Hydrogeologic Appraisal of a Fractured-Rock Ground-Water ...

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Hydrogeologic Appraisal of a Fractured-Rock Ground-Water ...

Hydrogeologic Appraisal of a

Fractured-Rock Ground-Water

Contamination Site

-- A Discrete-zone Approach

by

David A. Eckhardt, USGS, Ithaca, NY

John H. Williams, USGS, Troy, NY

and

Donald T. Bussey, USEPA, Las Vegas, NV

U. S. Geological Survey

In cooperation with

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Background

• Located in Central New York

State in the eastern Finger

Lakes Region


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Background

• Located in Central New York

State in the eastern Finger Lakes

Region

• Early 2000 VOCs detected in

samples of the Village of Union

Springs municipal well water


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Background

• Located in Central New York

State in the eastern Finger Lakes

Region

• Early 2000 VOCs detected in

samples of the Village of Union

Springs municipal well water

• Follow up NYSDOH

investigation traced VOCs to

the northeast to edge of City of

Auburn


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Background

• Located in Central New York

State in the eastern Finger Lakes

Region

• Early 2000 VOCs detected in

samples of the Village of Union

Springs municipal well water

• Follow up NYSDOH investigation

traced VOCs to the northeast to

edge of City of Auburn

• RCRA facility located just to

the north of where NYSDOH

VOC trail ends


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Background

• Located in Central New York

State in the eastern Finger Lakes

Region

• Early 2000 VOCs detected in

samples of the Village of Union

Springs municipal well water

• Follow up NYSDOH investigation

traced VOCs to the northeast to

edge of City of Auburn

• RCRA facility located just to the

north of where NYSDOH VOC

trail ends

• Possible PRP’s groundwater

contains same VOCs as

groundwater south of their

facility


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Background

• Located in Central New York

State in the eastern Finger Lakes

Region

• Early 2000 VOCs detected in

samples of the Village of Union

Springs municipal well water

• Follow up NYSDOH investigation

traced VOCs to the northeast to

edge of City of Auburn

• RCRA facility located just to the

north of where NYSDOH VOC

trail ends

• Possible PRP’s groundwater

contains same VOCs as

groundwater south of their facility

• PRP’s position is that their

problem is limited to the

overburden and shallow

bedrock on- and north of it’s

facility, and that deeper

bedrock wells on it’s s southern

property line are clean


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Background

• Late 2000 USEPA Region 2

Removal began installation

and operation of 50-plus

carbon treatment systems at

residences and 3 air strippers

at local farms (Jack Harmon

OSC)


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Background

• Late 2000 USEPA Region 2

Removal began installation and

operations of 50-plus carbon

treatment systems at residences

and 3 air strippers at local farms

(Jack Harmon OSC)

• Early Fall 2001 Region 2 asked

ERT (Alan Humphrey / Don

Bussey) to conduct a VOC

source area assessment for

PRP identification and

potential cost recovery


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Generalized Site Geology

• Topography slopes

downwards to the north


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Generalized Site Geology

• Topography slopes downwards

to the north

• Layer-cake stratigraphy dips to

the south


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Generalized Site Geology

• Topography slopes downwards

to the north

• Layer-cake stratigraphy dips to

the south

• Stratigraphic sequence

includes Upper Silurian to

Middle Devonian carbonates

(limestone, dolostone, , and

evaporites) ) capped in the

south by Middle Devonian

limey shale, overlain by glacial

till


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Bedrock Monitor Well Installation

• Monitor well location selection

and target depth determination


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Bedrock Monitor Well Installation

• Monitor well location selection

and target depth determination

• Well depths between 180 and

240 feet


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Bedrock Monitor Well Installation

• Monitor well location selection

and target depth determination

• Well depths between 180 and

240 feet

• Air Hammer Drilling / Bedrock

Coring


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Bedrock Monitor Well Installation

• Monitor well location selection

and target depth determination

• Well depths between 180 and

240 feet

• Air Hammer Drilling / Bedrock

Coring

• Monitor wells initially

completed as open bedrock

boreholes to facilitate borehole

video and geophysical logging

and packer testing


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Bedrock Monitor Well Installation

• Monitor well location selection

and target depth determination

• Well depths between 180 and

240 feet

• Air Hammer Drilling / Bedrock

Coring

• Monitor wells initially completed

as open bedrock boreholes to

facilitate borehole video and

geophysical logging and packer

testing

• Bedrock cores logged by

USGS


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Borehole Video and Geophysical Logging

• Borehole video logging

conducted by ERT


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Borehole Video and Geophysical Logging

• Borehole video logging

conducted by ERT

• Cascading groundwater

observed entering boreholes

above static well water levels


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Borehole Video and Geophysical Logging

Video #1

• Cascading groundwater

(borehole cored)


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Borehole Video and Geophysical Logging

Video #2

• Cascading groundwater

(borehole air hammer drilled)


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Borehole Video and Geophysical Logging

• Borehole video logging

conducted by ERT

• Cascading groundwater

observed entering boreholes

above static well water levels

• Solution void zone observed

within the Forge Hollow

Member of the Bertie

Formation


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Borehole Video and Geophysical Logging

Video #3

• Solution void zone in the

Forge Hollow Member of the

Bertie Formation


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Borehole Video and Geophysical Logging

• Borehole video logging

conducted by ERT

• Gamma, caliper, and

temperature geophysical

logging conducted by ERT


Bentonite

Shales

Phosphate

Manlius Fm.

Onondaga

Limestone

Use of typical

stratigraphic

marker beds

that are easily

identified in

gamma logs


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Borehole Video and Geophysical Logging

• Borehole video logging

conducted by ERT

• Gamma, caliper, and

temperature geophysical logging

conducted by ERT

• Heat-pulse

flowmeter, , and

optical and acoustic televiewer

geophysical logging

conducted by USGS


Geophysical, Stratigraphic, and Flow-Zone Logs

EPA-1

Formation Gamma Caliper Acoustic Lithologic Optic Resistiv

L

Temp Flow


Geophysical, Stratigraphic, and Flow-Zone Logs

EPA-5

Form. Gamma Caliper ATV Amb-Flow Pump-Flow Resistivity


Cy-205 (Jackson)

Formation Gamma Caliper ATV OTV Resistiv

Temp Flow


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Straddle Packer Groundwater Sampling

• Subsequent to monitor well

drilling and concurrent with

borehole video and

geophysical logging each

boring was tested employing

straddle packer assemblies


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Straddle Packer Groundwater Sampling

• Subsequent to monitor well

drilling and concurrent with

borehole geophysical logging

each boring was tested

employing straddle packer

assemblies

• Intervals tested were selected

based on bedrock core

examined, notes made during

drilling, and borehole video

and geophysical data


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Straddle Packer Groundwater Sampling

• Subsequent to monitor well

drilling and concurrent with

borehole geophysical logging

each boring was tested

employing straddle packer

assemblies

• Intervals tested were selected

based on bedrock core

examined, notes made during

drilling, and borehole video and

geophysical data

• Sampled zones had multiple

samples collected over time to

evaluate possible effects of

vertical borehole flow

contaminating or diluting

recovered samples


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Straddle Packer Testing Results

• Monitor wells (within the

plume) were found to have

VOCs in the transmissive zone

of the Forge Hollow Member of

the Bertie Formation


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Straddle Packer Testing Results

• Monitor wells (within the plume)

were found to have VOCs in the

transmissive zone of the Forge

Hollow Member of the Bertie

Formation

• Contaminated zone was

discovered to be diluted by

clean water flowing vertically

downwards from clean upper

zones


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Straddle Packer Testing Results

• Monitor wells (within the plume)

were found to have VOCs in the

transmissive zone of the Forge

Hollow Member of the Bertie

Formation

• Contaminated zone was

discovered to be diluted by clean

water flowing vertically

downwards from clean upper

zones

• Ironically, PRP’s initial

concern was the possibility of

contaminated shallow water

moving into clean lower zones


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Installation of Discrete-zone Multi-level

level

Assemblies

• In 2003 the site was listed and

became a superfund site


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Installation of Discrete-zone Multi-level

level

Assemblies

• In 2003 the site was listed and

became a superfund site

• Region 2 Remedial initiated the

RI process (Isabel Rodrigues

RPM, Rob Alvey

hydrogeological support,

George Shanahan legal

support)


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Installation of Discrete-zone Multi-level

level

Assemblies

• In 2003 the site was listed and

became a superfund site

• Region 2 Remedial initiated the

RI process (Isabel Rodrigues

RPM, Rob Alvey hydrogeological

support, George Shanahan legal

support)

• Region 2 Remedial retained

both ERT and USGS to provide

technical support through the

RI process


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Installation of Discrete-zone Multi-level

level

Assemblies

• In 2003 the site was listed and

became a superfund site

• Region 2 Remedial initiated the

RI process (Isabel Rodrigues

RPM, Rob Alvey hydrogeological

support, George Shanahan legal

support)

• Region 2 Remedial retained both

ERT and USGS to provide

technical support through the RI

process

• Hydrogeologists with Region

2, USGS, and ERT evaluated

the complex hydrogeologic

conditions


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Installation of Discrete-zone Multi-level

level

Assemblies

• In 2003 the site was listed and

• To evaluate the complex

became a superfund site

hydrogeology, it was decided

• Region 2 Remedial initiated the

to equip the monitor wells and

RI process (Isabel Rodrigues

several abandoned

RPM, Rob Alvey hydrogeological

homeowner wells with

support, George Shanahan legal

permanently installed discrete-

support)

zone assemblies

• Region 2 Remedial retained both

ERT and USGS to provide

technical support through the RI

process

• Hydrogeologists with Region 2,

USGS, and ERT evaluated the

complex hydrogeologic

conditions


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Discrete-zone Monitoring Network

• Isolates and seals differential-head zones in boreholes

• Prevents short-circuit flows in boreholes

• Provides multiple-level level flow-field field maps

• Allows sample collection from discrete zones (small purge volume)


Base of casing

Till

Regional

stratigraphic

sequence and

borehole flow

in recharge

areas

Flow zones with

hydraulic head

above composite

head

Composite

Hydraulic head

r

Marcellus Shale

S1

Onondaga Limestone

S2 – S3

Manlius Fm I1 – I2

Rondout Fm D1

Flow zone with

hydraulic head

below composite

head

Cobleskill Fm D2

Bertie Fm D3


EPA-1

S1

S2

S3

8

discrete

zones

I1

I2

D1

D2

D3


750

NORTH Elmhurst Dr. -- Pinckney Rd. SOUTH

EPA-1 EPA-5 EPA-6 Radley

ELEVATION, IN FEET


Onondaga

Manlius



Rondout Cobleskill

450

Flow

Packer

Bertie

Hydraulic-unit boundary


750

NORTH

SOUTH

EPA-1 EPA-5 EPA-6 EPA-6 Radley Cy-206

ELEVATION, IN FEET






450

Horizontal flow

Downward gradient


Till

r

Marcellus

Shale

Onondaga

Limestone

Manlius Fm.

Rondout Fm.

Cobleskill Fm.

Bertie Fm.


Ground water at the

monitor wells in the

Onondaga Limestone

flows NW and NE

630

635

640

560

630

Ground water at

the EPA test wells

in the Bertie Fm.

flows South

then SW

555

550

545


Local and

Regional

Flow Paths

Local drain

Outlet

basin

High likelihood that the

Bertie Formation

is a regional groundwater

drain that allows

movement of water

(and contaminants)

toward southwestward

discharge points

Regional drain

Lake

basin

Brook

basin


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Video #4

• ERT Dive Team locates

groundwater discharge into a

small bay in Cayuga Lake

near Union Springs where the

Forge Hollow Member of the

Bertie Formation outcrops -

the location was an old

gypsum mine site


Cayuga County Groundwater

Contamination Site -

Completion of Presentation

Thanks to the following for their contributions to this presentation:

tion:

U.S. Geological Survey – Ithaca and Troy, New York Offices

Cayuga County (New York) Engineering Department

U.S. EPA Region 2 Removal and Remedial Programs

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