The develop - Global Climate Change Alliance

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The develop - Global Climate Change Alliance

Global Climate Change Alliance

Support Facility

Module 2

Understanding climate change –

development linkages

Training workshops on

mainstreaming climate change

Training materials developed with the support of the European Commission


Adaptation, mitigation and vulnerability

2


Adaptation and mitigation

Mitigation

Adaptation

Human

activities

Impacts

Climate,

environment &

natural resources

Opportunities, risks

& constraints

3


4

Vulnerability

Exposure Sensitivity Adaptive capacity

+

+

+

Resilience

-

Vulnerability

-

+

•Age

•Gender

•Social group

•Education

•Wealth

•Access to

information and

technology

•‘Built’ and ‘green’

infrastructure

•Institutions

•Social organisation

Adaptation

Maladaptation

•Culture

•Equity &

(in)equality

•Development level


Biophysical and socioeconomic

impacts

5

Biophysical

impacts

Socioeconomic

impacts

Changes in t°

Changes in rainfall

patterns

Shifts in seasons

More frequent or severe

storms, floods, droughts

Raised sea level

Erosion, desertification

Changes in water

quality/availability

Changes in ecosystems

Biodiversity loss

Disease & pest

outbreaks, ...

Vulnerability

factors

Damage to or

destruction of

infrastructure

Reduced food security,

malnutrition

Economic disruption,

loss of livelihoods, social

disruption

Increased mortality and

morbidity

Reduced availability of

hydropower

Conflicts, population

displacement, human

migrations, ...


Examples of actual and potential

CC impacts in the Caribbean (1)

• Impacts on coastal ecosystems, e.g.

– hurricane damage affecting mangroves and coral reefs

– beach and shoreline erosion

– coral bleaching and mortality due to higher temperatures

– retreat of mangroves from sea level rise and saline intrusions

– submersion of low-lying coastal areas

• Impacts on critical infrastructure and human settlements

– damage from hurricanes, landslides, sea surges and coastal

flooding affecting coastal and in-land infrastructure (incl. public

and private buildings, harbours, airports, roads, power lines, ...)

– salinisation of coastal aquifers, increased water scarcity

– increased demand for energy for cooling buildings

Sources: CARICOM Secretariat (2005), Petit & Prudent (2008), Government of Virgin Islands (2011)

6


Examples of actual and potential

CC impacts in the Caribbean (2)

• Impacts on fishing and aquaculture, e.g.

– reduced coastal fish stocks as a result of damage to habitats

such as mangroves and coral reefs, and algal proliferation

– unpredictable changes in fish stocks and species composition

resulting from changes in plankton abundance, water

temperature, salinity, acidity, and shifts in ocean currents

– migration of ocean fish stocks towards cooler waters

– damage from hurricanes and sea level rise to landing sites and

on-shore fishery facilities

Sources: CARICOM Secretariat (2005), Petit & Prudent (2008), Government of Virgin Islands (2011)

7


Examples of actual and potential

CC impacts in the Caribbean (3)

• Impacts on agriculture, e.g.

– destruction of banana, sugar cane, fruit tree plantations by

hurricanes

– reduced yields of important crops such as cassava, sweet

potatoes or sugar cane (due to changing rainfall patterns,

higher temperatures, soil erosion, etc.)

– increased incidence or activity of some pests and diseases,

increased spread of invasive species

– loss of agricultural land due to coastal flooding or submersion

and increased salinity of coastal soils and aquifers

Sources: CARICOM Secretariat (2005), Petit & Prudent (2008), Government of Virgin Islands (2011)

8


Examples of actual and potential

CC impacts in the Caribbean (4)

• Impacts on human health, e.g.

– greater health risks from vector-borne diseases (e.g. dengue

fever), water-borne diseases (e.g. leptospirosis, diarrhoeal

diseases), ciguatera poisoning

• Impacts on tourism, e.g.

– damage to tourist infrastructure, notably along all coasts

exposed to tropical storms

– damage to or destruction of key natural resources that attract

tourists (coral reefs, sandy beaches, forests, biodiversity, ...)

– increased difficulties or costs in supplying freshwater

– tourists deterred by less friendly climate (e.g. greater risk of fire

or violent storms, heat waves) or greater health risks

Sources: CARICOM Secretariat (2005), Petit & Prudent (2008), Government of Virgin Islands (2011)

9


Climate change, environment and development

10


Environment – climate change –

development linkages

11

Climate change:

- an environmental

issue

- a development

issue

Source: Millennium

Ecosystem

Assessment (2005)

Figure B, p. 7.


Climate change and sustainable

development

12

Climate change

Both adaptation and

mitigation support

more sustainable

development

Biophysical

effects

Environment

Socio-economic

impacts

Social

dimension

Sustainable

development

Economy

In turn, the pursuit of

sustainable development

enhances society’s response

capacity


13

Climate change and environment

Climate change is a theme to be addressed

with other environmental issues:

Climate change exacerbates certain environmental trends

and problems

Credit: Proyecto Rio Hurtado,

EuropeAid Photo Library

– Environmental management has an impact on climate change

Credit: Vietnamese journalist,

EuropeAid Photo Library


Climate change and MDGs

Eradicate

extreme poverty

& hunger

e.g. Adverse

effects on

food security

Improve

maternal

health

e.g. Higher

incidence of

anaemia resulting

from malaria

Reduce child

mortality

Potential

impacts on

MDGs

Combat major

diseases

e.g. Heat-related

mortality & illnesses

e.g. Increased

incidence of

waterborne

diseases

Source: OECD (2009a)

Ensure

environmental

sustainability

Promote gender

equality &

empower women

e.g. Dependence

on livelihoods put

at risk by CC

e.g. Increased stress

on ecosystems and

biodiversity

14


The development–adaptation

continuum

15

Vulnerability

Response to impacts

Addressing the

drivers of

vulnerability

Building the

response

capacity

Managing climate

risk

(e.g. DRR)

Specifically

confronting

climate change

Developmental

benefits

=> Developmental

and climate

adaptation benefits

=> Primarily

adaptation benefits,

developmental

benefits as a ‘side

effect’

=> Quasi-exclusive

focus on very

specific CC impacts,

adaptation benefits

only

100 0

Benefits in the absence of climate change

Adapted from: McGray et al (2007), OECD (2009a), Olhoff & Schaer (2010)


16

Moving to climate-resilient,

low-emission development


17

Climate-resilient development

Biophysical

impacts

Socioeconomic

impacts

Climate risk

management

Specific

adaptation

measures

Vulnerability

factors

Development

(vulnerability

reduction)

activities

Climate risk

management

Specific

adaptation

measures

The development

path

addresses

current and

future

vulnerability,

risks and

impacts

Response capacity building


18

Low-emission development

• Generally, the three ‘sectors’ that are the

biggest contributors to GHG emissions

are also the main targets for emission

reductions:

Energy (fossilfuel

burning)

Agriculture

Land use change

esp. deforestation

• Country-specific emission patterns and

development objectives should be

considered to determine national

mitigation priorities

The

development

path

addresses

sources of

emissions


Building on NAPAs and NAMAs

• Many developing countries have now

submitted their NAPAs (& NAMAs) to the UNFCCC

– NAPAs = national adaptation programmes of action

• Help LDCs build national capacities and identify priority

adaptation projects with developmental benefits

– NAMAS = nationally appropriate mitigation actions

These voluntary mitigation measures are consistent with a

country’s development strategy, and are meant to put it on a

more sustainable development path

These are a good starting point for addressing the

climate challenge without compromising

development objectives

19


Adaptation and mitigation:

seizing opportunities

• Green growth

– ‘A way to pursue economic growth and development,

while preventing environmental degradation, biodiversity

loss and unsustainable natural resource use’

• Green jobs

• Adaptation and mitigation as ‘opportunities’:

development co-benefits

e.g. renewable energy

e.g. clean technologies

e.g. forestry (REDD+)

e.g. agricultural productivity

Source: OECD (2010b)

20


Adaptation and mitigation:

developing synergies

• Quite frequently adaptation and mitigation

measures are congruent and can produce a double

stream of benefits

– e.g. reduced tillage agriculture enhances carbon

sequestration in soils while supporting soil moisture

retention, thus increasing resilience to dry spells

– e.g. sustainable reforestation may simultaneously

enhance carbon stocks and, by offering new livelihood

opportunities, enhance the adaptive capacity of local

communities

21


Adaptation and mitigation:

ensuring complementarity

• Mitigation should:

– Be compatible with adaptation policies and requirements

– Rely on environmentally sustainable practices

• e.g. unsustainable agrofuels may be a threat to food security,

water availability and ecosystems

– Not result in increased vulnerability to climate change

• Adaptation should:

– Take emissions into account

• e.g. agricultural intensification for improved food security may

increase emissions from the use of fertilisers

• e.g. the increased adoption of air conditioning to adapt to heat

waves may result in increased emissions from fossil energy use

22


Moving to climate-resilient,

low-emission development

23

• Both climate-resilient development and lowemission

development result from mainstreaming

climate change in policymaking and planning

Adaptation

mainstreaming

Mainstreaming of

climate change

mitigation

The two

approaches are

complementary

In both cases,

focus on cobenefits

Climate-resilient

development

Low-emission

development


Recap – Key messages

Climate change is a development issue as

well as an environmental issue

– May jeopardise the achievement of the MDGs and other

development objectives

• Many interventions labelled ‘adaptation’ can also

contribute to ‘development’ – and vice versa

• Adaptation (with a view to achieving climate-resilient

development) and mitigation (with a view to achieving lowemission

development) are complementary responses to

climate change with the potential to generate significant

‘co-benefits’ in terms of development

24


Key references

• IPCC (2007c) Climate Change 2007: Impacts,

Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, USA. Available from:

www.ipcc.ch

• IPCC (2007d) Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate

Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New

York, NY, USA. Available from: www.ipcc.ch

25


26

References (1)

• Caribbean Community Secretariat (2005) Caribbean Risk Management Guidelines for Climate

Change Adaptation Decision Making. Adapting to Climate Change in the Caribbean (ACCC)

Project) Available from: http://www.caribbeanclimate.bz/accc/accc.html [Accessed 17 January

2012]

• Government of the Virgin Islands (2011) The Virgin Islands’ Climate Change Policy: Achieving

Low-Carbon, Climate-Resilient Development. Prepared by the Conservation and Fisheries

Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Labour [author: Angela Burnett Penn]. Technical

report 5C/ECACC-11-10-1, Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, Belmopan, Belize.

Available from: http://www.caribbeanclimate.bz/projects/enhancing-capacity-for-adaptation-toclimate-change-ecacc-in-the-uk-caribbean-overseas-territories-project.html

• IPCC (2007c) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of

Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Change [Parry M.L., Canziani O.F., Palutikof J.P., van der Linden P.J. & Hanson C.E. (eds.)].

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, USA. Available from: www.ipcc.ch

• IPCC (2007d) Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working

Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

[Metz B., Davidson O.R., Bosch P.R., Dave R. & Meyer L.A. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, USA. Available from: www.ipcc.ch


27

References (2)

• McGray H., Hammill A. & Bradley R. (2007) Weathering the Storm: Options for Framing

Adaptation and Development. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Available from:

http://pdf.wri.org/weathering_the_storm.pdf

• Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island

Press, Washington, DC. Available from: http://www.maweb.org/en/Synthesis.aspx

• OECD (2009a) Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Development Co-operation: Policy

guidance. OECD Publishing, Paris. [Read-only, browse-it edition] Available from:

http://browse.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/pdfs/browseit/4309171E.PDF

• OECD (2010b) Interim Report of the Green Growth Strategy: Implementing our commitment for a

sustainable future. Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, 27-28 May 2010.

C/MIN(2010)5. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. Available from:

http://www.oecd.org/document/3/0,3343,en_2649_37465_45196035_1_1_1_1,00.html

• Olhoff A. & Schaer C. (2010) Screening tools and guidelines to support the mainstreaming of

climate change adaptation into development assistance: A stocktaking report. Environment &

Energy Group, United Nations Development Programme, New York. Available from:

http://www.undp.org/climatechange/library_integrating_cc.shtml

• Petit J. & Prudent G. (eds) (2008, reprint 2010) Climate Change and Biodiversity in the European

Union Overseas Entities. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Brussels, Belgium. Available from:

http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2010-064.pdf

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