Module 01 - Atominstitut

ati.tuwien.ac.at

Module 01 - Atominstitut

Module 01

Nuclear Engineering

Overview

Prof.Dr. H. Böck

Vienna University of

Technology /Austria

Atominstitute

Stadionallee 2,

1020 Vienna, Austria

boeck@ati.ac.at


Application of Nuclear Reactors

• Research reactors: use neutrons for basic and

applied research (normally no power production)

• Nuclear power plants (NPP): use thermal energy

produced by fission process to produce electricity

(process heat, district heating is also possible)

• Propulsion reactors: Aircraft carriers, submarines,

ice breakers, satellites

(see www.world-nuclear.org/info/info.htm)


Short Reactor

Physics Repetition


One Generation of Neutrons


Mass Distribution of Fission Products


Energy Release per Fission

• Thermal fission of U-235 U

results in ca. 2.5 fast neutrons

and ca. 207 MeV of thermal energy per fission

• (1 MeV=3.2x10 -11

J → 1g U-235 U

approx. . 1 MWd)

– 167 MeV fission products

– 5 MeV prompt gamma radiation

– 5 MeV prompt neutrons (99.36%)

– 13 MeV beta and gamma decay

– 10 MeV neutrinos

– 7 MeV delayed neutrons (0.64%)


Prompt vs Delayed Neutrons

• Prompt neutrons: Production within 10 -12

s after fission. They are

slowed down by collision with (light) moderator nuclei (H 2 O, D 2 O,

C), diffuse and some neutrons are absorbed again in U-235U

• Such a cycle is described with the four factor equation: k ∞ = ε.p.f.η

ε ... fast fission factor

p ... resonance escape probability

f ... thermal utilization factor

η … reproduction factor

• Delayed neutrons: : Production time after fission from seconds to

about one minute, only 0.64% of all neutrons are delayed but very

important for the time behaviour of a reactor. A reactor is slightly

subcritical with fast neutrons and only delayed neutrons add up to

criticality.


Uranium as Reactor Fuel

• Natural Uranium : 99.28% U-238, 0.72% U-235

• Depleted Uranium: U-235 < 0.72%

• Low enriched Uranium (LEU): 0.72% < U-235 < 20%

• Medium enriched Uranium (MEU): 20%


U-Pu

Production


Plutonium Composition

• Reactor grade Plutonium: NPP produce Pu nuclides

through neutron capture in U-238 (approx 290kg per

year), composition: 75% Pu-239, >19% Pu-240,

90% Pu-239, minimum mass about 10 kg pure Pu-239.

It can be produced in NPP (fuel only about 3 month in

the NPP) with on-load refuelling using U nat as fuel (→

CANDU, RBMK), about 200 tons of WPG from military

warheads available to be diluted with U-238 to produce

NPP MOX fuel in France and UK


Target of Reactor Designers

• Target of reactor designers: To design a safe and efficient reactor

under given nuclear- and material conditions.

• Safe: The reactor must have negative temperature coefficients

during in any operational state (= increasing temperature reduces

fission process - self stabilizing), negative example: Chernobyl

• Efficient: Minimum of material and maximum of neutron flux

density

• About 6% of heat originates from fission products and transuranic

elements (i.e(

3000 MW th NPP power after shut down 180 MW th

residual power), therefore heat generation continues after shut

down, after core cooling is necessary for an extended period to

prevent damage to the fuel or emergency core cooling (ECCS) in

case of loss of coolant accident (LOCA)


Operating Temperatures of NPPs


Types of NPP‘s

Main NPP Components

Reactor Materials


Reactor Types

Thermal reactors

Fast

reactors

Moderator Graphite Water Heavy Water no

Coolant

Molten

Salt

CO 2 H 2 O He H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O D 2 O

Hydrocarbon

CO 2

Sodium/NaK

Natural

Uranium

Mag

nox

CAN

DU

DCR

Fuel

Enriched

Uranium

Thorium -

Uranium

MSBR

AGR RBMK HTGR PWR BWR SGHW

THTR

Atu

cha

KKN-

EL4

Plutonium -

Uranium

LMFBR


Types and Materials of NPPs

REACTOR TYPE E N

COOLANT FUEL – FERTILE MATERIAL MODERATOR

FISSILE FERTILE FUEL GEOMETRY

PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR (PWR) H 2

O U ENR

-- UO 2

PIN H 2

O

BOILING WATER REACTOR (BWR) H 2

O U ENR

-- UO 2

PIN H 2

O

GAS COOLED GRAPHITE REACTOR

(GCR)

ADVANCED GAS COOLED GRAPHITE

REACTOR (AGR)

HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED

REACTOR (HTR)

LIQUID METAL COOLED FAST BREEDER

REACTOR (LMFBR)

thermal fast

CO 2

U NAT

-- U-METALL PIN GRAPHITE

CO 2

U ENR

UO 2

PIN GRAPHITE

He U ENR

TH UO 2

+THC 2

COATED

PARTICLES

GRAPHITE

Na U+PU U DEPL

(U+PU)O 2

PIN --


Physical Properties of Fuel Materials

Fuel UO 2

U-Metal

Density at 20 ° C (g/cm 3 ) 10.96 19.05

Metal density at (g/cm 3 ) 9.66 ---

Melting point ( ° C) 2800 1132

Max. operation temperature ( ° C) 2800 660

Burn up achievable GWd/ton of metal

55 (thermal reactor)

60 (fast reactor)

5 (thermal reactor)

20 (fast reactor)


Physical Properties of Coolants

Temp. Press. Spec. heat Density Heat conduct. ΔT + Σ a th

o

C bar J o C -1 g -1 g cm -3 J s -1 cm -1 o C -1 o C cm -1

He 400 50 5.23 .00364 2.7 · 10 -3 380 0

CO 2 400 50 1.14 .03859 0.5 · 10 -3 380 2.08 · 10 -6

H 2 O (liqu) 300 150 5.48 .726 6.3 · 10 -3 30 1.6 · 10 -2

D 2 O (liqu) 300 150 30 2.2 · 10 -5

Na (liqu) 400 1 1.28 .857 .71 180 1.19 · 10 -2


Physical Properties of Cladding Materials

Material Magnox Zircaloy-2

Stainless steel

AGR

Stainless steel

LMFBR

Composition

.25 - .4% Al

.02 – .4% Ca

.002 - .1% Be

balance Mg

1.5% Sn

.1 % Cr

.15% Fe

.05% Ni

balance Zr

14.5 -15.5% Cr

14.5 – 15.5% Ni

1.0 – 1.4% Mo

3 - .55% Ti

balance Fe

15.5 – 17.5% Cr

12.5 -14.5% Ni

1.5% Mo

≥1. % Nb

≤ .85% V

Absorption cross

section for n th

(E-24cm 2 )

.0072 .0023 2.9

2.9

Density g/cm 3 1.74 6.6 8

8

Melting point o C 680 1850 1440

1440

Max. operational

temp. o C

ca. 480 ca. 360 ca. 780 in gas 750 in sodium


Energy Definitions

Research Reactors : MW th = thermal power production

Nuclear Power Plants: MW e = electric power

production

MW e = η. MW th

η = thermodynamic efficiency for LWR approx. 0.34 or

34%

MW e gross = overall electric power production

MW e net = gross power production less internal power

consumption for pumps, heaters etc. difference is

about 5-6%


Capacity - Availability – Power Production

• NPP operates about 8000h/y with an availability of up to 90%

• Burn-up: Measure of thermal energy released by nuclear fuel relative

to its mass, typically Gigawatt days per ton (GWd/tU)

• Availabilty: The time a reactor spends on-line (=operating) in a

period (usually a year) expressed in percentage of total period ( 8760

h), presently the availabilty factor for modern LWR is about 85-90%

• Fissile material: Uranium and Plutonium nuclides which are fissioned

by thermal neutrons (U-235,Pu-239, Pu-241) – U and Pu nuclides with

uneven mass number

• Fertile material: Thorium and Uranium nuclides which are

transformed into fissile material (Th-232, U-238) – Th and U nuclides

with even mass number


Main Reactor Components

• Fuel: Usually pellets of uranium dioxide (UO 2 )

contained in tubes to form fuel rods. . For easier handling

these rods are arranged to fuel assemblies.

• Moderator: The moderator thermalizes the fast

neutrons (about

2 MeV) produced by fission down to

thermal energy (0.025 eV).

Typical moderator materials

are light water, heavy water, or graphite.

• Control rods: They contain neutron-absorbing

material

(such as cadmium, hafnium or borated steel),

they can

be moved electrically or pneumatically into and out from

the core to control the fission process.


Main Reactor Components

• Coolant: A liquid (H 2 O, D 2 O), gas (CO 2 , He) or liquid metal (Na) is

circulated through the core to transfer the heat from the fuel

assemblies to a steam generator or sometimes directly to the

turbine

• Pressure vessel or pressure tubes: Either a steel vessel or a

series of pressure tubes containg the fuel and the primary coolant

• Steam generator: Component where the thermal energy is

transfered from the primariy circuit to the secondary circuit where

steam is produced and dried to be transfered the turbine

• Containment: A meter-thick

thick concrete and steel structure to

prevent the release of radioactivity to the environement in case of

a serious reactor accident and to protect the reactor from external

influences such as earthquake, air plane crash, tornados etc.


Status of NPP Worldwide


Survey of NPPs

Reactor type

Pressurised

Water reactor (PWR)

Boiling

Water reactor (BWR)

Gas-cooled Reactor

(Magnox & AGR)

Pressurised Heavy

Water reactor

‘CANDU‘ (PHWR)

Main

Counties

Number

GWe

net

Fuel Coolant Moderator

US, France

Japan, Russia

268 244,8 Enriched UO 2 water water

US, Japan,

Sweden

93 83,9 Enriched UO 2 water water

UK 18 9,7 Enriched UO 2 CO 2 graphite

Canada 42 21,5 Enriched UO 2 Heavy water Heavy water

Light Water

Graphit reactor

(RBMK)

Russia 16 11,4 Enriched UO 2 Water graphite

Liquid Metal Fast

Breeder

Reactor (LMFBR)

France

Japan, Russia

2 0,7 PuO 2 & UO 2 Liquid sodium none

Total 439 372

Status 31.12.2007, IAEA Nuclear Technology Review 2008


Present State of NPPs Worldwide

Country

NUCLEAR ELECTRICITY

GENERATION

2003

REACTORS

OPERABLE

REACTORS

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

REACTORS

PLANNED

REACTORS

PROPOSED

Uranium

Reqiured

May 2005 May 2005 May 2005 May 2005 2005

billion kWh % e No. MWe No. MWe No. MWe No. MWe tonnes U

Argentina 7 8.6 2 935 1 692 0 0 0 0 140

Armenia 1.8 35 1 376 0 0 0 0 0 0 55

Belgium 44.6 55 7 5728 0 0 0 0 0 0 1163

Brazil 13.3 3.7 2 1901 0 0 1 1245 0 0 311

Bulgaria 16 38 4 2722 0 0 0 0 1 1000 345

Canada* 70.3 12.5 17 12080 1 515 4 2570 0 0 1796

China** 79 ** 15 11471 4 4500 8 8000 19 15000 2307

Czech Republic 25.9 31 6 3472 0 0 0 0 2 1900 474

Egypt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 600 0

Finland 21.8 27 4 2656 0 0 1 1600 0 0 540

France 420.7 78 59 63473 0 0 0 0 1 1600 10431

Germany 157.4 28 17 20303 0 0 0 0 0 0 3708

Hungary 11 33 4 1755 0 0 0 0 0 0 274

India 16.4 3.3 14 2493 9 4128 0 0 24 13160 351

Indonesia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2000 0

Iran 0 0 0 0 1 950 1 950 3 2850 125

Israel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1200 0

Japan 230.8 25 54 46342 2 2224 12 14782 0 0 8184

Korea DPR (North) 0 0 0 0 1 950 1 950 0 0 0

* In Canada, 'planned'

planned' figure is 2 laid-up

Pickering A reactors and 2 Bruce A units.

** China: The operating capacity for China includes 9 reactors on the mainland (6587 MWe) generating 41.6 billion kWh, and 6 on Taiwan (4884

MWe) generating 37.4 billion kWh - 2.2% and 22% of total respectively. Reactors under construction include 2 on the mainland (1900 MWe) and 2

on Taiwan (2600 MWe). Eight reactors are on order on the mainland (8,000 MWe). Uranium required includes 1352 t for mainland and 955 t for Taiwan.


Present State of NPPs Worldwide

Country

NUCLEAR

ELECTRICITY

GENERATION 2003

REACTORS OPERABLE

REACTORS UNDER

CONSTRUCTION

REACTORS PLANNED

REACTORS PROPOSED

URANIUM

REQUIRED

May 2005 May 2005 May 2005 May 2005 2005

billion kWh % e No. MWe No. MWe No. MWe No. MWe tonnes U

Korea RO (South) 123.3 40 20 16840 0 0 8 9200 0 0 3011

Lithuania 14.3 80 1 1185 0 0 0 0 0 0 290

Mexico 10.5 5.2 2 1310 0 0 0 0 0 0 237

Netherlands 3.8 4.5 1 452 0 0 0 0 0 0 112

Pakistan 1.8 2.4 2 425 0 0 1 300 0 0 57

Romania 4.5 9.3 1 655 1 655 0 0 3 1995 90

Russia 138.4 17 31 21743 4 3600 1 925 8 9375 3409

Slovakia 17.9 57 6 2472 0 0 0 0 2 840 373

Slovenia 5 40 1 676 0 0 0 0 0 0 128

South Africa 12.7 6.1 2 1842 0 0 0 0 1 125 356

Spain 59.4 24 9 7584 0 0 0 0 0 0 1622

Sweden 65.5 50 11 9459 0 0 0 0 0 0 1536

Switzerland 25.9 40 5 3220 0 0 0 0 0 0 595

Turkey 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4500 0

Ukraine 76.7 46 15 13168 0 0 1 950 0 0 1531

United Kingdom 85.3 24 23 11852 0 0 0 0 0 0 2409

USA 763.7 19.9 103 97587 1 1065 0 0 0 0 22397

Vietnam 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2000 0

WORLD 2525 16 439 372682 18 23,641 39 41,472 73 58,145 68,357

Status 31.12.2008, IAEA Nuclear Technology Review 2008


Updated State of NPPs Worldwide

Status 31.12.2007

NPP in operation : 439 in 31 countries

Net power: 372 GWe

NPP new: : 3 units in India, , China, Romania

NPP restarted: : 1 unit in Canada

NPP shut down: 2 units in Germany and Sweden

Net energy production: : 2 565 TWh

NPP under construction: : 33 with 27 GWe net

NPP under detailed planning: : 4 with 3.500 MWe

NNPP Projects: 40

IAEA Nuclear Technology Review 2008 p.5

Atomwirtschaft 4/2008


Plans for new Reactors

Start Operation Organisation REACTOR TYPE MWe (net)

2005 Japan, Tohoku Higashidori 1 (Tohoku) BWR 1067

2005 India, NPCIL Tarapur 4 PHWR 490

2005 China, CNNC Tianwan 1 PWR 950

2006 Iran, AEOI Bushehr 1 PWR 950

2006 Japan, Hokuriku Shika-2 ABWR 1315

2006 India, NPCIL Tarapur 3 PHWR 490

2006 China, CNNC Tianwan 2 PWR 950

2006 China, Taipower Lungmen 1 ABWR 1300

2007 India, NPCIL Rawatbhata 5 PHWR 202

2007 Romania, SNN Cernavoda 2 PHWR 650

2007 India, NPCIL Kudankulam 1 PWR 950

2007 India, NPCIL Kaiga 3 PHWR 202

2007 India, NPCIL Kaiga 4 PHWR 202

2007 USA, TVA Browns Ferry 1 BWR 1065

2007 China, Taipower Lungmen 2 ABWR 1300


Plans for new Reactors

Start Operation Organisation REACTOR TYPE MWe (net)

2008 India, NPCIL Kudankulam 2 PWR 950

2008 India, NPCIL Rawatbhata 6 PHWR 202

2008 Russia, Rosenergoatom Volgodonsk-2 PWR 950

2008 Korea, KHNP Shin Kori 1 PWR 950

2009 Finland, TVO Olkiluoto 3 PWR 1600

2009 Japan, Hokkaido Tomari 3 PWR 912

2009 Korea, KHNP Shin Kori 2 PWR 950

2009 Korea, KHNP Shin Wolsong 1 PWR 950

2010 Russia, Rosenergoatom Balakovo 5 PWR 950

2010 Russia, Rosenergoatom Kalinin 4 PWR 950

2010 India, NPCIL Kalpakkam FBR 440

2010 Pakistan, PAEC Chashma 2 PWR 300

2010 Korea, KHNP Shin Wolsong 2 PWR 950

2010 North Korea, KEDO Sinpo 1 PWR (KSNP) 950

2010 China, Guangdong Lingao 3 PWR 950

2010 Russia, Rosenergoatom Beloyarsk 4 FBR 750

2011 China, Guangdong Lingao 4 PWR 950

2011 China, CNNC Sanmen 1 & 2 PWR

2011 China, CNNC Yangjiang 1 & 2 PWR


Present State of NPPs Worldwide


Present State of NPPs in Europe


Nuclear Electricity Share in

OECD 2004


Electricity Generating Costs

of

Different Energy Sources

Sensitivity Analysis


Electricity Costs for different Energy Sources

60

50

euro/MWh

Fuel costs

O&M costs

46,8

50,1

10,0

40

Capital costs

35,3

31,2

32,9

34,7

25,6

30

20

14,9

22,8

27,3

23,7

2,7

7,2

22,4

17,9

17,9

8,2

40,1

10

0

13,8

3,5

5,3

7,4

7,6

6,5

10,2

13,0

Elspot

Elspot

Elspot

Elspot

Nuclear Gas Coal Peat Wood Wind

2000

2001

2002

2003

Operating hours

2200 hours/year

Operating hours 8000 hours/year


Electricity generating costs

without emission trading


Fuel Costs 2006

In 2006, the approx. US $ cost to get 1 kg of 3% enriched UO 2

reactor fuel:

U 3

O 8

: 8 kg x $45 360

conversion: 7 kg U x $9 60

enrichment: 4.3 SWU x $105 450

fuel fabrication: per kg 240

total, approx: US$ 1110

This yields 3400 GJ thermal which gives 315,000 kWh,

hence fuel cost:

0.35 c/kWh


Energy Costs Estimation for 2010

country nuclear coal gas

Finland 2.76 3.64 -

France 2.54 3.33 3.92

Germany 2.86 3.52 4.90

Switzerland 2.88 - 4.36

Netherlands 3.58 - 6.04

Czech Rep 2.30 2.94 4.97

Slovakia 3.13 4.78 5.59

Romania 3.06 4.55 -

Japan 4.80 4.95 5.21

Korea 2.34 2.16 4.65

USA 3.01 2.71 4.67

Canada 2.60 3.11 4.00

2003, US cents/kWh, Discount rate 5%, 40 year lifetime, 85% load factor

Source: OECD/IEA NEA 2005.


Efficiency and Costs of different

Energy Sources


Impact of Investement Costs on

Power Generation Costs


Impact of Changes in Fuel Costs

on Power Generation Costs


Impact of Emission Price of

Power Generation Costs


Impact of Real Interest Rate on

Power Generation Costs


Impact of Economic Lifetime on

Power Generation Costs


Power Capacity Factor vs. Power

Generation Costs


Fuel Prices


Uranium Situation Worldwide

• Uranium demand approx. . 68 000 tons/year

• Primary uranium (about

35 000 tons) from mines in Canada (30,5%),

Australia (22,2%), Kasachstan, Niger, Russian Foederation, , Namibia

• Secondary uranium from disassembled weapons, this part will deacrease in

future

• NPP will increase, therefore uranium price will increase in future

• Since 2003 increase of primary U production (40 200 tons produced in

2004)

• U 3

O 8

(„yellow

cake“) produced from uranium mineral, 2.6 lb U 3

O 8

= 1kg

U=26 US$ (10/2005)

• Without U recyling or input from weapons U reserves for about 70 years

• USA released recently 9 tons of weapons grade Pu for MOX

• In Europe 35 NPP‘s are operating on MOX

• MOX = Depleted Uranium from enrichment mixed with 5% Pu (weapons(

grade) is equivivalent to 4,5% enriched uranium for NPP use


World MOX Panorama


Converting weapons material into

NPP fuel

WP Pu is blended with depleted

uranium, thus 500 to

(equivalent to 20 000 bombs)

WG Pu will supply300.000 to of

LEU NPP fuel, US+Russian

stockpiles of WG Pu about

2000 to


Fuel Price including Emission

Price


Annual Efficiencies of Power

Plants


Specific Investment Costs of

Power Plants (€/kWh)


Operation and Maintenance Costs


Typical Fuel Requirement for a 1000 MW e PWR per Year

Mining: 20 000 tonnes of 1% uranium ore

Milling:

230 tonnes of uranium oxide

concentrate (with 195 t U)

Conversion 288 tonnes UF6 (with(

195 t U)

Enrichment

35 tonnes UF6 (with(

24 t enriched U) –

balance is 'tails'

Fuel fabrication 27 tonnes UO 2 (with

24 t enriched U)

Reactor operation 7000 million kWh or 7 TWh of electricity

Spent fuel

27 tonnes containing 240kg plutonium,

23 t uranium (0.8% U-235), U

720kg

fission products, , also transuranics


Evolution of Nuclear Power Plants


Looking backwards and forewards

• 1990: 415 NPPs, capacity 338 375 MWe, producing in

1990 1 737 000 GWh (ATW 90/143)

• 2004: 441 NPPs, capacity 385 854 MWe, producing in

2004 2 738 000 GWh (ATW 05/264)

• Δ = +1 000 000 GWh or 1000 TWh

• One 1000 MWe NPP produces appr. 7 TWh per year →

26 additional NPP produce approx. 182 TWh

Where do the remaining 818 TWh (= 116 NPP!!!) come from

Higher availbility, higher licensed power,

longer fuel cycle, extended life time


Looking backwards and forewards

• Average availabilty increased between 1991 and

2007 from 75.7% to 85.3%

• Good experience allowed life time extension of

NPPs from 40 to 60 years

• Many NPPs uprated the power from 100% up to

108%

• Fuel cycles increased by optimization from 12

months up to 24 months


World Oldest Nuclear Reactor

• Where: Oklo in Gabon

• When: 2 billion years ago

• How many reactors: at least 17

• How long: 2 million years of operation

• Power: approx. 20 kW th

• Natural reactor requirements:

– higher enrichment of U: U-235 U

concentration in U nat at that

time was 3.7 percent (today 0.7)

– low concentration of neutron absorbers

– high concentration of a moderator: clean water

– penetrated Uranium mine

– critical size to sustain the fission reaction

– at least 4 tons of U-235 U

fissioned

– Approx. 100 billion of kWh produced (= 3 years production of

a 1300 MWe NPP)

• Fission products: 5.4 tons plus 1.5 tons Plutonium produced


World Oldest Nuclear Reactor

• www.curtin.edu.au/curtin/centre/waisrc/OKLO/index.shtml


Nuclear Power Plants World Wide

August 2007

Nordamerika

120 - -

Westeuropa

135 1 1

Zentral- &

Osteuropa

70 8 5

Süadamerika

6 1 1

Afrika

2 - 1

in operation

under construction

planned

Asien

105 5 29


References

• www.isis-online.org

• www.world-nuclear.org>Information

and

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