt need”

• Think long term, more strategic

• Are active, with participation from outside

sphere of elected officials

• Go out and see or bring in experiences

• Invest in capacity building

• Can access stored knowledge

7/10/2009 Tim Campbell, PhD.

Urban Age Institute

43


• TimCampbell@urbanage.org


Investment in Learning

(time)

Average time spent 3.6 weeks

Equivalent to 4-12 %

• EU investment 3-6 % of GDP in OECD

• World Bank 5% of admin budget

• US Corporations 5-7 %


Source of Learning:

impact (90 cities named)

Modality

In house

Consultants

Universities

Prof pubs/rpts

City to city

Associations

Prof organztns

Overall

3.8

3.2

3.4

3.3

4.3

3.8

3.8

Reformers

3.8

3.4

3.2

3.3

4.4

3.8

3.8

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines