Abraham Maslow

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Abraham Maslow

Abraham Maslow

By: Jennifer Carter &

Carleigh Sanderson


• Born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn New York

• Died in 1970 from a heart attack

Maslow married his first cousin, Bertha

Goodman, against his parents wishes

• they had two daughters

• Studied law at the City College of New York


Introduction con’t…

• But later transferred to Cornell and once

again back to CCNY

• He became interested in psychology after

the birth of his children

• Received his BA, MA, and PhD in

psychology from the University of


Field of Research:

Humanistic Psychology

• Humanistic psychology is a modern psychology

that emphasizes human individuality and

regards psychology as a human science rather

than as a bio-physical science.

• Humanistic psychology rejects behaviorism

since it objects to treating human persons as

biological mechanisms. Instead, it takes into

account human intentions, motivation as well as


*Abraham Maslow was one of the first psychologists

to make this approach popular.

Important Contributions:

• While working with monkeys early in his career,

Maslow learnt that some common needs took

precedence over others.

• i.e. If you are hungry and thirsty, you will tend to

try and satisfy the need for fluids first. Also, if

you are extremely thirsty, but someone has got

you in a choke hold and you can’t breath, what

would you take care of first Cleary breathing,

because you can‘t live without it. With this idea

Maslow created the “Hierarchy of Needs.”

Hierarchy of Needs

• Physiological Needs

• Safety and Security Needs

• Love and Belonging Needs

• Esteem Needs

• Need for Self Actualization

Important Contributions con’t…

Maslow defined many terms in his career but the

most recognized are:

• B-Motivation- involves the motivation for psychological growth,

and developing and fulfilling our potentials.

• D-Motivation- deficiency motivation takes place when we lack

something and try to require it.

• Homeostasis- bodily equilibrium. Maslow used

this definition when referring to needs. He

believed that when you regress in your needs,

other needs will take place to balance it out.

• Instinctoid-needs that are required for survival.

They are needed for good health, and they are

instinctively sought out.

Maslow is important in our study

of Social Sciences because…

• inspired Humanistic Psychology

• developed the Hierarchy of Needs

• the Hierarchy of Needs can relate to any part of

society. The rich and the poor, the black and the white

all need the same basic needs.

• also if these needs aren’t met, society’s can fall apart.

• i.e. Africa doesn’t have enough to meet the basic

needs, and its society is severely struggling.

• created the idea of Self-Actualization

• defined D-motivation, B-motivation,

homeostasis and instictoid needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy

of Needs

1. The Physiological Needs

• Are the needs for oxygen, vitamins and

minerals, rest, sleep, sex, activity and to get

rid of wastes (CO2, sweat etc.) They also

include the need to sustain a pH balance

and a regular temperature.

Maslow also believed that a lack of any

vitamins or minerals (e.g. vitamin C) makes a

person crave a food that offers that vitamin or

mineral (e.g. orange juice.)

2. The Safety and Security Needs

• Once the physiological needs are taken care of, this

second layer will take priority.

• This need makes people want to find stability and


• People may develop a need for structure, order and


• Looking at this negatively, people become concerned

with fears and anxiety as opposed to hunger and


• i.e. In an common Canadian this need gives them the

urge to buy a home in a safe neighbourhood, find a

job with security, have insurance plans, retirement

plans etc.

3. The Love and Belonging Needs

• With the other two needs taken care of

people begin to feel a need for friends,

companions, children and community.

• i.e. Joining church groups, gangs, clubs etc.

4. The Esteem Needs

• People begin to search for self-esteem.

Maslow considered two versions of esteem needs, a high

and low one.

• The lower one is the need for respect from others, the need for

status, fame, glory, attention, reputation etc.

• The higher form involves the need for self-respect, selfconfidence,

achievement, independence, freedom etc.

• The negative version of this need is low self-esteem and

inferiority (inadequacy) complexes. Maslow believed that

this is what the root is in most psychological problems.

5. Self-Actualization

• This need occurs when the other four have been satisfied.

• It involves realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment,

seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

• He concluded that people who became self-actualized

shared a number of common personality characteristics.

Efficient Perception of Reality

Acceptance of Self and Others



Continued Freshness of Appreciation

Identification with Humanity

Deep Interpersonal Relationships

Democratic Character Structure

Strong Ethics


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Comparing Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs TO the UN’s

“Overspending on weapons V.S people” pyramid


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and malnutrition

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Provide Clean, safe energy

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Provide shelter

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Stabilize Population

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Eliminate Nuclear Weapons

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Stop Deforestation

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Stop Ozone Depletion

Refugee Relief

$5 Billion

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Build Democracy

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$2 Billion Remove Landmines

$2 Billion

"A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a

poet must write, if he is to be at peace with himself. What

a man can be, he must be. This is the need we may call

self-actualization ... It refers to man's desire for

fulfillment, namely to the tendency for him to become

actually in what he is potentially: to become everything

that one is capable of becoming ..." - Abraham Maslow


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