Guidelines for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation ... - REMA

Guidelines for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation ... - REMA






Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA)

Guidelines for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in

the Environment and Natural Resources Sector

(Final Version)

Enabling Sustainable Development through Climate

Change Adaptation and Mitigation

Prepared by:



November 2011


FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................ 3

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................... 4

1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 5

1.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................... 5

1.2 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES .............................................................................. 6



2.1 CLIMATE CHANGE: A GLOBAL PHENOMENON WITH LOCAL EFFECTS ......................................... 7

2.2 FUTURE CLIMATE PROJECTIONS FOR RWANDA ....................................................................... 8



CHANGE ................................................................................................................................ 12

3.1 OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN RWANDA .......................................................................... 12

3.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................. 12

3.1.2.GHG Emissions and underlying Causes of Climate Change in Rwanda . 12


3.2.1 Forest Resources ............................................................................................................. 13

3.2.2 Water Resources.............................................................................................................. 14

3.2.3 Mining and Mineral Resources ................................................................................. 14

3.2.4 Wetlands ............................................................................................................................. 14

3.2.5 Land Resources ................................................................................................................ 14


3.4 NATIONAL RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN RWANDA ....................................................... 18



4.1 OVERVIEW OF THE ENR POLICY PROCESSES IN RWANDA ....................................................... 19




ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION IN ENR SECTORS ................................................... 24


5.2 KEY ISSUES IN CCMA MAINSTREAMING IN THE ENR SECTOR ............................................... 25



ADAPTATION ........................................................................................................................................ 35



REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 40

ANNEXES .............................................................................................................................. 41


Rwanda has come a long way on its Vision towards a medium income country by 2020, with

major achievements made in all sectors. However, climate change, a major global phenomenon

with serious local implications, threatens to undermine the achievements. Although Rwanda in

particular and Africa in general, have contributed very little to global warming, they will be

disproportionately impacted by climate change. Rwanda’s natural resources are particularly

vulnerable because of the high pressure of exploitation they are exposed to, the fragility of

ecosystems and low levels of scientific knowledge and technological innovation. Adaptation

measures can reduce the country’s vulnerability and significantly lower the costs of responding

to climate change. This is why REMA has prepared sector-specific guidelines to encourage and

facilitate the process and adaptation and mitigation.

Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA) has been leading the national response to

climate change, working with stakeholders to build adaptive capacity at all levels. Indeed, these

guidelines are part of on-going efforts to build national resilience and capacity to mitigate and

adapt to climate change. The guidelines complement existing tools, and are informed by recent

work on climate change and environmental mainstreaming in the development processes.

These Guidelines are intended for use by policy makers, planners, technocrats and analysts in

the Ministries and Agencies responsible for Natural Resources and Environment; ENRdependant

sectors Ministries; Development Partners, NGOs and private investors in mining,

water resources, forestry, wildlife and tourism, and wetland resources. They are a must-use

reference document for formulation, implementation and monitoring of policies, programmes,

projects and short-term plans in environment and natural resources. While REMA continues to

play its statutory role of coordination, regulation and support, the Ministry of Natural Resources

(MINIRENA) will take the lead in mainstreaming climate change adaptation into natural

resources policy processes, working hand in hand with other relevant ministries, Local

Governments and non state institutions.

Finally, I would like to recognise the team from the Centre for Resource Analysis (CRA),

who assisted us in preparing these guidelines. I also applaud the staff of REMA, especially

those associated with the Integrated Management of Critical Ecosystems (IMCE) project

which made the production of these guidelines possible and the World Bank which provided

the financing. Other national institutions and stakeholders who contributed to developing

these guidelines are gratefully acknowledged.

Finally, I argue the relevant institutions and individuals to make use of this and other

operational tools developed on climate change to build national resilience against climate

change impacts on our ecosystems and natural resources, as it’s the only way to assure

sustainable development in Rwanda.


Dr. Mukankomeje Rose

Director General, REMA

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AfDB African Development Bank

CCMA Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

CDM Clean Development Mechanism

CPAF Common Performance Assessment Framework

CSOs Civil Society Organisations

DDPs District Development Plans

EAC East African Community

EDPRS Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy

ENR Environment and Natural Resources

EU European Union

GDP Gross Domestic Product

GHG Green House Gases

GoR Government of Rwanda

GTZ German Technical Cooperation

MINAGRI Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources

MINECOFIN Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning

MINELA Ministry of Environment and Lands

MINIFOM Ministry of Forestry and Mines

MINIRENA Ministry of Natural Resources

MININFRA Ministry of Infrastructures

MoH Ministry of Health

NAFA National Forestry Authority

NAPA National Adaptation Plan of Action

NBI Nile Basin Initiative

NELSAP Nile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary Action Programme

NRM Natural Resources Management

NUR National University of Rwanda

OECD Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development

OGMR Rwanda Geology and Mining Agency (French acronym)

RECO Rwanda Electricity Company

REMA Rwanda Environment Management Authority

RNRA Rwanda Natural Resources Authority

RURA Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority

RWASCO Rwanda Water Supply Company

SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

SLM Sustainable Land Management

UNDP United Nations Development Programme

UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

WHO World Health Organisation

1. Introduction

“…Climate change is emerging as the greatest environmental challenge of the

twenty-first century. What is more, a virtual Pandora's box of major global threats, such

as hunger, poverty, population growth, armed conflict, displacement, air pollution, soil

degradation, desertification and deforestation are intricately intertwined with and all

contribute to climate change, necessitating a comprehensive approach.” FAO.

1.1 General Overview

In 2000, Rwanda elaborated the Vision 2020, a plan expected to transform the country

from a low to medium-income country with a healthy and productive population. Halfway

to the Vision 2020, tremendous progress has been made in all sectors, and economic

growth has doubled from a per capita gross domestic product of US$ 250 to more than

US $510 by 2010. Rwanda’s development is dependent on her natural resources – fresh

water, biodiversity, forests, fertile soils, minerals, climate and beautiful landscapes.

While these resources have sustained livelihoods and the economy, they have been

progressively degraded, due to population pressure and inappropriate use. Now, climate

change has emerged as a new challenge and could halt or reverse the progress made

towards socioeconomic transformation, unless efforts are made to develop adaptive

capacity. Climate change repercussions will manifest in increased resource scarcity and

intensified environmental crisis.

Climate change is defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

Change (UNFCCC) as a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to

human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in

addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods."

Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, which are the main causes of climate change, arise

principally from anthropogenic factors (human activities) although natural factors

contribute too. The types of activities also determine the kinds of GHGs emitted. Thus

there is need to: (i) mitigate climate change by undertaking actions that reduce GHG

emissions; and (ii) implement adaptation measures to protect the population from

climate change effects.

Climate change has adverse impact on economies and public health, and poor countries

like Rwanda will suffer the greatest impact (MINELA, 2010). In its 4 th Assessment

Report, the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that Africa


was likely to experience more warming than the rest of the Planet (IPCC, 2007). This

implies that Africa should adapt perhaps more quickly than other regions.

The Government of Rwanda (GoR) has undertaken a number of measures to address

climate change, beginning with ratification of the United Nations Framework

Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992, developing a National Adaptation

Action Plan (NAPA) in 2000, and formulating a low carbon growth strategy in 2010.

1.2 Objectives and Scope of the Guidelines

These guidelines are designed to provide basic and flexible guidance on how to:

i) conduct impact and vulnerability assessments in the ENR sector;

ii) identify opportunities and entry points for integration of climate change

mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) measures into the ENR sector;

iii) identify, analyse and integrate options for CCMA into the ENR policy processes

from policy formulation, financing, implementation and evaluation at national,

local and community levels. A special guide on designing and implementing

adaptation projects (of all scales) is included.

The guidelines will assist to improve the resilience of Rwanda’s ENR sector to climate

change effects and cushion the country’s economy from climate change shocks.

1.3 Why Mainstream Climate Change Adaptation into the ENR Sector

Rwanda’s environment and natural resources (ENR) sector comprises of the following:

Mining and mineral resources; Water resources; Forest resources; Wetlands;

Environment; and wildlife and protected areas.

With climate change, every sector and everyone is exposed and therefore potentially

vulnerable. It is evident that only sectors that integrate CCMA measures within their

policies, strategies, plans and budgets, would achieve their objectives.

The ENR (mining, water resources management, environment, wetlands management,

biodiversity, wildlife and protected areas) policy processes are particularly targeted.

Increasing adaptive capacity of these sectors will help develop resilience and cushion the

ENR-dependant livelihoods and other socioeconomic processes from the effects of

extreme weather events.

It is important to ensure that appropriate policies, plans and budgets are put in place in

good time to deal with the likely climate change effects on ENR sectors.

2. Climate Change and Development: Risks and


2.1 Climate Change: A Global phenomenon with local effects

The climate is the characteristic weather conditions of the atmosphere and its evolution

in a specific region; it includes the temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind and

precipitation. In 1997, the IPCC confirmed that there was unequivocal change in global

climate. Since then, average air temperatures have increased, there has been widespread

melting of snow and ice,

leading to rise in sea level.

The 10 warmest years

since 1850, are reported to

have all occurred within

the last 13 years (IPCC,

2007; WHO, 2009).

Figure 1: Indications of

Global temperature rise

(1850 – 2005)

Source: WHO (2009):

Protecting Health from Climate


The main issue is not that

climate change is

happening, but that there

is need to: a) mitigate climate change by undertaking actions that reduce emission of

green house gases (GHG); and b) implement adaptation measures to protect the

population and economy from the negative effects of climate change.

The most important characteristics of Climate change are:

It is happening now: In the last 100 years, the World warmed by approximately 0.75°C

(figure 1), with a much higher rate in the last 25 years (0.18°C every 10 years).

Extreme weather events are changing in frequency and intensity: It is considered that

heat waves have become more frequent over most lands, and the frequency of heavy and

erratic precipitation events has increased over most areas, including Rwanda.


Human activities are the main cause of climate change: Most of the observed increase in

temperatures since the mid-20th century is attributed to unprecedented increase in

human activities especially in economic and social development.

Human-induced climate change will continue for at least the next few decades, making

the need to adapt, important and urgent: The

development options chosen will influence the rise in

temperatures, but, as figure 2 indicates, even if GHG

emissions were to halt immediately, temperatures

would still rise by over 0.6°C in this century (IPCC,

2007). A scenario where sustainable energy use is

prioritized, temperatures are expected to rise by

1.8°C (range 1.1–2.9°C). A lower sustainability

scenario, on the other hand, will lead to a

temperature rise of 4.0°C (range 2.4–6.4°C), with a

greater probability of abrupt or irreversible problems.

Figure 2: Projected global temperature rise in the 21st

Century * . Source: IPCC, 2007 (In WHO, 2009).

As indicated in figure 2, either scenario will result in

net temperature increase. Hence, reducing GHG emissions will not reverse climate

change. This makes it absolutely essential to adapt to climate change, in order to

minimise its effects on people and economies.

2.2 Future Climate Projections for Rwanda

Climate model scenarios show future increases in mean annual temperature of up to

3.25°C by the end of the century. Changes in rainfall are more uncertain, though most of

the models show that rainfall will increase. These projections are based on downscaling

of global climate models to a single station in Rwanda (Kigali Airport); limited regional

climate modeling has

been carried out that

captures Rwanda’s

unique regional setting

and climatology.

Figure 3: Variation of



temperature and rainfall at

Kigali Airport Station.

* Projected temperature changes (relative to 1980-1999) in selected development scenarios, from lower emphasis on

sustainable development and cooperation (A2) to greater attention to environmental protection and regional integration

(B1). The orange line is the projection assuming GHG concentrations held constant at year 2000 values.

Figure 4. Projected changes in average monthly minimum temperature anomalies across nine GCM

models for period 2046-2065 (A2 scenario), statistically downscaled to Kigali. Climate Change

Explorer tool, Climate Systems Analysis Group and SEI, 2009.

Analysis of historical temperatures at Kigali indicates that minimum temperatures have

been rising faster than maximum temperatures, but with a general overall rise in

temperature particularly since 1992. All of the climate model scenarios show future

increases in mean annual temperature in future years. The CCE data, based on

downscaled data for Kigali’s airport station, reports an increase of average maximum

monthly temperatures of around 1.5 to 2.7 ºC (for a business as usual, no mitigation,

scenario) over the range of models by the 2050s (2046 -2065), with greatest warming

from July to September. The trends in monthly average minimum temperatures project a

rise of between 1.7 to 2.8 ºC for 2046-2065, with the most warming occurring in June to


Changes in precipitation are more uncertain. Although the intensity, frequency and

spatial distribution of precipitation are unknown, all the climate model scenarios show

that average rainfall regimes will change, ranging from positive and negative anomalies

across the models. The majority of the projections indicate that average annual rainfall

will actually increase, particularly in some seasons, indicating a potential strengthening

of the rains which is important in relation to flood risk. However, some models show

reductions in rainfall in some months. A shift in the timing of seasons is already being

reported in certain regions and this has a significant impact on agriculture. The range of

model results highlights the considerable uncertainty in predicting future changes and

the need to consider a robust approach to adaptation decision making to deal with

uncertain future climate scenarios.


Figure 5. Projected changes in average monthly precipitation anomalies across nine gcm models for

period 2046-2065. This is statistically downscaled to Kigali. Climate change explorer tool (Climate

Systems Analysis Group and SEI, 2009).

2.3 Climate Change Vulnerability in Environment and Natural Resources


Poorer countries and those that heavily depend on natural resources (agriculture,

tourism, mining and fishing) are the most at risk. According to FAO (2007), climate

change impacts on natural resources can be categorised into two groups:

i) Biophysical impacts, which include:

physiological effects on crops, pasture, forests and livestock;

changes in land, soil and water resources (quantity, quality);

increased weed, pest and disease challenges;

shifts in spatial and temporal distribution of impacts;

sea level rise, changes to ocean salinity;

Sea temperature rise causing fish to inhabit different ranges.

ii) Socio-economic impacts include:

decline in yields and production;

reduced marginal GDP from agriculture;

fluctuations in world market prices;

changes in geographical distribution of trade regimes;

increased number of people at risk of hunger and food insecurity;

migration and civil unrest.

Extreme climate-related events will result in serious repercussions for natural resources


Water will become increasingly scarce – both quantity and quality are in fact declining.

With climate change intensifying, water quality and quantity decline could affect various

social and economic development activities, including hydropower generation, water

supply and sanitation, and food security, all key aspects of the MDGs. Conflict over

water will escalate within and between communities, between sectors and across

international borders. Climate change is pressing more serious challenges for WRM

especially as rainfall predictability becomes difficult, and demand outstrips availability.

Forest and woody biomass resources: climate change effects on forest resources are

both positive and negative. Deforestation could escalate as more trees and woodlands are

converted into agricultural lands. But climate change also provides opportunity to

increase forest cover and shift from unsustainable forest and tree resource exploitation.

Loss of biodiversity: habitats depend mostly on stability of climatic conditions. Many

flora and fauna species, already threatened by increasing population and expanding

agriculture, will lose their unique habitats, which will affect their feeding and

reproductive habits.

Mining: The International Council of Mining and Metals has identified climate change

as “the most challenging environmental issue for the mining industry. The risks

associated with climate change go beyond compliance with local regulatory regimes

restricting carbon emissions and include supply chain risks (higher costs due to the

activities of suppliers); product and technology risks (failing to cope with new

technology standards); reputational risks related to sustainability concerns; physical

risks to operations due to extreme weather and litigation risks. The impacts of climate

change on mining mainly relates to:

‣ the energy and technologies used may cause pollution;

‣ geo-hazards are likely to increase thereby increasing concerns for mining safety,

quality and costs;

‣ mining design and technologies will need to be structured differently;

‣ assurance of economic returns and mining sustainability itself raise concerns.

Land resources: climate change impacts will affect land cover, land use and land

administration. Conversion of fragile areas such as steep hills, wetlands, protected

forests and dry lands into agricultural land might escalate.


3. Rwanda’s Vulnerability and National Response to Climate


What makes a country vulnerable to climate change The degree of populations’ and

economies’ vulnerability to extreme climate events will depend on their coping ability. Poorer

and natural resources-dependant countries like Rwanda, are the most vulnerable.

3.1 Overview of Climate Change in Rwanda

3.1.1 General

Recent events and meteorological data provide glaring evidence that climate change is

happening in Rwanda and that it will have disastrous effects. The 1997 floods and

prolonged drought of 2000 associated with El Nino and La Nina (MINITERE, 2006) are

some of the extreme climate change events that Rwanda has suffered recently. Over the

next century, annual temperatures in Rwanda are projected to be 1.0 °C to 2.0° C higher

(MINELA, 2010). Analysis of the mean annual

temperatures of Kigali Airport

Station (1971-2007) in Kigali city

and Kamembe in the Western

Province (figure 6) reveals

consistent temperature increase.

For Kigali, the average

temperature rise of 1.2°C from

19.8°C in 1971 to 21.0°C in 2009 is

worrisome. It exceeds 0.8°C reported

to have been caused by global

warming over a period of 150 years.

Figure 6: Mean Annual Temperature













Linear (Kamembe)

Linear (Kigali)






















Variability in ° C (1971-2007) at Kigali and Kamembe Stations.

Data Source: Mutabazi (2010). Assessment of Operational Framework related to Climate Change.

3.1.2.GHG Emissions and underlying Causes of Climate Change in Rwanda

A recent GHG emissions study concluded that the main GHGs in Rwanda were Co 2

(comprising 87% of all GHGs); Methane (CH4) accounting for 11.5% and nitrogene

hemioxide (N 2 O) which accounted for 2% of GHGs. The main sources of GHGs are:

Agriculture (which contributed 78%), Energy (17.8%), industrial processes (3%), wastes

(0.9%) and land use change and forestry (0.2%). The recent records indicate that

Rwanda’s total GHG emissions were 5,010.4Gg carbon equivalents and total absorption

was -8545Ggr. With a net national balance of -3534.6Ggr, Rwanda is a net sink. The

main concern, however is that while absorption increased by half (53%), the emissions

from biomass increased by 100% (from 2896.34 to 5793.45Gg). Furthermore, emissions

from agriculture increased by nearly 1.5 times. This is an issue of concern given that

agriculture is the biggest source of livelihoods and major contributor to growth. The low

increase in energy-related GHG emissions (under 10%) despite increased energy

consumption suggests that investments in cleaner energy alternatives are paying off.

3.2 Climate Change Impacts on Environment and Natural Resources

Extreme weather events (high temperatures, drought, floods, heavy erratic rains,

humidity) will have profound effect on Rwanda’s diverse natural resources and

dependant socioeconomic activities. The nature, timing and geographical extent of such

impacts will depend on the specific resource, location and institutional capacity. The

main impacts of climate change on Rwanda’s ENR sector are highlighted below.

3.2.1 Forest Resources

Forest resources and ecosystems play a unique and dominant role in climate

modification and in the management of climate change effects. Besides the absorption of

GHGs through carbon sequestration (mitigation), forest ecosystems moderate climate

and assure the provision of other ecosystem services – water, wood, biodiversity and

habitat protection, soil stabilization and runoff control; and serve as wind breakers.

Rwanda’s forest estate covers an area of 330,576 ha of which 215,739 ha (65%) are

natural forests and 114,837 ha (35%) are planted (MINIFOM, 2010). Other wooded

lands comprise about 222,520 Ha, bringing the total forested area to 553,098 ha (or 21%

of the land area). The GoR vision is to increase forest area to about 30%.

Climate change will escalate the scarcity of forest and biomass resources – such as

timber, construction materials, medicine and fuel wood, with a spiral effects on other

sectors like health, agriculture and land management. Further deforestation means the

resilience and ability of ecosystems to provide productive and climate-regulation

services will decline. Climate change impacts from deforestation include: intensification

of soil erosion, landslides, increased food insecurity and destruction of watersheds.

Climate change will impact forest protection. Direct impacts include changes in pest

development rates, survival, and reproduction. Indirectly, climate change may impact overall

pest population movements, host species susceptibility and distribution, and natural enemy

populations. These could profoundly affect forest protection and management.

Forest industries and forest-based livelihoods will be affected as forest productivity

declines and as the pressure to mitigate climate change increase. More forest estate may

be converted from production to protection thereby reducing the supply of forest


products. The climate change impact on resource availability is already profound, as

forest harvesting is now limited by legislation.

3.2.2 Water Resources

Rwanda’s water resources are influenced by precipitation and evaporation, as well as the

dense network of rivers, streams, wetlands and other catchments that recharge the water

reservoirs. Water resources become stressed as the effects of climate change become

more pronounced. Conflicts between human and environmental demands are likely to

intensify. Climate change will affect Rwanda’s ambitious plan to irrigate more than

100,000 Ha of land over the next 5 years, and undermine the plan to supply clean

drinking water to entire population by 2017, as water availability and quality decline.

3.2.3 Mining and Mineral Resources

Mining is emerging as a major source of foreign exchange for Rwanda. Returns from

mining increased from just US$ 5.09 million in 2003 to US$ 90.68 million in 2008

(MINIRENA, 2009a). However, mining in Rwanda faces potential threats from climate

change, and is particularly vulnerable given the rugged terrain, dominance by

smallholder mining entities and limited investment in modern technologies.

The suitability of existing mines for extreme weather conditions, especially on health

and safety, as well as ease of mining operations (optimum resource extraction and

processing), is low. Extreme climate conditions are likely to impact Rwanda’s mining

sub-sector in two ways:

i) Primary (or direct) impacts – including flooding, erosion, landslip, debris flows,

overflowing of waste ponds, hazards to human life, equipment, revenue and the


ii) Secondary (indirect or ‘knock-on’) effects include a shift in population centres or

changes in agriculture and water resources; local labour deficit created by communities

moving away from mine sites due to lack of water and/or energy, looming geological

disasters, excessive dust, noise, isolation after storms or threats of disease outbreaks.

3.2.4 Wetlands

Unreliable rainfall has caused many farmers to resort to marshlands which have a steady

water supply. This has the effect of reduced climate moderation ability, reduced water

flow for downstream users, fish production and ecosystem maintenance, among others.

Wetlands – some of the few remaining landscapes with freely flowing water - are now

under stress and destruction from agriculture and other productive activities. Climate

change will escalate the pressure on wetlands; compromise their productive and

regulatory role in ecosystems, recharging and purifying water; and endangered species.

Agriculture, hydro-power production and domestic water supply will be most affected.

3.2.5 Land Resources

Land management in Rwanda, already affected by high population pressure, will be

severely affected by climate change effects. Increased temperature, reduced soil

moisture and change in rainfall patterns will result in:

‣ changing soil characteristics which affects land productivity (e.g. reduced crop

yields). This could escalate pressure on wetlands for agriculture and settlements;

‣ loss of terrestrial biodiversity and increased risk of invasive species emergence;

‣ increase in desertification conditions especially in the drier plains of the eastern and

southern Rwanda with the consequence of reducing arable land. This could put more

pressure on critical ecosystems like wetlands and mountainous areas. It could also

increase conflict between wildlife and humans as wildlife protected areas’ carrying

capacity declines especially in the drier Akagera National Park. The livestock

economy that depends on rangelands will be severely affected.

‣ flooding of lowlands, with potential effect on settlements, internal migration and

food production problems. Flood plain production of rice, other cereals and

horticultural production will be most at risk, as will the emerging fish farming;

‣ increase in soil erosion and increased disaster risks related to land use especially in

the north and western province.

The vulnerability of the ENR sectors principally arise from the effects of climate change

on the productivity of ecosystems and the quality of the services provided. Table 1

summarises the mapping of major ecosystems that are vulnerable in Rwanda and the

main factors that explain their vulnerability to climate change.

Table 1: Ecosystems most vulnerable to climate Change Effects and Why

Ecosystem type Location Why they are vulnerable to climate change

1. Agricultural


2. Wetlands and



3. Dry land


4.Fresh water








Mostly Southern

and Eastern

Province; Kigali

Eastern and parts of

Southern province

River and stream

systems run from

north to central

plateau and drain

into Eastern lakes

and Lake Kivu to the


Mostly northern,

Western and parts of

the country.

‣ they are under severe pressure from humans, as most Rwandans (75-

80%) depend on farming;

‣ population is increasing and rural settlement is fused with farming;

‣ these ecosystems are not clearly demarcated;

‣ They are not protected by legal provisions;

‣ Knowledge and information especially on agro-biodiversity, ecosystem

productivity and sustainable land management, are lacking;

Under intense pressure of agricultural exploitation. They are preferred

areas for horticultural & cereal production;

Pollution from agriculture, peat mining etc. as country moves to adapt to

climate change effects;

Threatened by expanding urbanization

‣ pressure of water shortages – most are downstream;

‣ Grazing and agro-pastoral transformation – farm clearing;

‣ They are the primary destination for new development and resettlement;

‣ Under pressure of pollution from upstream land degradation and


‣ Pollution from industrial, commercial, tourism and agricultural


‣ pressures of increased large scale water consumption – for irrigation,

urban water supply, (as human response to climate change increases)

‣ disturbance from human activities such as navigation and fishing

Mountain regions are already under stress from various human

activities, notably human settlements, overgrazing and inappropriate

land management, which have reduced their natural resilience to climate


Natural mountain ecosystems have shrunk and pristine afro-montane

habitats only remain in Nyungwe–Volcanoes Complex;

Mountain species tend to have a very limited capacity to move to higher

altitudes in response to warming temperatures. This is especially so for

endemic species.

3.3. Implications of climate change for Key ENR sector performance Indicators

Extreme weather events (especially arising from the now predictable increases in temperatures,

shorter and more intense rainfall) are likely to affect Rwanda’s progress in achieving ENR

targets, notably more than doubling receipts from mineral exports; rehabilitating degraded

ecosystems and land productivity; and reducing water pollution, among others. The likely

effects of climate change on the ENR sector and specific key indicators of the present ENR

sector strategy are summarized in table 2 and table 3 respectively.

Table 2: Implications of Climate-Change for the ENR sectors




1 Forestry &

forest resources

Risks and associated impacts

Increased pressure on forest resources,

including protected natural forests is

anticipated; shortage of fuelwood may increase

pollution as people shift to low value biomass

like agricultural crop residues.

Increased risks related to extreme wealthier

events – e.g. landslide calls for public

investments in the hill areas’ lands, given the

huge positive externalities.

Opportunities for carbon marketing could be


2 Water resources Increased pressure on water resources, as

scarcity escalates and demand from various

sectors (energy, infrastructure, agriculture,

domestic use, etc,) increases.

Increased pollution of water resources would

result in further decline of water quality and

water supply disruptions.

Reduced availability of clean water for

drinking, cooking, hygiene and recreation

3 Land


4 Wildlife and


Inappropriate land use change, as more

pressure from agriculture to expand into other

land use areas;

Carrying capacity and resilience of range lands

could decline, resulting in famine and poverty;

Increased conflict between human activities

and biodiversity conservation;

Increased internal migration causing pressures

on protected landscapes and destruction of

habitats and biodiversity hotspots;

Loss of biodiversity & genetic resources–

especially rare species, as their sensitive

habitats are lost.

Policy and management implications

Resource allocation for forest planning,

conservation and protection activities.

Diversion of resources to expand the forest

estate and rehabilitate degraded forests.

Costs of alternative energy.

Embracing REDD+ programmes to

leverage carbon funds to restore Rwanda’s

forest resources and sensitise the

population about forest extension.

Balancing food security with forest

extension, declining landholdings, while

carbon opportunities require big land area.

Managing inter-sectoral conflicts in water

resources management; leveraging carbon

trade opportunities to restore watersheds.

Greater costs of managing water resources;

trans-boundary governance concerns

Increased morbidity & mortality to waterrelated


Review land tenure security of farmers;

Sensitise the population and support them

to invest in sustainable land management

(SLM) practices including agro-forestry

Increased cost of conservation, reduced

revenue from biodiversity-based tourism

and crafts industry

Bio-security concerns and ability to meet

national obligations under the International

conventions related to biodiversity


5 Wetlands & Increased droughts will exacerbate the Trade-offs between food security and



pressure on wetlands for agricultural

production, reduce water levels and threaten

aquatic ecosystems.

Wetlands’ ability to filter, hold and regulate

water flow will be reduced, extreme weather

events like erratic rains, floods and landslides

will be difficult to contain, causing further

human, social and economic losses.

6 Mining Increasing geo-hazards and risk of public

health, mine security and associated economic


High costs of adjustment, including equipment

and technology to adapt to the changing

climate conditions

wetlands conservation must be considered.

IMCE has provided a framework for policy


Investing in large scale aquatic ecosystems’

restoration will be critical, and GoR will

have to undertake painful resource


Economic costs related to human safety

guarantees; equipment redesign and

opening new mines will require new mining


Review the mineral certification process to

compel investors to pay attention to climate

change concerns; Include climate change in

compliance audits.

Need to support the smallholder mining

activities which have limited adaptive

capacity; Need for more investment in

mining inspection and geo-physical surveys

to analyze climate-related hazard risks

Table 3: Potential Effects of climate change on key ENR Sector targets under EDPRS

Key performance indicator Indicator levels How Climate change might affect performance

and target

2010 2012/13

1 Area of land protected to 8% 10% Climate change will reduce habitats for endangered species

maintain biological diversity

and increase pressure towards marginal lands. This could

undermine the GoR’s ability to realise biodiversity

2 Proportion of national forest


3 Proportion of watersheds

with known water quality

4 Total receipts from mineral

products exports (USD)

5 Area of erosion-prone land

that is protected through

terracing (Ha)

conservation targets.

22.1% 29% Forested area could increase if GHG mitigation efforts are

enhanced through afforestation. However, increased pressure

on forests and woodlands for energy could undermine the

ability to maintain a larger proportion of land under forests.

10% 50% Increased landslides and floods could undermine water quality

in most watersheds

$89 $120 Increased risks to mines and investment costs to mining

operations could reduce the returns and competitiveness of the

sector. Extreme weather events could affect the mineral

prospecting by OGMR and private sector.

Data Source: MINIRENA (2010) Joint Sector Review Report.

- 80% Intense rainfall will affect the terracing activities and increase

cost of maintaining the terraces; climate change will also

affect the national budget’s ability


3.4 National Response to Climate Change in Rwanda

The GoR appreciates the country’s vulnerability to climate change effects and the

opportunities to build national resilience through adaptation to climate change. Several

initiatives have been undertaken since 2002 when the GoR ratified the UNFCCC.

Recent climate change adaptation and mitigation actions in Rwanda include:

‣ Formulation of the National Climate change and low carbon growth strategy, to

guide climate-responsive long-term development investments;

‣ Rolling out a stakeholders training and sensitization programme on climate

change and its effects by REMA;

‣ The National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA) for climate change was prepared in

2003 in the context of the UNFCCC. A first National Communication Report was

submitted in 2006 and a report has been prepared. NAPA identified a number of

projects to be implemented and is guiding climate change investments.

‣ A guidance manual for integrated climate change aspects into the District

Development Plans (DDPs) has been developed by REMA to guide districts.

‣ Through collaboration with the Smith School of Enterprise and Environment

funded by DfID, national capacity for climate change impact modeling, sectorbased

climate change research and a climate observatory are being developed.

‣ Carbon marketing and clean development mechanism (CDM) projects: Rwanda

is beginning to attract carbon finance through carbon credit investors who are

setting up forest plantations and other CDM projects.

‣ Investing in sustainable land management (SLM) practices: several SLM projects

are being implemented with support from UNDP and other partners.

4. Opportunities and Entry points for Mainstreaming Climate

Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the ENR Sectors

“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent,

but the one most responsive to change” Charles Darwin

4.1 Overview of the ENR Policy Processes in Rwanda

Natural resources and the environment are at the heart of Rwanda’s economic and social

development. ENR policies are designed and implemented in the context of the

country’s Vision 2020, the 7-year Government’s Political Plan (2010-2017), the

medium-term development strategies i.e. the EDPRS (2007-2012) and its successor

strategies. There is not a single ENR policy but specific sub-sectors have own policies.

Only the ENR strategy attempts to tie the various ENR policies together:

The National Forest Policy 2010 emphasizes private sector involvement, research

and knowledge generation, community participation, and promotion of nonconsumptive

ecosystem services provided by forests. Climate change mitigation

through the CDM is an important aspect of the new policy that was prepared

through a highly consultative process.

Water Resources Management Policy, 2010 advocates for integrated water

resources management and prioritises investment in climate change adaptation

through watershed protection, disaster risk reduction and water security


Mining Policy 2009 focuses on promoting private sector led-mining and mineral

exploration and value addition.

Decentralisation: all ENR policies promote decentralized service delivery

Policies. An important area to consider is how to mainstream climate change

adaptation into Local Performance Contracts (Imihigo).

4.2 Opportunities and Entry Points for CCMA Mainstreaming in the ENR Sectors

Opportunities for CCMA mainstreaming within the ENR policy processes exist in a

number of levels:

Policy objectives and programmes: the ENR strategy 2009-2014 identifies 8 strategic

priorities for delivering on poverty reduction and economic development, and dedicates

an entire Results Area on climate change. These strategic priorities are expounded in the

specific sub-sector policies and strategies. The opportunities to mainstream climate

change adaptation in each sub-sector are summarized in table 4.


Table 4: Summary of Climate Change Issues and Adaptation Opportunities within the

ENR Sector

Sub-sector of

the ENR sector

1 Environment


2 Forestry subsector

3 Integrated




4 Sustainable


5 ENR Sector


and governance

Key medium and long-term Strategic Opportunities & Actions for CCMA

priorities/ results


‣ Rehabilitation of critical ecosystems Sensitise and train all Environmental

Professionals & practitioners (including

private EIA experts) in Climate change

issues and how to mainstream CCMA;

Provide information to agricultural and

environment extension workers.

Integrate climate change issues in the

Environment and natural resources training;

‣ Coordination of Climate change and Develop CDM projects; raise awareness of

international conventions programmes climate change issues across sectors and the

population; bridge the communication gap

‣ Scaling up the forest estate through

rehabilitation of degraded forests and

encouraging private land owners;

‣ Balancing conservation with food

security and other land use needs.

‣ Restoration of watersheds and other

aquatic ecosystems;

‣ Balancing increasing water demand

from multi-sectoral sources, with core

conservation and climate change

mitigation goals.

‣ Strengthen the legal and regulatory


‣ Develop competitive investment and

fiscal policies for mining;

‣ Improve mining sector knowledge,

skills and practices;

‣ Raise productivity and increase

production from new mines;

‣ Diversify into new products and

increase value-addition.

‣ Strengthen institutional capacity for

policy coordination and monitoring

‣ service delivery: Skilled health staff &

robust institutional systems;

‣ Coordination & partnerships through

SWAp that facilitate integration &

cross-sectoral planning; financing

between climate change stakeholders.

Enhance public-private partnerships in

forest development through carbon

sequestration credits

Strengthen local forestry extension systems.

Develop capacity for climate change

mitigation through water security


Invest in climate change and WRM

knowledge systems.

Undertake climate-change related disaster

risk analysis and communicate this to

investors and other stakeholders;

Organise training for all mining actors and

put in place public health and human safety


Subject mining operations to regular

environmental performance monitoring;

compel them to set emissions standards.

Include climate change adaptation measures

into the performance monitoring

frameworks for ENR-based institutions;

integrate adaptation targets in each


Ensure that sector planning processes use

information from other sectors, including

water, agriculture and infrastructure.

The Policy formulation and Strategic Planning Process: the policy objectives are

translated into results through the ENR sector strategic plan, sub-sector strategies of

environment, forestry, mining, IWRM, and the land sector strategic plan. These are

implemented through the Rwanda Natural Resources Authority (RNRA). The multifaceted

nature of climate change issues and complexity of climate-sensitive issues the

policy processes participatory and consultative. The recently adopted ENR sector SWAp

is an important mechanism to coordinate CCMA activities within and across the sector.

Policy Implementation: the ENR sector policy process is a set of cascaded sub-sector

policies which provide opportunities to create linkages and synergy. Opportunities for

CCMA mainstreaming exist at all levels in all sub-sectors, viz:

i) Budgeting, resource mobilization and public expenditure allocation: Climatesensitive

threats to ENR strategic outcomes (e.g. emergencies related to floods,

timeliness and interpretation of meteorological data, forest fires, etc) are less likely to

receive considerable budget support due to budget constraints. It is important to

integrate climate change response among the criteria for resource allocation; flag climate

change threats in resource mobilization, and demonstrate the need for adequate financing

of climate change adaptation activities in the ENR sector. Each Ministry or Agency

(including NGOs) should plan and budget for climate change.

ii) Implementation plans, activities and personnel: Action plans must be linked to

seasons and weather variability. Ensure that all actors in the ENR sector from ministries

and central Agencies to Districts and NGOs are trained and sufficiently tooled to detect

and address climate-related issues.

iii) Monitoring and evaluation: the ENR monitoring and reporting schedules and data

collection systems must include key climate change information and its links to specific

ENR sub-sectors. The ENR reporting system must include climate change adaptation

and mitigation as part of the performance indicators. All reporting entities need to share

information on how they are addressing climate change issues. This requires investing in

research and knowledge management, building partnerships with climate-related

institutions, and creating platforms for dissemination of the information generated.

4.3 Key Areas for CCMA mainstreaming in the ENR sector Processes

The main climate risks and typical adaptation measures are summarized in table 5.

Table 5: Some Adaptation Measures to Climate risks in the ENR Policy Implementation

Health service



(including laws &







Associated climate risk / threats

Institutional systems, plans and tools not

responsive to extreme climate conditions;

inadequate measures to respond to climate

change effects.

Mining and WRM infrastructure are likely

to be affected by extreme weather

conditions, which could undermine their

performance and increase geo-hazard risks.

Knowledge & skills ENR sector planners and technocrats have

inadequate knowledge about effects of

climate change on ENR activities, and how

to respond to emergency and long-term


Adaptation Measures

Review all subsector policies and laws and

incorporate climate change adaptation and

mitigation measures in all sectors; Integrate

Climate Disaster preparedness in all ENR

sector policies, strategies & budgets.

Make infrastructure designs climatesensitive;

ensure adequate mechanisms to

prevent effects of winds, floods, storms;

‣ Integrate climate change issues into all

planning and research activities;

‣ Regular training and continuous learning


‣ ENR databases and environmental

information systems should have clear

links with climate change impacts;

‣ Establish knowledge& Resource centres

Health service


Associated climate risk / threats

Budgets Budgeting for climate change within

domestic resources/ overreliance on

external funding;

Budgeting from cross-sectoral climate

change adaptation activities in different

ministries is a challenge;

Budget cuts arising from poor economic

performance as a result of climate-related

disasters e.g. drought.

Adaptation Measures

in all Ministries, Agencies and Districts;

‣ Provide climate change adaptation tools

to communities, NGOs, private sector

practitioners and community workers

‣ Incorporate climate change risk analysis

in MTEF preparations;

‣ Train ENR experts and policy makers to

mainstream climate-change into sector

plans and budgets

‣ Improve efficiency in budget execution

Some Adaptation measures for Natural Resources Management

1) Foster system-wide change through the removal of barriers to SLM focusing at the

country level:

‣ Encouraging economic and sectoral mainstreaming R&D policies

‣ Institutional reform, land tenure, land reform, land use regulations

‣ Training and capacity building

‣ Financial incentives, e.g. subsidies, tax credits, crop insurance

2) Cross focal area synergies and integrated ecosystem approach to SLM, e.g.

harmonizing planning procedure for improving coordination among line agencies

(NAPs, NAPA, CBSAP, other MEAs and local plans).

3) Promoting technological innovations and knowledge sharing

Land potential assessment, land use planning;

Information generation/access, early warning;

Integrated multifunction LU systems

adjustment of planting dates and crop variety; crop relocation;

improved land management, e.g. erosion control and soil protection through tree


4) Demonstrating and up-scaling successful SLM practices.

Technologies for creating multifunctional landscapes - E.g. agro-forestry will

enable smallholder farmers to cultivate food crops and grow multipurpose trees;

Radical terracing and hillside irrigation could reduce the risk of erosion and

landslides, and enabling marginal steep hills to be put under productive use;

Genetic engineering and biotechnologies are helping to create resistant species

and varieties, with potential to restore ecosystems and combat desertification

where climatic conditions have changed significantly.

In the forest sub-sector, climate change mitigation strategies include extending

carbon retention in harvested wood products, product substitution, and producing

biomass for bio-energy. This carbon is removed from the atmosphere and is available

to meet society’s needs for timber, fibre and energy. Biomass from forestry can

contribute 12-74 EJ/yr to energy consumption, with a mitigation potential of approx

0.4-4.4 GtCO2/yr † . But over the long-term, a sustainable forest management strategy

aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual

sustained yield of timber, fibre or energy from the forest, will generate the largest

sustained mitigation benefit.



5. Guidelines and Tools for Mainstreaming Climate Change

Adaptation and Mitigation in ENR Sectors

This Chapter reviews the rationale for climate change adaptation and presents some

actions and procedures to integrate climate change adaptation and mitigation into the

ENR sector policy processes. This has the double aim of reducing GHG emissions but

largely to adapt the sector processes, systems and outcomes to climate change effects.

5.1 Conceptual Model of Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation

Figure 7 below summarises the links between exposure to climate change and

vulnerability, justifying why focusing on adaptive capacity development can reduce


Exposure to extreme

weather events

Sensitivity of ENR sector to

climate change

Potential impact

Adaptive Capacity


Figure 7: Model for climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity assessment‡

Simpson et al (2008) suggests that a typical adaptation strategy has 8 elements presented

graphically in figure 8.

Figure 8: Essential Elements of a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy




Risk management plans

Legislation & Enforcement

Education &


Information & Knowledge


Elements of a Climate Change

Adaptation Strategy

Financing Adaptation (e.g.

through CDM)

Support Networks

Linking with other planning

processes e.g. PSTA III

‡ Garnaut Climate Change Review, 2008.

5.2 Key Issues in CCMA Mainstreaming in the ENR Sector

A number of climate-sensitive issues must be considered in ENR sector’s adaptation

approaches. These are summarized below:

1. Resource-use efficiency must be factored in the ENR policy formulation and

implementation process. As climate change escalates, so will resource scarcity (water,

energy, grazing land), and the need to manage the pressures in managing scarce

resources with multi-sectoral interests, will have to be expressed right from the policy

level to community level. A key concern for climate change in the ENR sector is energy

use, which is at the centre of all development activities in Rwanda, and a key contributor

to GHG emissions. Forestry and biomass are the main sources of energy. A shift from

biomass as the main source of energy will reduce forest-based GHG emissions and

increase GHG sink (forest and tree cover). At community level, water use and

conservation will become important tools to fight against climate-sensitive diseases,

especially those related to food, water and hygiene.

2. Building the knowledge base will entail the awareness, knowledge and skills of all

actors in the ENR sector, including those in research and training institutions. This will



‣ Support for physical and socio-economic assessments, design of regional climate

change strategies, action plans and related products;

‣ Impact and vulnerability mapping, including community-based mapping;

‣ Provision of satellite imagery and models to support physical and economic

climate change impact assessments and scenarios;

‣ Training and skills development programmes;

‣ Develop knowledge tools and methodologies to facilitate integrated climate

change management planning;

‣ Documenting experiences from community driven activities (CDD), and using

these experiences to integrate local communities into the carbon markets.

3. Key cross-cutting issues: the links between climate change and gender; HIV/AIDS;

extreme poverty; and ICTs are often difficult to discern, yet they are critical to

developing effective adaptation measures, especially in the ENR sector. ICTs are

particularly important to build knowledge and ensure effective communication.

The main climate change adaptation mainstreaming issues to be considered are:

In WRM, significant steps are already being taken with a comprehensive sector strategy

and policy framework in place. However, strong coordination mechanisms to ensure

national water security and trans-boundary concerns will be needed.

Safety and public health considerations are critical concerns for the mining sector that

it still in nascent stages but with significant opportunities. Geophysical factors will be to

be continuously monitored as extreme events (e.g. heavy rains leading to landslides)

threaten to increase geo-hazards. A number of disasters that could be linked to climate

change, have already been reported yet the compliance audits for mining firms do not

cover climate change adaptation issues. All mining concessions should be reviewed to

incorporate provisions for climate change adaptation.

Wildlife and Biodiversity conservation must take into consideration the increasing

ecosystem stresses both within and outside protected areas, and focus climate change

adaptation interventions in areas and communities around protected areas. Communitywildlife

conflicts will be the main challenge around Rwanda’s parks and protected areas.

Central and local authorities will need support to prioritise climate change adaptation.

Addressing trans-boundary issues, and promoting green development. Provide

incentives to the private sector and business systems to identify business opportunities in

climate change adaptation and participate actively in climate change adaptation process.

5.3 Procedures and Approaches for CCMA Mainstreaming in ENR sector

The basic steps in CCMA mainstreaming in the health sector, are graphically presented

in figure 9, and discussed in proceeding text.

Figure 9: Procedures for CCMA Mainstreaming in the ENR Policy Process

ENR Policies and Strategies with

climate change adaptation



Inputs/ Actions

Information on climate change

conditions; links with natural

resource utilisation; degree of

exposure to climate risks; national

capacities & Vulnerabilities;

Opportunities, gaps & potential

barriers for adaptation; ENR

interventions identified and

incorporated into Policy & Strategic

alternatives Indicators & targets

incorporated in the ENR M&E,

DDPs & Imihigo

1. Conduct Climate Risk,

Impact & Vulnerability


2. Identify & Analyse a range of

options for Adaptation & Mitigation

3. Select Adaptation & Mitigation Actions

Maps & thematic data on land

cover, geo-physical environment

and socioeconomic development;

sensitive ecosystems and

threatened species/habitats; Data

on Hazard factors & historical

data (e.g. climate databases)

Climate-sensitive ENR policies &

Strategic alternatives; Climate

adaptation options incorporated into

the planned priorities and budgets

4. Prepare & Execute CCMA

Implementation plan

CCMA Indicators & targets

incorporated in the ENR M&E,

DDPs & Imihigo Monitoring


Outcome reports used in Policy

Reviews e.g. ENR JSRs and reviews

of other climate sensitive sectors.

5. Monitor Progress in implementation

6. Evaluate the Performance &

Outcomes from CCMA Implementation

Step 1: Conduct Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment

Climate change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment is conducted to determine the

susceptibility of natural resources and ecosystems to extreme weather events, identify

analyse and determine the effectiveness of current responses. The assessment will

identify capacity needs; establish baseline climate conditions, potential barriers to

adaptation, opportunities and priorities for adaptation. A vulnerability Index map is the

main output. Its purpose is to serve as a basis for priority setting and planning.

Climate change Risk and Vulnerability Assessment for the ENR sector focuses on 4


Physical vulnerability to and influence on weather patterns;

Social vulnerability and community resilience e.g. loss of jobs as a result of mine


Economic vulnerability – direct costs are the returns (receipts) from forest

products and services, mineral exports; tourism receipts from biodiversity and

wildlife. Indirect costs relate to hydropower production (due to receding water),

agricultural production losses relating to drought, flood losses, soil productivity;

and other economic sectors that depend on the environment and natural resources.

Governance – institutional and policy framework.

A fundamental first task in the Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment is to

establish a clear understanding of climate change and how it affects the ENR sector

activities. Climate change involves multiple factors. Policy makers in the ENR sector

must decide which factors are more important and give them appropriate weights. This

helps determine the scope of the assessment. A summary of the logical steps in

conducting a Vulnerability Assessment in the ENR sector is presented in figure 10.


Figure 10: Logical flow of Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment in ENR.

Define the Problem/Assessment Objective

(E.g. To conduct climate change vulnerability of tree species diversity; habitats of endemic

fauna species, and natural forest-based livelihoods and economic activities)

Determine Scope of Assessment

Local/ regional/ national scale

ENR aspects/ indicators – species; habitats; land use/cover; utilization

& management.

Stakeholders & institutional roles; governance

Data requirements (spatial, statistical, qualitative data…)

Select & Test the Methodology

Climate change Scenario analysis

Socioeconomic scenario

Stakeholders & institutional roles

Select Climate change Impact Scenarios

Climate change Scenario analysis

Socioeconomic scenario

Stakeholders & institutional roles

Assess Impacts

Ecological – species loss

Physical - e.g. destruction of roads, bridges, meteorological stations

Economic - livelihoods, incomes.

Social resources e.g. cooperatives


Assess Copying strategies

Livelihoods & economic

Socio-economic(e.g. through Mutual insurance)

Cultural (Ubudehe, Umusanzu, cultural forests..)

Evaluate Adaptation & mitigation Strategies

-How effective have on-going interventions been Has the fundamental basis

changed E.g. the sector priorities Threat increased/shifted

- How can the existing adaptation process be improved

Examples of the tools used to conduct vulnerability assessment at the local level are

presented in table 6.

Table 6: Livelihoods Vulnerability to Climate Change Assessment Tool

Province …………………..; Agro-ecological zone …………………………….

Climate Change Impact

Coping Strategy


1 Drought Crop damage/ losses/failures Sell livestock to purchase food

Water shortage

Dig deeper wells for domestic water

2 Floods Damage to settlements Provide temporary shelter & water supply

Crop damage/loss

Casual labour; food relief

Increase in diseases (notably Slash surrounding vegetation; Open ditches

malaria, Cholera, dysentery) to allow flow of stagnant water

3 Erratic/unreliable Destruction of property by



Flooding of mines

Look for temporary employment

4 Landslides Crop damage; loss of top soil Terrace the land; Agro-forestry; provide

temporary food relief to victims

Destruction of roads and housing


Step 2: Identify and Analyse Adaptation and Mitigation Options

Identify a range of policy options, programmes and activities for adaptation and

mitigation. Analyse the adaptation options on the basis of effectiveness, technical

feasibility and other criteria to select the most appropriate option. The options’ selection

will be as follows:

Gather and compile a short profile of potential choices. You may include existing,

new or even untried interventions;

Share with key stakeholders and brainstorm with relevant experts to get their


Subject the options to a set of criteria and rank them according to the preferences

of technical experts and stakeholders before briefing Policy Makers.

Table 7 provides some potential criteria for evaluating adaptation options.

Table 7: Potential Evaluation Criteria for Adaptation Options




1 Cost Costs to implement and maintain; cost sharing possibilities

2 Effectiveness Capacity to solve problems or realize opportunities derived from

climate change impacts (e.g., economic benefits, costs avoided, lives


3 Ease of implementation Potential legal, political, institutional, barriers

4 Acceptability to local


All stakeholder identified adaptations are attractive to some

stakeholders, but may not be equally attractive to all stakeholders for

political, economic, social or cultural reasons.

5 Acceptability to Financing


Are the financing agencies/ministries involved willing to support the


6 Endorsement by Experts Is the option consistent with international best practice

7 Timeframe Are short-term or long-term strategies more desirable; How does the

timeframe needed to implement the option compare with that available

(e.g., are there specific project or funding time horizons);

8 Institutional Capacity How much additional capacity building and knowledge transfer is

required to implement the adaptation

9 Size of Beneficiaries Group Does the adaptation provide small benefits to a large number of

stakeholders and people or large benefits to a small number

10 Potential Environmental or Are there possible adverse impacts on the environment or people (e.g.,

Social Impacts

are additional GHG emissions likely)

11 Capacity to Sustain Over Once implemented, can the adaptation be successfully sustained


Source: Modified from USAID (2007):

At this stage, the options will be informed by the results of the Vulnerability Assessment

and the Policy priorities and existing programmes. The next step is to select one or a few

specific adaptation options for further design and implementation.

3: Identify and Cost Programmes and actions for climate change interventions

Effective response to climate change in ENR will require formulation and

implementation of emergency management policies and legislation, especially in

disaster-prone sub-sectors like mining, forests and protected areas (vulnerable to wild

fires). Table 8 outlines some key actions to mainstream adaptation and mitigation into

the ENR policy processes.

Table 8: Actions to Mainstream CCMA in various aspects of the ENR Policy Processes

Strategic action Specific actions Expected Results

Risk Assessment Undertake comprehensive assessments of the

risks of extreme weather variability on:

o Forest & land resources;

o Water & other aquatic resources;

o Biodiversity & ecosystems;

o Mining;

o Environmental governance.







ENR domains


Preparedness for and

response to ENR

consequences of


hydrological and

Incorporate climate change issues into the

ENR management indicators and targets

Regulatory interventions to prevent or

reduce pollution of air, water and soil;

Formulate & implement emergency

management policies, legislation;

Emergency response and recovery plans;

Develop early warning systems for

effective resource monitoring;

Increase understanding of

vulnerability of national ENR

systems to climate change;

Ability of ENR sector processes

to respond

Identify basis for enhancing

resilience of ENR systems

Timely and evidence-based

decisions for effective

management of climate risks.

Reduce incidences of resource

scarcity or inequitable

distribution across geographical

and time seasonal scales

Effective and timely response to

climate-sensitive health problems

Strategic action Specific actions Expected Results

climate related Human resource development programmes

emergencies and for ENR planning and implementation,

extreme events

including training and education;

Develop community-based climate risk

reduction programmes;

Provide information toolkits for risk

communication and localised emergency

response planning;

Make infrastructure more resilience to

climate effects (e.g. mines, water supply,

hydro-power installations);

Research &








Develop and implement a research agenda

with the following objectives: (i) to better

and comprehensively understanding of

climate change and effects on ENR plans;

and (ii) to generate and disseminate

knowledge on locally-appropriate

adaptation measures; c) develop capacity

for effective response.

Identify skills gaps; formulate &

implement a capacity building action plan;

Establish a national level climate-change

& ENR coordination mechanism.

Increase understanding of the

climate change impacts on

populations & ENR systems



productivity, utilisation);

Increase communication of

climate-risks within NAPAs,

NCs and National Policy

processes e.g. EDPRS.

National capacity for disaster

prediction and response

4. Design and Implement a sector-specific Adaptation/ Mitigation Plan

An implementation plan is prepared to guide the process of CCMA mainstreaming, and

to assist in allocating resources. The first task in the implementation process is to define

the stakeholder roles; determine resource requirements, and set timelines for specific

outputs. USAID (2007) suggests that a typical implementation plan for CCMA

mainstreaming will normally be developed with the following components:

Strategic plan outlining actions and timelines of involved stakeholders;

Capacity building needs assessment and training plan;

Financial / business plan covering expenditure needs and revenue sources;

Outreach / communication plan;

Sustainability plan;

Plan for monitoring the performance of adaptations.

Adaptation plans cannot stand alone and must relate to other existing planning processes

and policies (‘mainstreaming’ adaptation).

Milestones and time frame are an important part of the adaptation plan.


Whilst mainstreaming climate change adaptation into the ENR sector policy process is a

long-term and continuous exercise, there are key time-bound milestones that must be

achieved with quick and immediate results while for others, results are expected over

longer periods. Table 9 summarized the key milestones, time frame and responsible

institutions in the implementation process.

Table 9: Key Milestones and Institutional Responsibilities in Climate Change

Adaptation in the ENR Sector

Key Task/Milestone Time frame Responsible

1 Conduct Climate change Impact & Vulnerability 6- 9 months MINIRENA; RNRA; REMA-Climate

Assessment for individual sub-sectors (mining,

Change Dept;

forestry; terrestrial ecosystems; aquatic ecosystems;

water resources; land management)

2 Identify & Analyse Adaptation Actions 2-3 months MINIRENA, RNRA & sub-sector


3 Design costed Programmes for Climate Change



4 Design the Adaptation Plan and Mainstreaming 2-3 months RNRA; REMA & Sub-sector


5 Mobilise funds for mainstreaming climate change

adaptation and implementation of Adaptation actions

6 Raise Awareness of climate change issues within the

ENR stakeholders and communities

7 Train ENR sector actors on climate change




- MINIRENA through budget/donor

projects; REMA/Climate Financing



District Council; NGOs

15-24 MINIRENA; RNRA; REMA; District

adaptation at all levels


8 Develop District & Community level Adaptation 3-6 months District Authorities/ Director of


Infrastructure & Natural Resources;

Local Environment Committees

9 Design pilot adaptation actions at ecosystem, subwatershed

and community level

6-9 months RNRA; REMA; District Council


10 Implement the ENR climate change adaptation plan 60 months MINIRENA; RNRA; REMA

11 Monitor the mainstreaming process for climate

change adaptation in the ENR sector


12 Evaluate performance and Review the Adaptation

and Mitigation Process



District Council (DDP & Imihigo


The adaptation and mitigation implementation plan will normally be based on the climate

change impact and vulnerability assessment and the kind of options to be implemented for

each sub-sector. The adaptation and mitigation plan will typically have the contents:

Executive Summary

1. Background

a. Potential effects of climate change on Rwanda (by province, district/ localities)

generally; Potential effect on the ENR sector (Draw from the Climate Change Impact &

Vulnerability Assessment)

b. Purpose of the Climate Change Adaptation implementation plan

c. How the plan has been developed (include stakeholder consultations and scientific


2. Scope and coverage of the plan and implementation process

a. What is covered by the implementation plan

b. Issues for implementation

c. Time frame for major actions and activities

3. Priority Activities and Actions

a. Activities and actions are needed to implement the adaptation and mitigation plan

b. Key barriers to implementation

c. How

will the mitigation and adaptation principles be implemented

4. Stakeholder Roles and Responsibilities and Coordination mechanisms

a. Which institutions/agencies/ organizations will do which actions

b. Linkages, Arrangements/ procedures for coordination and support

5. Resource Requirements and Resource Mobilization Strategies

a. Human and technical resources

b. Financing

c. Resource mobilization and capacity building

6. Monitoring

a. Key indicators and framework for monitoring

b. Integration with poverty reduction monitoring

7. Annexes

a. Resource toolkits (Existing guidance documents and other materials)

b. Detailed logframe

c. Glossary of key terms/ Abbreviations

It is advised that each ENR sub-sector should have its own mitigation and adaptation

plan, because a sector-wide climate change response plan will be too complex and

ambiguous to allow effective priority setting and implementation.

5. Monitor the CCMA Implementation Process

Climate change adaptation and mitigation activities represent a long-term investment of

human, capital and financial resources. Outcomes and impacts are often felt over a long

span of time. Continuous monitoring is needed to optimize the outcomes, ensure that

adjustments are made to keep the actions relevant and focused. Several evaluation

criteria should be considered i.e.: cost, ease of implementation, extent to which expected

benefits are likely to be delivered; adverse impacts. The evaluation criteria and related

indicators should be selected and scored by stakeholders in a participatory way.


From the perspective of the ENR strategy 2009/10-2014/15 and attendant sub-sector

strategic plans, key climate change adaptation and mitigation indicators are summarized

in table 10 below.

Table 10: Key indicators for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the ENR sector

Policy Objective

1 Equitable, sustainable and

productive management of land


2 Water resources managed in an

integrated, equitable and sustainable


3 Forest and biomass resources

developed and sustainably managed

4 Mineral resources sustainably


5 Environmental issues mainstreamed

into policies, plans, budgets and

activities for public and non public


6 Critical Ecosystems rehabilitated

and protected to enhance

conservation and sustainable

utilisation of biodiversity

7 Institutional capacity for ENR


Key climate change adaptation indicators in the ENR sector

% of farmers with knowledge of climate change adaptation

Proportion of land that is managed under climate-sensitive

management principles

• No. of climate change related water disasters recorded annually;

• Proportion of households in water-stressed districts with water

harvesting and storage facilities;

Proportion of national land area planted with forests;

Proportion of public and private sector investments set aside for climate

change adaptation and mitigation activities;

Incidences of climate change-related disasters in mining activities;

Proportion of non ENR financing set aside for climate change

adaptation activities

Proportion of rural and urban population (aged 15 years +) with

knowledge of climate change effects and adaptation measures

Incidences of climate-related disasters in major watersheds;

Proportion of sector budgets set aside for climate change adaptation

activities, including climate-related research;

Proportion of ENR-related institutions including CSOs, reporting on

climate change activities within the Sector and Thematic Working

Groups and Joint Sector Reviews

6. Evaluate performance and Review the Adaptation and Mitigation


How do we know that the adaptation measures proposed/ implemented have assisted to

climate-proof the ENR sector The most common way is to conduct regular review of

the interventions and subjecting the ENR sector processes (including sub-sector

performance reviews) to a climate change check. Specific climate change adaptation

indicators should be included in the sector performance evaluation and reporting process

– from policy level down to community level. All ENR JSRs should include progress on

climate change adaptation for each sub-sector. The adaptation strategies or actions might

then be refined or new ones adopted, depending on the results.

5.4 Stakeholder Participation and Institutional Roles in Climate Change


Climate change adaptation is a multifaceted process spanning various stakeholders. All

stakeholders, including sector ministries, development partners, private sector and

individual citizens, have a role to play in climate-proofing the ENR sector. The key

institutions and their roles in mainstreaming climate change mitigation and adaptation in

the ENR sector are summarized in table 11.

Table 11: Key Stakeholders and their roles in the Health sector climate change adaptation

Stakeholder institution

Roles/ responsibilities

Public Sector institutions

1 Ministry of Natural



Integrate climate change adaptation into ENR policies and strategies

Review ENR performance indicators and monitoring frameworks to integrate

climate change adaptation and mitigation actions and targets;

Enhance cross-sectoral coordination of climate change adaptation activities.

Mobilise funding for climate change mitigation and adaptation in cooperation


2 REMA Provide technical guidance and tools for climate change adaptation and


Build capacity of ENR institutions in climate change adaptation and

mitigation, through sensitization training and materials support;

Monitor the implementation of ENR policies and strategies to ensure that

climate change effects are minimized;

Support mobilise of funds for climate change adaptation and mitigation;






3 Ministry of Finance and

Economic Planning

4 Ministry of


5 Rwanda Meteorological


Integrate climate change adaptation , budgets and operational plans;

Conduct climate change adaptation training & awareness for local government

and civil society actors at district and local levels;

Mobilise funding for climate change adaptation in cooperation with


Integrate climate change adaptation within the national budgeting and public

finance management processes;

Work with MINIRENA and sector ministries to mobilize external funding for

climate change adaptation;

Monitor and ensure that climate change adaptation activities are prioritized

within the ENR sector.

Integrate climate change adaptation into the ENR infrastructure design and

maintenance policies, especially water supply, energy, mining and

meteorology which have major implications on the use of natural resources;

Establish weather monitoring infrastructure in major ENR management areas,

including forests, protected areas; water resources monitoring centres;

Provide appropriate and timely climate data/information to ENR management

institutions to facilitate climate change adaptation activities

6 Ministry of Education Integrate climate change adaptation into training curriculum for

undergraduate and graduate courses for agricultural,

biological/environmental, agricultural; basic and applied sciences;


Develop and implement a research programme on climate change adaptation

and mitigation activities in Rwanda’s ecosystems


Integrate climate change adaptation activities into water supply systems;

Develop and implement sensitisatioon programme on efficient water use and

climate change management for its domestic and commercial clients

7 District Authorities Mobilise communities and sensitise them on climate change effects on access

to and the quality of natural resources;

Integrate climate change adaptation into the District Development Plans and


Develop and implement climate change adaptation micro-projects at the

community level;

Monitor and report on national climate change adaptation programmes for

ENR within their districts.

8 Non state actors

9 Private sector


concessionaires; water

supply agencies, forest

product dealers/timber

growers, consultants,..)






Develop climate change awareness toolkits for their staff and clients and

business associates;

Invest in climate change adaptation/ mitigation projects and integrated

climate change management within their business plans.

Generate and disseminate climate change adaptation information and support


‣ Mobilize and sensitise community members and leaders about climate change

and their effects on various ENR components;

‣ Develop and implement community projects for climate change adaptation

and mitigation such as watershed restoration;

‣ Mobilise financing for climate change adaptation actions at community level;

‣ Integrate climate change adaptation issues into CSOs’ strategies and plans for

sustainable ENR management.

‣ Build capacity of local development actors working on ENR activities in

climate change adaptation.

‣ Incorporate climate change adaptation into ENR sector financing guidelines/


‣ Provide grant financing for climate risk assessment and climate change

adaptation in all ENR-related projects;

5.5 Major Challenges to climate change adaptation in the ENR sector

The ENR sector faces a number of challenges in adapting to climate change:

1) Competing land uses and claims on the land as population increases and

development needs expand will constrain the adaptation and mitigation process.

Rwanda is rolling out large scale programmes in agriculture for food security and

export; urbanization and infrastructure development; afforestation for carbon

trading, and bio-fuels production, among others.

2) Human resource capacities: the ENR sector is faced with major challenges of

retaining highly trained professionals – especially in forestry, water and mining.

This limits the sector’s ability to conceptualise and implement climate change

adaptation programmes.

3) Availability of appropriate, reliable data: High-resolution meteorological,

biophysical and socioeconomic datasets are needed to assess vulnerability risks

and evaluate adaptation models, but are often lacking. Where is unpredictable

risk, it may result in crop failure; accurate estimations of land use emission of

GHGs, and inadequate response to climate change.

4) Complex climate regimes: Rwanda has high climate variability and extremes.

This means that not a single climate-ENR response model or programme

approach will work, and a multi-pronged framework is needed. For instance,

afforestation activities in the eastern savanna will be different from those in the

high altitude zones.

5) Coordination of climate change adaptation mechanisms across sectors is further

complicated by the structure of the sector as well as institutional linkages.

Inadequate intra- and inter-sectoral platforms for shared planning and

collaboration impose more challenges.

6) Financing limitations constrain investments in vulnerability, risk monitoring and

risk reduction, which are fundamental aspects of adaptation.

5.6 Specific Actions for Effective Climate Change Adaptation in the ENR


In order to overcome the challenges to adaptation and ensure effective response, the

ENR sector will have to undertake the following:

1. Build capacity - starting with awareness raising and information gathering:

Integrating climate change considerations into the policy process implies radical policy

reform, and this change cannot even start – later on be sustained - unless there are basic

human resources and institutional capacity at all levels. The first major step in building

capacity is assessing the gaps in information, knowledge and skills. Capacity

development will entail skills enhancement to collect, analyse and report on ENR

activities and how climate change adaptation is impacting sector performance; utilize the

research information to foster learning and innovation within the planning process.

2. Mobilise adequate financing: There are a number of climate financing arrangements,

within and without the UNFCCC framework. The Clean Development Mechanism

(CDM) is one of these, and REMA is implementing a project in this regard. Several

organizations have also established Climate Change Funds that can be accessed through

bilateral and multilateral arrangements.

3. Build Climate Change into National Legislation: Policies, strategies and plans

remain proposals – only actionable when resources are available or policy priorities are

not changed substantially. To enlist stakeholders’ commitment and ensure that climate

change mainstreaming is effectively implemented, there is need to build the adaptation

actions into the legal frameworks – from sectoral laws to local government regulations.

This will compel central and Local Governments and NGOs to integrate CCMA

activities into their plans, budgets and implementation frameworks.


4. Include Climate change indicators into the ENR sector monitoring framework: The

ENR sector has adopted a Sector-wide approach (SWAP) to programming, resource

mobilization and implementation. The Paris Declaration commits donors to harmonise

their development support and align with Government priorities. The beneficiary

Governments in turn have to make their priorities and financial requirements clear, and

both agree to a set of development targets with indicators against which performance is

monitored. If it isn’t in the indicators, it’s not a priority and if it is not a priority, most

likely it won’t get funded. Sector planners, Policy makers will have to ensure that

climate-change related indicators are included in the ENR sector performance

monitoring frameworks. These indicators should be tracked from CPAF down to Subsector

strategic plans and in DDPs and Imihigo.

5. Lobby other sectors to address climate change concerns: Climate change effects

have complex and cross-sectoral implications. As the primary sector, the climate change

impacts in the ENR sector result from pressures imposed by dependant sectors – such as

agriculture, energy, industrial development, tourism, etc. It is important that the ENR

actors critically analyse the climate change impact, clarify the links with other sectors,

and mobilize respective actors to address them in a concerned and coordinated way.

Without cross-sectoral thinking, it is difficult to fully understand climate change effects.

6. Participate actively in climate change negotiations including funding mobilisation

The ENR sector is taking the lead in Rwanda’s effort to develop climate change

response capabilities, by participating actively in the international climate change

negotiations and in building national awareness and planning capabilities. This will be

better achieved by developing targeted national policies and strategies for planning,

resource mobilization, implementation and communication. At the moment, this task is

being undertaken in a few sub-sectors and through a few financing arrangements. Interdisciplinary

national capacity for climate change negotiations and response is needed.

7. Assess/ Evaluate Adaptation Actions: How do you get to know that the adaptation

actions being undertaken are making a difference in terms of strengthening resilience

How do you know that the most vulnerable groups are being cushioned from climate

change effects By assessing the likely impact before and evaluating the performance of

adaptation approaches and actions regularly.

8. Work at scale: Climate change effects occur at wider scale but their impact is largely

local – depending on the specific vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. There must be

efforts to facilitate convergence of plans with local actions. Climate change CDD

projects that work well at local levels can only create the needed impact is scaled up.

9. Develop and sustain an effective communication and knowledge sharing network:

Awareness messages and sensitization activities tend to take place when disasters have

stricken and rarely before they happen. A more effective approach is to make

communication an integral and continuous process so as to build community knowledge

and resilience. A framework for Adaptation and Mitigation is summarized in figure 11.

Figure 11: Logical flow of the Key actions for local level climate adaptation and mitigation

Evaluate climate

adaptation performance





Detailed climate

Risk Analysis

Identify and

prioritise appropriate

adaptation options



Programme design,

M&E and Reporting

(Key indicators in



GHG reduction

(Low carbon


Assess carbon foot print

(inventory of carbon

emissions; polluting


Identify & prioritise local

alternative practices &

actions for climate


Integrate in Programme

design, M&E activities

(including Imihigo & DDP


Evaluate climate

mitigation performance

The basic tools for local and community level climate change vulnerability assessment,

and integration of mitigation measures into local plans, are included as Annex 3.

Effective climate change mainstreaming must be based on a number of principles:

1) Adaptation must be placed in the general development context: Climate change

mainstreaming must happen within the broader national context of sustainable

development and must consider impact on cross-sectoral activities. Greater attention

should be paid to agriculture, water supply, infrastructure, tourism and energy

developments which depend heavily on natural resources.

2) Build on current adaptive experience: In the water sector, for example, there is need

to popularize water harvesting and put in place a national mechanism for water security.

Detailed assessment of the coping mechanisms need to be undertaken to establish the

basis for adaptation (see table 5). All stakeholders should be involved in the adaptation

process, to tap into diverse climate change experiences and expertise.

3) Recognise that adaptation occurs at different levels and is most important at the

local level: Climate change adaptation should permeate through from the policy level

down to household levels, where the consequences of inaction are most felt.


4) Recognise that adaptation is an ongoing process: Adaptation is an iterative process

of implementing and evaluating strategies as conditions evolve and as new knowledge is



King, Peter, N (2010). Mainstreaming Climate Change – a Guidance Manual for the

Pacific Islands Countries and Territories

MINELA (2010). Second National Communication under the United Nations

Convention on Climate Change. Kigali, December 2010.

MINELA (2009). Five Year Strategic Plan for the Environment and Natural Resources Sector.

Republic of Rwanda.

MINELA/ REMA (2009). Five- Year Strategic Plan for the Environment Sub-sector.

MINIFOM (2010). National Forestry Policy, 2010. Ministry of Forestry and Mines.

MINELA (2009). National Mining Policy for Rwanda. Rwanda Mining Policy, 2009.

Mutabazi, A. (2010). Assessment of Operational Framework related to Climate Change.

Simpson, M.C., Gössling, S., Scott, D., Hall, C.M. and Gladin, E. (2008) Climate

Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the Tourism Sector: Frameworks, Tools and

Practices. UNEP, University of Oxford, UNWTO, WMO: Paris, France.

USAID (2007). Adapting to Climate Variability and Change: A Guidance Manual for

Development Planning. US Agency for International Development, Washington. pdf


ls/application/pdf/20080307_compendium_m_t_complete.pdf FAO Indian perspective

change and Water Resources: A Prima for Municipal Water Providers.





Annex 1: Vulnerability Assessment Tools

Annex 2: Climate Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Tools at the Local level

Annex 3: Definition of Key terms in Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation


Annex 1. Matrix of Simple tools for Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability



1. Screen project activities for climate

risk – using a summary of climate trends,

forecasts and impacts undertake a

preliminary assessment of whether climate

variability and change could impact the

effectiveness, longevity and integrity of the


2. Decide on the CVA pathway – decide

whether to follow the CVA pathway, taking

into account any existing risk management

practices, human and financial resources,

donor conditions and the local context.

3. Identify adaptation measures – work

closely with implementation partners, local

decision makers and stakeholders to identify

potential adaptation options to climate

change risks and opportunities for

strengthening adaptive capacity.

4. Prioritize adaptation measures to

address vulnerabilities in Step 1 – consider

project timeframe, budget, and technical

requirements of implementing different

adaptation measures.

5. Select adaptation options for

implementation – from step 4, select which

options will be implemented; develop local

ownership of the process and agreed


6. Implement adaptation measures –

actively engage stakeholders and partners,

build capacity, and monitor and adapt the

project according to any new conditions that


7. Evaluate adaptation and the CVA

pathway – determine whether the

project/programme delivers the intended

benefits and/or causes any adverse


Adapted from Huxtable & Yen (2009):

Assess climate risk Programme and


managers and

project officers

Checklist – should the

CVA pathway be


Climate Vulnerability

and Capacity Analysis

(CVCA) Hand-book;

Resource table on best

practice communitybased









project officers




managers, project

officers, partner

organizations and



Programme and


managers, partner

organizations and

project officers.

Stakeholder workshop Project officers,



organizations and



Adaptation measures Project officers,


organizations and



Checklist – evaluating Programme and



managers and

project officers

A detailed table of the main

climate change impacts that

will affect project activities

and results

List of projects that need to

progress through the

remaining steps of the CVA


List of potential adaptation

measures for reducing

climate risk and

strengthening adaptive


List of criteria for

determining benefits and

feasibility of adaptation

measures; list of adaptation

measures ranked in order of


Adaptation measure(s)

selected by the community,

along with community

support and consensus.


adaptation measures are


Organisational sharing and

learning and applied case

studies. Lessons learned to

inform future project


Annex 2: Climate Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Tools at the Local level

Annex 2A: Basic Steps in Local climate

Basic step/ Broad action

1 Climate change risk screening

Specific Action

2 Identification & Analysis of

Adaptation and Response


3 Verification, Analysis and

Selection of Appropriate

Response options

4 Implementation

5 Review / Performance evaluation

Annex 2B: Climate Vulnerability Assessment


Incidences of Extreme climate

Events and impact on ENR


1 Floods

Sector ……………… District …………..

Likelihood of occurance Frequency

during the period (year)

Impact on specific

ENR issues (e.g.

resource access)


2 Drought

3 Landslides

4 Earthquakes

5 Involuntary displacement

Annex 2D: Building Local capacity for Climate change Adaptation and Mitigation

Basic Activity

1 Sensitisation




WHO (Target








2 Training

3 Participatory tools

design and testing



4 Implementation

(Supervision &


5 Review /




Annex 3: Definition of Key terms in Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

Adaptation: action or adjustment taken by society in response to the actual or potential

impacts of predicted climate change, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial


Climate: Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the “average weather” or more

rigorously as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant

quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The

classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

These relevant quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation,

and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the

climate system.

Climate change: Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the

mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically

decades or longer). Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external

forces, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in

land use. Note that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

(UNFCCC), in its Article 1, defines “climate change” as: “a change of climate which is

attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global

atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable

time periods.” The UNFCCC thus makes a distinction between “climate change” attributable

to human activities altering the atmospheric composition, and “climate variability”

attributable to natural causes. See also climate variability.

Climate system: The climate system is the highly complex system consisting of five major

components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, the land surface and the

biosphere, and the interactions between them. The climate system evolves in time under the

influence of its own internal dynamics and because of external forces such as volcanic

eruptions, solar variations, and human-induced forces such as changing composition of the

atmosphere and land-use change.

Climate variability: Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state and other

statistics (such as standard deviations, the occurrence of extremes, etc.) of the climate on all

temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be

due to natural internal processes within the climate system (internal variability), or to

variations in natural or anthropogenic external forces (external variability). See also climate


Impacts of Climate change: Impacts of Climate change are consequences of climate

change on natural and human systems. Depending on the consideration of adaptation, one

can distinguish between potential impacts and residual impacts. Potential impacts: All

impacts that may occur given a projected change in climate, without considering adaptation.

Residual impacts: The impacts of climate change that would occur after adaptation.

Climate proofing: actions taken to protect infrastructure, systems and processes against

projected climate impacts for a period into the future.


Greenhouse effect: the result of certain gases in the atmosphere (so-called greenhouse

gases) absorbing energy that is radiated from the Earth’s surface, and so warming the


Greenhouse gas: a number of anthropologically produced and naturally occurring gases

whose presence in the atmosphere traps energy radiated by the Earth. This property causes

the greenhouse effect. Water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O),

methane (CH4), and ozone (O3) are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.

Informative: where it is inappropriate for local planning authorities to impose conditions or

negotiate planning obligations, but where the local planning authorities considers that the

developer should be made aware of certain matters, it is possible for them to attach a short

statement known as an informative to any consent for planning permission.

Limited or low regret options: options for which the implementation costs are low while,

bearing in mind the uncertainties with future climate change projections, the benefits under

future climate change may potentially be large.

Mitigation: activities which seek to reduce the human effects on global warming by

reducing the quantity of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere.

Precautionary approach/principle: a principle which states that where there are threats of

serious or irreversible damage, lack of scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for

postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. This approach is

promoted by the UNFCCC to help “achieve stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations

in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous man–made interference with the

climate system”.

Sequestration: the process of increasing the carbon content of a carbon reservoir other than

the atmosphere. Biological approaches to sequestration include direct removal of carbon

dioxide from the atmosphere through land-use change, afforestation, reforestation and

practices that enhance soil carbon in agriculture. Physical approaches include separation and

disposal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and long-term storage underground.

Sink: any process, activity or mechanism that removes a greenhouse gas from the


Sustainable development: development which meets the needs of the present without

compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable

development tries to reconcile the needs of social and economic development with

ecological conservation and environmental protection.

Sustainable Land Management refers to the use of land resources (soils, water, animals

and plants) for the production of goods and services to meet changing human needs – while

assuring the future productive potential of these resources, as well as maintenance of their

environmental functions.

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