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I N F R A S T R U C T U R E

SETTING OUT - FOUNDATION - CONCRETE WORKS - WALLS - ROOF - FLOOR - SERVICES


Author :

Ekart Hartmann dan Heinz Unger

Editor :

Octaviera Herawati

Photos by :

Ekart Hartmann

Published by :

World Bank Office, Jakarta

PNPM Support Facilities (PSF) Office

Jalan Diponegoro No. 72

Jakarta 10310

Phone : (62-21) 3148175 (hunting)

Fax : (62-21) 31903090

Website : www.worldbank.org

All, or any part of this book may be reproduced for training needs

For Further information, please contact :

Octaviera Herawati

Phone : (62-21) 3148175

Fax : (62-21) 31903090

Email : oherawati@worldbank.org


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

INTRODUCTION

Housing Construction

Indonesia has experienced a number of natural disasters in the recent past that have damaged

or destroyed large numbers of residential housing. Major reconstruction efforts by

local, national and international agencies were initiated, and because of many homeless

families, speedy completion was an important factor.

The need for speed can sometimes lead to low quality workmanship. However, it has been

shown that poor construction techniques waste materials, time and efforts; they may make

the house uncomfortable, and at the worst, may cause the structure to be unsafe. Costly

repairs and early replacement are serious consequences of poor construction practice.

On the other hand, good quality housing makes for happy occupants, and has important

economic benefits in terms of a longer lifespan and savings in materials and construction

costs. If a house is well built, the owners are also much more likely to make further investments

in expanding and improving their basic core houses.

A lot has been learned in the many recent reconstruction projects, in terms of both, good

and bad examples of house construction. While the bad examples are obvious and speak

for themselves, the good examples show how much can be achieved by making serious

efforts, using good experience, common sense and some technical training.

Considering the above mentioned, this book is made to complete the existing standard

manual for housing that have been published by the government or other institution. The

book presented is simple and easy to understand because each picture are complimented

by simple explanation.

It is also hoped that the book will be used not only for disaster reconstruction programs

but that housing construction in general will benefit from the good and bad practice examples

that are being presented. The book is intended not only for builders, contractors

and their technical staff, but should also be perused by bureaucrats, managers, staff of multilateral

and bilateral assistance agencies, international and Indonesian NGOs active in the

housing and community sectors, and lastly but not least, the beneficiaries themselves.

Hence, the book should be distributed widely and should be made available to all who ask

for a copy; it could also be adapted for training in house construction.

i


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Scott Guggenheim who had the original idea and arranged the funding, Ekart Hartmann

(with help from Heinz Unger) who prepared the technical pages, Octaviera Herawati who

managed the efforts (including coordination of inputs, management of production until

publication, and also the translation into Bahasa Indonesia), the many technical staff

who provided reviews and suggestions, such as Saleh Siregar, Purnomo Sutantyo, Eka Hasfi

Adha, Festina Lavida. Special thanks to Victor Bottini and Sentot Satria who keep supporting

this book. Also the layout artist and printing company, and anybody else, including

admin and support staff who may have done a lot of work ……..

ii


Contents

INTRODUCTION

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS

i

ii

BAD

GOOD

SETTING OUT Setting out 1 3

FOUNDATION Excavation 7 8

Rock 10 14

Concrete 19

CONCRETE WORKS Concrete Production 21

Formwork 23 30

Reinforcement 41 53

Beams, Columns 66 75

Slab 82

WALLS Materials 83 84

Construction 85 93

Windows & Doors 97 99

Plaster 105

ROOF Roofing materials 107 109

Aluminium 112 113

Wood 116 121

FLOOR Construction 131

SERVICES Electricity 135 138

Water & Sanitation 139 140


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

12 Important Rules


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

12 Important Rules


Chapter 01

Setting Out


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Setting out

Rubbish and rotting

plants not removed

Boards without

straight edges

Clean up site before setting out

How can I do it better







Why





Chapter 01 Setting Out BAD

1


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Setting out

Dispose of plants



How can I do it better



Why





2 BAD

Chapter 01 Setting Out


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Setting out

Setting out


Clear ground of all

plants and rubbish


Why is it better





1m

Alternative:



Chapter 01 Setting Out GOOD

3


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Setting out


nails on the board

Boards set at




foundations


design of building

Why is it better







Alternative:






4 GOOD

Chapter 01 Setting Out


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Setting out


the width of the

foundation…







Chapter 01 Setting Out GOOD

5


Chapter 02

Foundation


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Excavation


too shallow

No boards for strings

Roots of plants not

disposed of

Bottom of trench has to be levelled

How can I do it better







and waste


Why





Chapter 02 Foundation BAD

7


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Excavation

No boards for strings


too shallow

Roots of plants not

disposed of


Why is it better





Alternative:



8 GOOD Chapter 02 Foundation


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Excavation



Depth depending on

soil at the site

Boards for setting

out strings


Why is it better





Alternative:



Chapter 02

Foundation

GOOD

9


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Rock


too shallow




not embedded

Rock layer of foundation is not embedded in concrete

How can I do it better







Why



10 BAD

Chapter 02 Foundation


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Rock


should not be in a

straight line


Strings from setting

out



How can I do it better



Why



Chapter 02 Foundation BAD

11


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Rock


too shallow




embedded


How can I do it better







Why



12 BAD

Chapter 02 Foundation


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Rock


settlement of the

foundation

Movement of

foundation



How can I do it better






Why




Chapter 02 Foundation BAD

13


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Rock

Movement of

foundation


Why is it better







Alternative:



14 GOOD Chapter 02 Foundation


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Rock







Sand or lean


Strings for

setting out


Why is it better









foundation beam

Alternative:



Chapter 02

Foundation

GOOD

15


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Rock



setting out the




Why is it better





Alternative:



16 GOOD Chapter 02 Foundation


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Rock




Height of foundations





Why is it better





foundation



Alternative:



Chapter 02

Foundation

GOOD

17


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Rock






Why is it better







Alternative:



18 GOOD Chapter 02 Foundation


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Concrete


foundation

Strings of Set




Single foundations instead of stripfoundation

Why is it better



Alternative:





Chapter 02

Foundation

GOOD

19


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Concrete

Rebars have to be

supported






foundations


Why is it better







Alternative:





20 GOOD Chapter 02 Foundation


Chapter 03

Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Concrete Production

Cement Sand Gravel

Water

Good quality

concrete beams

Why is it better











Alternative:



Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

21


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Concrete Production





Why is it better









Alternative:



22 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork

Cover



to rebars

Rebars are in a

straight line


How can I do it better







Why




Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

23


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork








How can I do it better






Why






24 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork



large




How can I do it better




Why









Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

25


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork




between these beams


How can I do it better




Why





26 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork


Beam supports are essential before



How can I do it better




strength


Why



Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

27


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork

Support

needed here



How can I do it better






strength


Why







28 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork


Cast all




lift



How can I do it better





Why







Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

29


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork







supports


Why is it better









Alternative:









be

30 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork


supports


not more than





Why is it better










Alternative:





be

Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

31


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork






Why is it better









Alternative:





32 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork




together




Why is it better








not be dropped from a great height






Alternative:




separate


Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

33


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork


on top


walls




Why is it better






Alternative:




separate


34 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork




right angles to



right angles


Why is it better








Alternative:




separate


Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

35


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork





Why is it better





Alternative:



36 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork




Why is it better








Alternative:



Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

37


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork

Roof beam

Supports for

beam forms


Why is it better



Alternative:



38 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork

Roof beam



Beam supports


intervals





Why is it better




strength


Alternative:



Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

39


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Formwork


Beam support


Why is it better



design strength

Alternative:



40 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement

red

green




overlap



should overlap






How can I do it better





Why









Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

41


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement



shall overlap

with the rebar


right angle




rebars


How can I do it better





Why




42 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement



End of rebar

must have a



outlines of the

rebars



rebars in the same plane

How can I do it better









Why




Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

43


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement

Rebars for

Column

Rebars for

foundation

beams


overlap to

other rebars

Rebars for

foundation

beams

Strings for

setting out


How can I do it better





Why








44 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement

Rebars must


other


How can I do it better







Why




Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

45


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement

Rebars must


other

Design

dimension of


Rebars must


other


How can I do it better







Why



46 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement


MUST NOT be

less than the design

NOT


Rebars must be



How can I do it better






the roof beam





Why












Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

47


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement



Column rebars

must be straight





How can I do it better





up to the roof beam




Why












48 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement




Column rebars

must be straight



Rebars are not




How can I do it better







roof beam






Why












Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

49


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement





How can I do it better





Why




50 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement



How can I do it better







Why






Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

51


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement

Bottom


slab

Rebars without



How can I do it better



Why






52 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement

Rebars sorted and








Why is it better






Alternative:



Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

53


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement







with double wire

Why is it better











Alternative:





54 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement

Column











Why is it better






Alternative:





Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

55


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement






Why is it better










Alternative:





56 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement





per design


Why is it better








Alternative:





Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

57


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement





with the rebars of

foundation


between ties


Why is it better






Alternative:





58 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement

Column rebar


on beams



between ties



Why is it better





Alternative:





Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

59


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement





Rebars bent into

footing about




Why is it better







Alternative:





60 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement


assembled rebars


Why is it better





Alternative:





Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

61


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement

Support from two sides

at right angle

Column rebars


Support from two sides

at right angle


foundation


Why is it better





Alternative:





62 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement

Column rebars

Supports at

right angle

Supports at

right angle


Why is it better





Alternative:





Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

63


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement



roof ring beams




Why is it better






Alternative:





64 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Reinforcement



Rebars for


roof ring beams

Rebars of lintel

ring beam


to lintel ring beam


Why is it better





Alternative:





Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

65


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns

Lintels missing

Columns were





How can I do it better









Why






66 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns



of the












How can I do it better







WHY









Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

67


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns

Rebars must

be vl





d


How can I do it better









WHY










68 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns

on

n


bears


Design load bearing

n


n



How can I do it better









WHY










Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

69


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns







How can I do it better





WHY









70 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns

No Cover

on rebars



No Cover

on rebars


How can I do it better







WHY






Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

71


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns



How can I do it better



WHY






72 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns

Rebars twisted

Not enough

mp


aggregates


No bonding between

foundation and beam


How can I do it better





WHY






Chapter 03 Concrete Works BAD

73


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns

Continuation

n

ng post

of truss is


Should be

in the

same spot


How can I do it better



WHY




foundation



74 BAD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns

A solid stone

foundation


foundation


beams are

t


Why is it better





Alternative:



Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

75


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns

Fill must be

compacted

Foundation beams

Brickwork foundation


Foundation beams

Stone foundation

Why is it better




Alternative:



76 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns

Base for the

floor slab

Column

and

beams

are well

built

Beams of the

foundation grid


Why is it better





Alternative:



Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

77


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns


between roof ring


is important

Roof ring beam

Columns

are well

built

Lintel beam


Why is it better



Alternative:



78 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns

Outer edge

of column

Inner edge

of column

Column built with formwo

Why is it better



Alternative:



Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

79


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns



Why is it better





Alternative:



80 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Beams & Columns



lintel beam

g

rebars

Roof beam will be



m

Lintel beam

over windows

s



Why is it better




meters



Alternative:



Chapter 03 Concrete Works GOOD

81


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Slab



Elevated slab



Why is it better




elevated slab



Alternative:



82 GOOD

Chapter 03 Concrete Works


Chapter 04

Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Materials


How can I do it better



WHY



Chapter 04 Walls BAD

83


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Materials


storage


standard dimensions



Why is it better



Alternative:



84 GOOD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction

s


How can I do it better





WHY





Chapter 04 Walls BAD

85


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction




How can I do it better





WHY



86 BAD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction


not level

Horizontal

Line


not level


How can I do it better





WHY



Chapter 04 Walls BAD

87


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction


were used


laid level

and with

Design width



Edge of



laid level

and with


How can I do it better












WHY




88 BAD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction


s

are too wide


How can I do it better





WHY





Chapter 04 Walls BAD

89


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction




alternative to



How can I do it better



WHY





90 BAD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction

Design width

of columns


Edge of wall

Beam is sagging

after

How can I do it better




WHY



Chapter 04 Walls BAD

91


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction

Load of the wall above


distribute load

better when laid


Center line


this side


How can I do it better



WHY




92 BAD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction


m




Why is it better







Alternative:



Chapter 04 Walls GOOD

93


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction


beams 3m

s

m


Why is it better






Alternative:



94 GOOD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction

Column

with

s

for walls

60 cm


a board for ease of




Why is it better









Alternative:



Chapter 04 Walls GOOD

95


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction



embedded in


Columns



Why is it better






Alternative:



96 GOOD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Doors & Windows

Supports

Door frames


d



How can I do it better



WHY




Chapter 04 Walls BAD

97


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Doors & Windows


be laid in two

s


frames

Edge of wall

before window

installation




How can I do it better







WHY



98 BAD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Doors & Windows

Door frames

s


Why is it better



Alternative:



Chapter 04 Walls GOOD

99


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Doors & Windows


supports

s


Why is it better




Alternative:



100 GOOD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Doors & Windows


e

r

Supports


below

frame to

be filled

after wall

is finished



Why is it better






wall

Alternative:



Chapter 04 Walls GOOD

101


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Doors & Windows

Louvres above window

Corner brace

keeps frame

rectangular

NO lintel

beam

Supports

outside

building

Spacer


Why is it better




walls


Alternative:



102 GOOD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Doors & Windows

Rigid

triangle


before building

the walls

Supports

outside the

building

Supports


ground


Why is it better





Alternative:



Chapter 04 Walls GOOD

103


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Doors & Windows

Lintel

Lintel included in roof beam


Why is it better





Alternative:





104 GOOD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Plaster


resistant plaster


Why is it better




Alternative:




Chapter 04 Walls GOOD

105


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Plaster


resistant plaster


Why is it better








Before painting the plaster have to be dried out

Alternative:



106 GOOD

Chapter 04 Walls


Chapter 05

Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Roofing Materials


to the purlins


How can I do it better





WHY



Chapter 04 Walls BAD

107


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Roofing Materials


used

Nail on top of

roof ridges



How can I do it better





WHY



108 BAD

Chapter 04 Walls


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Roofing Materials


Corrugated steel sheets


sheets


Why is it better



Start at the bottom end to mount the sheets


Alternative:







Chapter 05

Roof

GOOD

109


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Roofing Materials


top edge of the

sheets





purlins




Why is it better







Alternative:





110 GOOD Chapter 05 Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Roofing Materials

Nailed to purlin

Rubber seal




Why is it better





Alternative:







Chapter 05

Roof

GOOD

111


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Aluminum Construction


Rafter


No truss


the ring roof

beam


Why is it better



Alternative:




112 BAD

Chapter 05 Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Aluminum Construction


s

Rafter

Ridge Board



Why is it better




Roof truss frames of aluminum are lightweight and do not rust



Alternative:



Chapter 05

Roof

GOOD

113


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Aluminum Construction

Rafter




to roof ring

beam


Why is it better



Alternative:



114 GOOD Chapter 05 Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Aluminum Construction



Rafter



Why is it better



Alternative:



Chapter 05

Roof

GOOD

115


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction

not


the rafter to the

wall


supported on entire

length of the wall


How can I do it better





WHY





116 BAD

Chapter 05 Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction

Rafter




ring beam

e


How can I do it better



WHY




Chapter 05 Roof BAD

117


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction

Rafter

Cross Beams


nailed together onl


roof ring beam


How can I do it better





WHY




118 BAD

Chapter 05 Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction

Cross beams


alternative to

angle struts


t


How can I do it better



WHY




members are tied together



Chapter 05 Roof BAD

119


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction


Rafter


t


post


should bethe other

d


How can I do it better


on top of


WHY






120 BAD

Chapter 05 Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction


timber


trusses




Why is it better




Alternative:



Chapter 05

Roof

GOOD

121


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction


Cross

beams

m

t

Bottom tie beam

t

Bolts for good

s


Why is it better



Alternative:



122 GOOD Chapter 05 Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction


t




h




with bolts


Why is it better







Alternative:


None

Chapter 05

Roof

GOOD

123


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction

s

s


Why is it better









None

Alternative:

124 GOOD Chapter 05 Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction

s




and roof ring beam


Why is it better



Alternative:



Chapter 05

Roof

GOOD

125


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction

Rafter


s



roof beam



roof beam


Why is it better






Alternative:




126 GOOD Chapter 05 Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction


through the tie beam and rafter

Bent rebars



the ring roof beam





Why is it better




rigid truss frame


Alternative:



ring beam

Chapter 05

Roof

GOOD

127


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction


n


rafters


Why is it better





Alternative:



128 GOOD Chapter 05 Roof


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Wood Construction


mounted on a

wooden rafter




Why is it better






Alternative:



Chapter 05

Roof

GOOD

129


Chapter 06

Floor


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction

r



m





water resistant


Sand



Why is it better





foundations

Alternative:




Chapter 06 Floor GOOD

131


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction





Why is it better




Alternative:




132 GOOD

Chapter 06 Floor


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction




Why is it better








Alternative:




Chapter 06 Floor GOOD

133


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Construction

Well executed floor

slab construction


Why is it better





Alternative:



134 GOOD

Chapter 06 Floor


Chapter 07

Services


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Electricity

r




elements


n


How can I do it better







later on




WHY




Chapter 07 Services BAD

135


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Electricity


through beams


good


distribution line


How can I do it better





WHY




136 BAD

Chapter 07 Services


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Electricity


sharp edge of

g



e


g


How can I do it better





WHY





Chapter 07 Services BAD

137


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Electricity

Cable installed in


r



with plaster


installed in

plaster wall


Why is it better





Alternative:



138 GOOD Chapter 07 Services


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Water & Sanitation

Pipe

outlets

Never penetrate a beam with a larger pipe

How can I do it better





Set water and sanitation pipes below natural ground level


WHY






Chapter 07 Services BAD

139


THE GOOD & THE BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Sanitation

nd Chamber for


1 st Chamber for

settling of sludge


house



or drain


manhole


Why is it better









Vent pipe is needed


Alternative:



140 GOOD Chapter 07 Services

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