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December 2009 (issue 119) - The Sussex Archaeological Society

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NUMBER 119 D ECEMBER 2009

Baroness Andrews Visits AoC House

Meet the New Trustees

Favourite Finds of the Year

Education Team Wins Top Award

WW2 Day at Michelham Priory

www.romansinsussex.co.uk Sussex Past & Present December 2009 1


Membership Matters

MEMBERSHIP

OPENING LINES

Opening Lines

Lorna’s Notebook

A round-up of all that’s new in the membership department

WELCOME to the December

edition of Sussex Past &

Present.

Christmas Shopping

If you buy on-line it’s possible

to raise additional funds for the

Society with little effort and no

extra cost by doing your shopping

via www.easyfundraising.org.

uk. This website has established

links with many reputable retailers

who will make a small donation

to the good cause of your choice

if you register with them first.

Once you have registered, just

choose Sussex Archaeological

Society as your cause. There are

no additional costs to you and

you still buy directly from the

retailers’ own websites – the only

difference is that you reach your

chosen retailer’s site by logging

onto easyfundraising.org first.

Hundreds of well known retailers

participate, and every donation,

however small, will help us.

Annual Conference

The Society’s 2009 autumn

conference, on the theme ‘Change

in Rural Sussex: Medieval to

Modern’, was a great success,

with almost two hundred delegates

attending a wide and fascinating

variety of talks.

We are already planning next year’s

conference, the theme for which is

Sussex as a Frontier’. For centuries

our long coastline has attracted

invaders, some of whom then built

defences to prevent others following.

The county’s inhabitants also did

their best to prevent invasions;

some towns were fortified to deter

seaward attacks. The rich heritage

which has developed over the

centuries will be set in the context

of the investment in keeping out

invaders. More details to follow, but

do put the date in your new diaries

Saturday 11 September 2010.

Subscriptions Renewal

Many of you will be due to renew

your subscription at the start of the

year, and it would really help the

Society if you would check your

membership card now, and, if due

for renewal on 1 January, arrange

for payment straightaway. This

will save the cost of sending out

reminder notices in late January.

If you pay by direct debit no

further action is needed and you

will receive a letter notifying the

amount and date of collection. If

you wish to switch to this method,

(the most cost-effective for the

Society) you may download a copy

of the direct debit mandate from the

Membership section of our website

www.sussexpast.co.uk or I can

post a form to you on request. If you

are unwilling to pay by direct debit,

please choose from the following

methods:

• cheque, payable to “Sussex Past”

and sent to the address below

• on-line at www.sussexpast.co.uk

(select ‘membership’ followed by

‘subscription renewal’ and then

the appropriate category – see list

above)

• by credit card over the phone

(number as shown)

I am pleased to say we have made

no change to the subscription rates.

The amounts due are shown above

• simply check your subscription

type as shown on your membership

card to verify the amount you need

to pay. If the subs type shown on

your card is followed by +B or

+POST (or both), you need to add

the extra amount/s shown to the

applicable rate. If you want to make

changes to your subscription type,

or simply to check your renewal

details, do call me and I will be

pleased to help.

Subscription Type & Description

O Standard Individual £30

J Joint (2 adults at same address) £42

F1 Family (1 adult + children) £35

F2 Family (2 adults + children) £45

S Student £14

AFF Affiliated Society £30

+B Hardback copy of SAC +£5

+POST Overseas postage charge +£10

Castles Half-Day Conference

Saturday 22 May 2010

Finally, I’d like to draw your attention

to next year’s half-day conference

on Sussex castles. More details

are in the Noticeboard section,

and we expect this to be a popular

afternoon, so do book early.

May I wish you all a very happy and

prosperous 2010.

Lorna Gartside

Membership Secretary

For all membership enquiries

and to apply, please contact

MEMBERSHIP

DEPARTMENT

Barbican House,

169 High Street

Lewes, Sussex BN7 1YE

Tues-Fri 10.00am-3.00pm

Answering machine facility

outside these hours

01273 405737

Email:

members@sussexpast.co.uk

SUSSEX

Past &

Present

The Sussex Archaeological

Society Newsletter

NUMBER 119

D ECEMBER 2009

Contents

2 Membership matters

3 Opening lines

4 Baroness Andrews visit

5 New Trustees

6 Society walks

7 Education awards

8 FLO Round-up

9 Cruciform Churches

10 Arlington Excavation

11 Michelham Nissen Hut

12 Library news

13 Letters

14 Book reviews

15 Book reviews

16 Snippets

Published by the Sussex

Archaeological Society, Bull

House, Lewes, E Sussex, BN71XH

Tel: 01273 486260

Fax: 01273 486990

Email: admin@sussexpast.co.uk

Editor: Wendy Muriel

Email: spp@sussexpast.co.uk

Research Editor: Luke Barber

Technical Support:

Penelope Parker

penelope@pparker.net

ISSN 1357-7417

Cover: HRH The Duke of Kent formally

opens Lewes Castle, November 3rd 2009.

Photo: Alex Leith

Budget Approved

Increase in visitor numbers crucial

Over the summer months the Trustees have concentrated on continuing

to monitor closely the Society’s financial position and to draft a

budget for 2010. The draft budget has now been provisionally approved

by Council and is in line with an earlier version sent to our Auditors. Some

minor changes are planned to save costs, but the Society’s future health

is greatly dependent on attracting an increasing number of visitors to our

properties. Therefore the Property Managers and staff are being asked

to review their planned events and general marketing for 2010 so as to

increase interest in our properties and reduce costs where possible.

The Autumn Conference on the subject of “Change in Rural Sussex:

Medieval to Modern” was one of the better attended Society conferences

of late with a very good selection of speakers. David Martin, in particular,

gave an informative talk on the demise of the open hall in domestic

architecture in the early 16th century. Rather than technological or

financial considerations, the new style of house, with a chamber inserted

over the hall, was brought about by a change in the attitudes of ‘peasant’

society and a willingness to break with long-held traditions.

At the time of writing we are looking forward to the official opening of

Lewes Castle and Barbican House on 3rd November by HRH The Duke

of Kent. This occasion will be well publicised with hopefully a high level of

media interest that will attract many more visitors to the Castle during the

winter months. It is encouraging that visitor numbers to Lewes Castle in

2009 have greatly exceeded those in the equivalent months in 2008.

John Manley, our CEO, is due to retire in 2010 after over 16 years’

service to the Society. The Trustees will be starting the process to recruit

a new CEO during November and December and it is planned to advertise

the post towards the end of January 2010. Details of the advertisement

will be posted on the Members website so any Member who knows of

potential suitable candidates for the post, please encourage them to

apply. The Trustees would like to have a large selection of applicants to

consider and interview for this very important appointment.

In closing I would like to thank all the staff who have worked hard in

what has been a difficult year for the Society, particularly the uncertainty

that always arises when cost saving becomes necessary. I would also

like to thank our Lewes staff and volunteers for their forbearance during

the disruption caused by the refurbishment works. Despite some recent

difficulties, the Council is also mindful of opportunities that the future

may bring. To that end, we are focusing our attention on the new South

Downs National Park, and the influx of visitors which may result. Some

of our properties are in the proposed Park, and most of the others quite

close to its boundaries. In short, I think the Park could be good news for

the Society, both in terms of visitor numbers to our properties and an

opportunity to research and promote the cultural heritage of the Park.

I would like to wish all our Members, Staff and Friends a very peaceful

Christmas and a prosperous New Year.

Peter Sangster

Chairman of Council

2 Sussex Past & Present December 2009

www.sussexpast.co.uk www.romansinsussex.co.uk Sussex Past & Present December 2009 3


Feature

ANNE OF CLEVES VISIT

NEW TRUSTEES

Research Feature

Baroness Andrews Tours AoC

New Chair of English Heritage views recipient of grant funding

In glorious autumn sunshine of

late September, Anne of Cleves

House welcomed an illustrious local

resident, Baroness Kay Andrews,

OBE, of Southover, the newlyelected

Chair of English Heritage.

The front of the house looked its

very best, all warm, orange hanging

tiles, weathered oak boarding, and

sparkling leaded lights, topped by

the most innocently blue sky – an

inviting picture if ever there was

one. The garden too, so beautifully

Under the Medlar Tree

Photo: J. Manley

bordered by the old building, looked

lush and scented. A crisply starched

white table-cloth stretched under

the old Medlar Tree, as we all sat

down to discuss the matters of the

moment. I say all – to be precise

Vice-Chair of Sussex Archaeological

Society Jane Vokins, Trustee

Richard Akhurst, the Baroness and

colleague, Professor Roy Macleod,

and myself. I took the photographs,

Jane poured the coffee, while the

other three talked, sipped, and

munched on biscuits.

Baroness Andrews has lived

in Lewes for forty years. Her

interesting and varied career

saw her appointed Parliamentary

Under Secretary of State at the

Department for Communities

and Local Government in May

2005. Previously, from 1992-

2002, Baroness Andrews was the

Founder and Director of Education

Extra, the national charity for out

of school learning and activities.

She received the OBE in 1998 for

her work in education. We might

imagine, therefore, as Chair of

English Heritage, that the Baroness

is going to be particularly interested

in matters educational at heritage

sites.

I had invited the Baroness to Anne

of Cleves for a specific reason. We

wanted to thank her in person for

the grant offer of some £115,000

from English Heritage towards

much-needed repairs to the external

fabric of the House, Henry VIII’s gift

to his divorced fourth wife. Richard

Akhurst explained in detail the

repairs required to the roof, to the

timbers, to each of the leaded-light

windows and to the external render.

From our vantage point beneath the

Medlar Tree it was pretty obvious

Baroness Andrews with Richard Akhurst

Photo: J. Manley

that repairs were urgently required.

The works will get underway in the

first half of 2010, and the total cost

will be around £300,000, so the EH

grant represents a sizeable chunk

of the expenditure. One thing had

already been achieved, however.

New resplendent gutters and

down-pipes were already in place,

replacing the rickety contraptions

that had masqueraded in the

last century as rainwater goods.

Gleaming white in the early autumn

sunshine they looked as fine a

Tristan explains the work of ESAMP

Photo: J. Manley

spectacle as gutters can effect. We

made way for newly-weds-to-be

(a much needed source of income

for Anne of Cleves House), offering

the Baroness a brief tour inside the

house. We talked of our Education

Service, of teaching packs on Tudor

building techniques, things that

would transform the professional

restoration and conservation work,

into a learning opportunity for the

young.

In the bedroom, we introduced

the Baroness to the outsized bedwarmer,

and to the ever-popular

chest of clothes that youngsters

try on, playing make-believe Tudor

times. The work of the East Sussex

Archaeology and Museums Project

was a magnet, and Tristan Bareham

was able to showcase again the

Project’s magnificent work of

making ‘the heritage’ accessible to

all. The Baroness departed, pleased

I know with what she saw, keen to

return to see the works in progress.

The sun still shone, maybe brighter

than ever - a good sign I think.

John Manley

Chief Executive Officer

The Council of the Sussex

Archaeological Society numbers

between 10 and 14 members. At the

AGM in July there were a maximum

of seven vacancies; five existing

trustees offered themselves for

re-election and in addition two new

members, Vivienne Blandford and

Jeff Leigh, were also elected.

Vivienne and Jeff in Bull House after their

‘induction’ by John Manley (and they’re still

smiling!)

Photo: W. Muriel

Both new candidates provided

a statement outlining their reasons

and qualifications for becoming

a Trustee of the Society and, for

the benefit of members who did

not attend the AGM, extracts are

published here.

Jeff Leigh: “I have been a

member the Society for many

years, without taking up an official

position until now, other than as a

co-opted member of the Research

Committee for the last three years.

I retired as a research chemist

and Professsor of Chemistry and

later Environmental Science at the

University of Sussex in 2001, and

since then have been studying

archaeology part-time at Sussex,

where I am entering the final year

of six. During my professional

career I was active in national

and international organisations,

New Members of Council

Introducing the two new trustees

including acting as the chairman

and secretary of committees, so

I have had much experience of

activating and guiding diverse

groups of people. I have also acted

as editor of scientific journals, and

have edited and written several

books, including one on scientific

history and one a biographical

account of an early female writer on

chemistry, Mrs Jane Marcet. I was

awarded an OBE by the Queen in

1993 in recognition of my services

to science.

Since retirement I have been

associated with Marlipins Museum

at Shoreham, acting as volunteer

custodian for two years and

recently helping to set up a textile art

display in the new exhibition area. I

therefore have a good appreciation

of the problems of Marlipins, which

I would like to see more properly

exploited as a community asset in

Shoreham.

I feel that my current activities

as well as my past experience fit

me well to play a useful role for the

benefit of the Sussex Archaeological

Society”.

Vivienne Blandford: “It is never

too late to learn something new

or take up a challenge so after

having worked as a radiographer

and, whilst raising my family,

worked as a financial controller

in the accounts department

of a Landscape, Planning and

Environmental Firm, I decided to

take a part-time degree course

in Landscape Studies at Sussex

University. Wanting to specialise a

little more, I subsequently gained

an MA in Landscape Archaeology

at Bristol University in 2008.

I have been a member of Sussex

Archaeological Society for some

years and having used the facilities

at Barbican House for research

purposes, I thoroughly appreciate

the wealth of information that is

held by the Society. I have enjoyed

the challenge and camaraderie of

being an active participant of the

Society’s research work at Tidemills,

both in the field and working with

archive material.

As a Landscape Archaeologist I

believe in taking a holistic approach

to studying the historic landscape;

using archaeological, documentary

and oral history evidence to study

and interpret the ways in which the

landscape has been shaped by

human intervention through cultural

and social practices. I am currently

involved with the Weald Forest

Ridge Project (WRFP) and I am a

member of the newly formed South

East Woodland Archaeology Forum

(SEEWAF). I am also carrying out

my own research into the woodland

landscapes of the Weald.

I am interested in community

archaeology and feel that the

Society could further promote

this aspect of archaeology by

encouraging members to become

involved with projects like the

Weald Forest Ridge Project and

the future South Downs National

Park. I believe that by engaging

with and involving it’s membership

in community projects, the Society

may improve accessibility to the

wealth of knowledge and expertise

that it holds. With cuts in funding

for adult education it is vital that

the input from students to field

archaeology and research is not

lost. Perhaps the Society may have

a role in utilising these students

The next few years will be both

a challenging and interesting time

for the Trustees of the Society and I

hope that I can play an active role in

shaping the future of the Society”.

4 Sussex Past & Present December 2009

www.sussexpast.co.uk www.romansinsussex.co.uk Sussex Past & Present December 2009 5


Feature

SOCIETY WALKS

EDUCATION AWARDS

Feature

Exercise with Education!

David McOmish walks in Kingley Vale and The Trundle

My interest in archaeology

began because I love walking

and I began to wonder about the

lumps and bumps I sometimes

saw whilst walking the South

Downs. Becoming more aware and

curious I saw that my OS Explorer

map did not consist only of green

dotted lines denoting footpaths but

also had features labelled in Old

English Text - cross dyke, tumulus,

long barrow, Devil’s Jumps, Devil’s

Humps, Devil’s Ditch, settlement,

lynchets, field systems, earthwork

and even proper names of places

- Perching, Goosehill Camp,

Rackham Banks, Bevis’ Thumb.

Kingley Vale

As my archaeological eye became

more attuned and focused I began

to plan walks to take in any of the

Old English Text features (‘bagging

barrows’ as my walking friends

named it!). I ‘Google Earthed’ avidly

and acquired another bookshelf to

accommodate the growing number

of archaeology books. So when

I joined the Sussex Archaeolical

Society this year I was thrilled to

see a list of walks and the first I

went on was with David McOmish

of English Heritage around Kingley

Vale on a cool, grey afternoon in

May. We wandered around the

humps and bumps at the bottom of

the escarpment left by the people of

a Bronze Age settlement, followed

the lines of the field boundaries

and considered the problem of

obtaining water, whether there

were rituals of burial and how these

people organised themselves.

Then we scrambled up to the

Devil’s Humps. Bronze Age burial

mounds for important people Yes,

but also perhaps more than that –

way markers of some importance

A meeting place – David reminded

us that they would have been a

conspicuous white at the time of

construction. Then a walk North on

a path along the contour of Bow

Hill, a left turn over some rough

cleared ground where we stopped

Devil’s Humps, Bow Hill

Photo UCL

and found… a knapped flint and

some sherds of pottery. In that

bushy scrub to our left, David told

us, was the remains of a Roman

Temple. We continued along the

path and over a dip (a cross dyke

marking a boundary of the Roman

temple or of the earlier settlement

Both), the grounds to our left rose

up into a grassy bank and we were

walking around the boundary of an

earthwork following a ditch. David

told us that the remains of a couple

of huts within the area have been

excavated and post holes found.

We stopped and wondered who

lived here An important person

Or was the area used for ritual We

stood a while and pondered and had

run out of time needed to continue

further to Goosehill Camp.

The Trundle

On a searing hot afternoon in

early July I found myself walking

up the hot white glaring track from

East Lavant to The Trundle for the

second of David McOmish’s walks.

(No car – so bus, bike, boots and

train are my modes of transport!).

After meeting at the car park we

walked up the flinty track only to

find a waving meadow of long

grass nicely camouflaging the spiral

ditches of the Neolithic causewayed

enclosure (3700BC) David had

briefly told us about on the walk up!

However we orientated ourselves

by the radio masts and with the help

of David and our diagrams, and our

archaeological eyes firmly focused,

we managed to trace parts of the

ditches.

An Iron Age hillfort encircles the

Neolithic enclosure and is made

up of a significant bank and ditch

which we walked around noting the

east and west entrances and also

the positions of Bronze Age round

barrows which linked up with a linear

ditch which David pointed out. We

ended the afternoon sitting on the

mound of St. Roche’s Chapel, again

imagining the lives of the layers of

people who have inhabited and

used this area; the tools, method,

time-scale, organisation and cooperation

needed to construct

such earthworks, and speculatively

interpreted their significance and

function to the communities who

made them. Someone in the group

showed a knapped flint with a

rounded percussion bulb and a flake

which were found while walking the

ramparts.

On both walks we were a small

group which enabled us to chat and

throw ideas and questions around.

Nothing is definite. No one truly

knows. We see the ‘presence of the

past’ in the landscape and it is left

to us to interpret and reinterpret the

significance of what we see and the

lives of the people who have left

these tantalising traces.

Julia Wiegand

Details of more Society walks can be

found in the Noticeboard section.

Palace Team Wins Top Award

Education Team’s excellence recognised

Congratulations are due

to the education team at

Fishbourne Roman Palace on two

separate counts! In recognition of

the excellence of their education

programme the team as a whole

have received a Sandford Award

for Heritage Education, and Jean

Jennings, a member of the team, is

one of six finalists who have been

shortlisted for this year’s Marsh

Archaeology Award.

The prestigious Sandford awards,

which are valid for five years, are

given by the Heritage Education

Trust only to organisations which

have reached an exceptionally

high standard in the way they

teach a wide spectrum of visitors,

from primary school youngsters to

adults. Entrants are assessed by

a panel of fourteen independent

judges made up of head teachers

and OFSTED inspectors who

described the Palace’s education

team as “friendly, well-informed

and enthusiastic” in their report.

They went on to say that “those

fortunate enough to undertake the

Fishbourne experience will forever

appreciate the building skills and

technical abilities of the Romans in

Britain.” Museum director Christine

Medlock is delighted that the

professionalism and friendly and

efficient attitude of the education

team has been recognised yet

again with this award.

As part of the ‘Fishbourne

Experience’ visitors are encouraged

to chat to volunteers dressed in

authentic costumes, finding out

what life was like in Roman times

and meeting the sort of people

who would have called the Palace

‘home’. There is also the chance

to handle real artefacts and for

schoolchildren to get their hands

on a replica Roman kitchen and

sample Roman-style food and drink

(see above!).

Hands-on experience of a Roman kitchen

The annual Marsh Archaeology

Award recognises individual

high quality education work with

people under the age of 18 in the

UK and is judged according to

the contribution made to passing

on archaelogical knowledge to

young people in the last two years.

Criteria also include the level of

commitment shown to education

work in archaeology over and

above any formal paid work, and

the level of engagement in a variety

of different educational contexts.

Jean has worked at Fishbourne

for nearly 15 years, first in the gift

shop before joining the education

team. She has presented hour-long

workshops to many thousands of

school children who visit the Palace

each year. Over the last two years

she has developed new workshops

that support the national curriculum

in a variety of areas which have

been very well received by both

teachers and students. Jean is

also responsible for preparing an

enriching programme for the many

work experience students who are

considering studying archaeology,

history or classics at college or

Photo S Evans

university. She also makes a key

contribution towards facilitating

learning for special needs students

and works many hours beyond

her normal working time, planning

and preparing new learning

opportunities, assisting other staff

and supporting the volunteers.

Dr Mike Heyworth MBE, Director

of the CBA, says of the short-listed

candidates: “For archaeology to

be cared for and understood by

future generations, it is essential

we pass on our knowledge and

enthusiasm. These individuals do

just that, conveying a passion for

our cultural heritage which will stay

with young people throughout their

lives. Without their work educating

and guiding the next generation to

an understanding of the historic

environment, archaeology would

face an uncertain future”.

Brian Marsh OBE, chairman of

the Marsh Christian Trust which

sponsors the award, has the difficult

job of deciding on the winner later

this year.

6 Sussex Past & Present December 2009

www.sussexpast.co.uk www.romansinsussex.co.uk Sussex Past & Present December 2009 7


Research

FLO ROUND UP

CRUCIFORM CHURCHES

Research

Favourite Finds of the Year

The Finds Liaison Officer describes some of this year’s best finds

This is the first of what will

hopefully be an annual round

up of some of the more interesting

and significant finds recorded from

Sussex during the past year.

The role of the Finds Liaison

Officer is to record archaeological

finds made by members of the

public. These can be chance finds,

from gardeners, dog walkers etc. or

the result of individuals field walking

or metal detecting.

I am part of the national Portable

Antiquities Scheme and cover both

East and West Sussex. The Sussex

Archaeological Society provides

me with a small amount of match

funding and a local base in Barbican

House, Lewes.

In the last year I have recorded

nearly 2000 finds, from Paleolithic

hand axes to Victorian toys. In

general I only record items over

300 years old but will record more

modern ones if they are of special

interest. Probably the most significant

find I have been involved with

in the last year was the discovery of

a new Anglo Saxon burial site near

Lewes (reported in SP&P 117).

Here are some of my recent

favourites which I hope you will find

of interest.

SUSS-E2F038 (above) is a

second century AD Roman brooch

of Wirral type found near Ardingly. It

is in good condition with the green

and orange enamel mostly intact.

Second century bow (as opposed to

plate) brooches are rare in Sussex

and this is particularly unusual as

it is the first Wirral brooch to be

found outside Cheshire and the

surrounding counties.

SUSS-6D6547 (above) is a penny

of William II (Rufus) minted at

Hastings by Dunning (DVNIC), 1089-

1092AD, found near Eastbourne.

This is only one of the few known

examples of this moneyer minting

for William II.

SUSS-2E92D1 (below) is a penny

of Cynethryth, wife of Offa, minted

by Eoba, c.770-792 AD, found near

Worthing. Cynethryth was the only

queen to have coins minted in her

name anywhere in Europe in the

Early Medieval period. Coins with

portraits were also rare at that date

and this is one of only a handful of

this type known.

SUSS-E6C5C1 (above) is part of

an early 14th Century enamelled

horse harness pendant found near

Ringmer. The enamel has turned

green but was probably originally

‘checky and azure’ (gold and blue

checks), the arms of the de Warenne

Earls of Surrey, holders of the rape

of Lewes, including Lewes Castle.

SUSS-AF6EC6 (above) is a

Paleolithic ‘ficron’ type handaxe

from the Auchulian period (c.

500,000-125,000 BC) found near

Selmeston. It has a smooth,

polished patina and you can really

imagine how you would have held

the heavy rounded butt in your

hand and used the long thin blade

for butchery.

I hold regular finds days

throughout the two counties and

am always keen to hear from people

who have finds they would like to

record. I am also always looking for

volunteers to help with the recording

of finds. Anyone with spare time,

either regularly or for a block of two

weeks or more at a time, interested

in learning about identifying finds is

welcome. Full training will be given

but you must be confident using

a computer. I can be contacted at

Barbican House Museum on 01273

405731 or email: flo@sussexpast.

co.uk.

Laura Burnett

Finds Liaison Officer

Monuments to God and Man

Cruciform plan churches in Sussex and the Norman aristocracy

Asubstantial truth, to which every

Sussex resident can surely

attest, in architectural terms, is the

legacy of countless generations

of masons and craftsmen active

during the Middle Ages. Of the

myriad of extant monuments to

consider this research examines

the cruciform parish churches and

chapels of the Anglo-Norman period

c. 1066-c. 1200. Not only was this

a particularly intriguing period in

Sussex from a political point of

view, it was also one of intense

architectural activity and change.

Church of Saint Nicholas, Old Shoreham

This forthcoming work is a county

survey that approaches religious

buildings from the perspective of

those who constructed and used

them. Set within a firm regional

and chronological framework,

it brings together a number of

academic disciplines to explore the

relationship between local churches

and the cultural climate in which they

were produced. More specifically,

however, this research links the

appearance in the parochial context

of a specific architectural feature,

cruciformity, to the social, political,

and liturgical changes taking place

across the Norman Conquest. This

was a common element of larger

parish churches after the twelfth

century but before that was quite

exceptional. We need to understand

why the monuments in this study

display cruciform instead of the

near ubiquitous linear celled plans.

Their cross-shaped footprints

are shown to be the product of a

number of intended purposes,

some of which do not necessarily

conform to any rational assessment

of space. Consequently, whereas

Photo: R J Nieman

they can point to complex

liturgical requirements, the unusual

occurrence of local churches having

transepts may also be attributed

to the deliberate activities of

patrons: nobles who considered

their foundations to be much more

than simple houses of worship.

Architecture, to be sure, the most

public and costly of the arts is

never the result of the unconscious

actions of those who commission

it, and this was certainly true of a

warrior aristocracy who used their

churches not only spiritually, but

also to establish their authority and

proclaim their wealth and status

both to the surviving English, and

to each other. Indeed, especially

in the first decades after 1066 the

secular importance of churches

could in many cases rival their

religious significance, where

the added display of strength

and sophistication inherent in

constructing more lavish buildings

such as St. Nicholas, Old Shoreham

and St. Mary, Stoughton may have

mattered more to their patrons than

the services taking place within.

The Conquest, after all, was not

only launched onto Sussex soil, but

was also realized and maintained

there. Meaningful conclusions are

therefore drawn not only from a

reading of the churches, but also,

and perhaps more importantly, of

the persons and the necessities

which called them into being.

Developing from an initial

fact-finding visit to Sussex and

Normandy in 2003, this study of

twenty-four extant sites of Saxon,

Saxo-Norman, and Norman origins

has been graciously supported

by a Margary grant from the

Sussex Archaeological Society,

whose sincere interest and offer

of financial assistance has made

this an enjoyable and rewarding

project to undertake. It is with great

pleasure that a bound copy of the

manuscript will be made available

to the Barbican House library in July

2010, and it should be of interest

to anyone who enjoys medieval

architecture, church and social

history, or is simply motivated to

dig deeper into the treasure trove

which is Sussex’s past.

Richard J. Nieman

The University of Virginia

School of Architecture

Charlottesville, Virginia USA

8 Sussex Past & Present December 2009

www.sussexpast.co.uk www.romansinsussex.co.uk Sussex Past & Present December 2009 9


Excavations

ARLINGTON 2004-2009

MICHELHAM PRIORY NISSEN HUT

Excavations

Arlington Excavations

A major Roman roadside settlement uncovered

Between 2004 and 2009

archaeological investigation of

the fields south of Arlington village,

by local volunteers under the

direction of Greg Chuter identified a

hitherto unknown Roman roadside

settlement, an associated cemetery

site and the true course of the major

Roman road between Pevensey

and the Ouse Valley.

Roman activity was first noted

in the area as early as 1915 when

a local farmer collected quantities

of Roman pottery from two of his

fields; further finds were recorded in

the 1960s leading to the excavation

of a Roman building, thought at the

time to be a villa. Rescue excavation

during the construction of the

Arlington reservoir recorded further

evidence of Roman occupation

including a pottery kiln.

Following reports from metal

detectorists of large quantities

of Roman coins being found

in a field to the east of the

reservoir, investigation comprising

geophysical survey, fieldwalking

and evaluation excavation was

initiated by the Mid Sussex

Field Archaeology Team. Initial

conclusions from these results

suggested a Roman villa. However

continued excavation over the

following years by Greg’s team has

identified a wide flint built Roman

road with evidence of occupation

and industrial activity alongside.

The excavation phase of the

project has now finished and initial

analysis of the finds and results is

beginning to reveal the story of what

appears to be a very large Roman

settlement. No evidence has been

found of Iron Age occupation on

this site and activity appears to

commence with the construction

of the Roman road in the early 1 st

century AD. The road was 10 metres

wide, flanked by two metre wide,

1.5 metre deep ditches and crossed

the River Ouse near Chilver Bridge,

either by fording or more likely a

bridge. A settlement very quickly

grew up at this river crossing,

expanding rapidly on both sides

of the river. The excavations have

found that the roadside ditches had

been filled in deliberately in several

places and a series of plots defined

by ditches laid out alongside the

road. One of these plots contained

a wooden building and another

contained an iron smelting area.

The filling of the ditches appears to

have caused a problem with water

management and one area appears

to have become very waterlogged,

exacerbated by an unusual dip in

the road surface. Attempts were

made during the Roman period

to drain this area with a series of

ditches.

Artefacts suggest that the

settlement was linked into the

vast trade network of the Roman

Empire, with pottery, mortaria and

amphora coming in from the major

production centres of Britain, as

well as Europe. Presumably a

vast amount of resources such

as wood, food and iron were also

being exported. This transportation

would certainly have been by road,

but the accessibility of the site by

small boats is also likely to have

played a major role.

By the mid 3 rd century the site

appears to have gone into decline

and certainly the area of excavation

was abandoned. This may reflect a

general decline of sites in Southern

England due to the instability of

the Roman Empire or was possibly

a result of commerce shifting to

the newly established fortress at

Pevensey to the east. So far there is

a gap in occupation of the Arlington

area of at least 500 years until the

establishment of a new settlement

at Arlington village in the mid Saxon

period.

Excavation in a field to the east

of the settlement and alongside

the Roman road has identified a

cremation cemetery containing an

unusual flint structure. Measuring

Possible mausoleum

Photo: G.Chuter

seven metres square it comprised a

well constructed flint built pad nearly

one metre thick. Unfortunately

the above ground structure has

totally vanished, probably as a

result of the stone being robbed

after the Roman period. Fragments

of masonry suggest it was partly

constructed of greensand and may

have had a tile roof. The current

assumption is that it was a shrine

or mausoleum.

The information from Arlington

fits neatly into the emerging story

of the wider landscape which is

revealing that the Low Weald was

a focus for intensive ‘colonisation’

and utilisation during the late Iron

Age and Roman periods. In the

past archaeologists have focused

their attention on the chalk downs,

but it now appears that the Weald

clay is just as rich in Roman sites!

Greg Chuter

Assistant County Archaeologist,

East Sussex County Council.

Two days of WWII activities

were held at Michelham Priory

this summer, inspired by our

Education Officer Alison Young.

The second day saw the site repopulated

with WWII personnel, in

a variety of combat uniforms. These

complimented the WWII exhibition

in the Picture Gallery at the Priory,

and the recreated evacuees’ room.

To provide atmosphere a radio

somewhere on site belted out the

old forces favourite songs, and

memories came flooding back of

the Canadian soldiers who had

been billeted at the Priory during

the war.

‘Irene Goodnight’, the Forces’ Favourite, (aka

Alison Young), set pulses racing at Michelham

once again.

Photo: J. Manley

The role of Research Officer Luke

Barber, ably assisted by assorted

young children, was to locate the

Nissen Hut or Huts, reputedly once

built to the rear of the Dovecote

Shop. First up was to explain what

we were looking for. To dispel any

obvious misconceptions, we had

to explain that a Nissen Hut was

nothing to do with motor cars,

Japanese or otherwise. Nissen Huts,

unsurprisingly, were the invention

of Major Peter Nissen in 1916,

Nissen Hut Found

World War II Day at Michelham Priory

and some 100,000 were produced

during WWI. Essentially resembling

half a cylinder laid on its side, they

were used for accommodation,

equipment stores and sundry other

functions. Famously, they could

apparently be built by six men in

four hours, the world record being

1 hour 27 minutes. Production of

Nissen Huts was also considerable

during WWII.

Armed with that information

Luke and his very young troops

set about laying out the trench.

All very professionally done with

base-line, tapes, and string. Prior

to digging at all, the immediate

area was subjected to survey by

metal-detector (no bombs, thank

goodness) and resistivity meter.

Then the moment arrived to lift the

first sod from the hallowed turf that

covers most of Michelham Priory

– I hoped Stuart the gardener was

on leave. Things started to happen

quickly. Soil flew in most directions,

as the excavation attempted to set

the world record for the number of

kids in one small trench. Minute bits

of brick were subjected to intense

scrutiny; a series of metal objects

More finds bags please!

Photo: J. Manley

were located, the famous “hook”

bolts, (a unique element in Nissen

Hut design) used to secure the

purlins, and then, miraculously, two

complete glass ink-bottles. Finally

and triumphantly, the rusty sinuous

stain of interlocking corrugated

sheets marking the wall-line of the

hut was revealed. Victory at last!

Like the professionals, which by

this time (c 4.15pm), we all were,

The ‘Bluke’ Brothers with the ink bottles. Two

young members of the Sussex Archaeological

Society: Luke and Blake Chagouri-Brindle.(We

called them “Bluke” when we wanted to attract

either of their attentions). Photo: J. Manley

no-one shirked the back-filling.

A modern coin was tossed in the

trench to notify the next generation

of Young Archaeologists that we

had been there first, and then soil

was bucketed back, and turfs relaid

and stamped firm. You could

hardly tell we had been there in

the first-place – well, almost. As

the weary diggers stuffed their

well-used trowels into their bags,

inevitably thoughts turned to that

staple fare of post-dig discussion

‘What did it all mean’ The inkbottles

gave a clue - perhaps some

lovesick soldier, stationed at the

Priory, was penning letters to his

Canadian girlfriend far away on the

plains of Alberta

John Manley

Chief Executive Officer

10 Sussex Past & Present December 2009

www.sussexpast.co.uk www.romansinsussex.co.uk Sussex Past & Present December 2009 11


Library

LIBRARY NEWS

CHURCH FIELDS, MEMBERSHIP

Letters

Library News

On-line at last!

The library catalogue went live on Wednesday 20th September. Six

years after we started to put the catalogue on a database, with

much blood, toil, sweat and tears expended, a generous anonymous

donation finally made it possible. My thanks to all those past and

present volunteers who have worked so hard.

Now it is over to you, the members, to use it. You can find the

catalogue at http://sussexpast.amlib.co.uk/barbican or follow the

links from the Society’s webpage: www.sussexpast.co.uk/library.

For many years we have tried to find a way of making the library

more accessible to those who are unable to climb the stairs to the

second floor. It has now been agreed that such Library users can be

accommodated in the newly refurbished Education Resource Centre

(entrance under the Barbican) when it is not being used by school or

other groups, so ADVANCED BOOKING IS ESSENTIAL and library

staff can bring material down. Since the catalogue is now available

on-line the items needed should be identifiable in advance - please

contact the Library for advice. Afternoons may be more likely to

be available as most school groups leave by 2.30pm. The ERC is

wheelchair accessible and has an accessible toilet.

I list below some recent additions to the Library (all 2009):

COCKE, Thomas

DUNN, Marilyn

McCARTAN, Sinead

MILESON, S.A.

REYNOLDS, Andrew

SAUL, Nigel

Brighton Churches: the need for action

now.

The Christianization

of the Anglo Saxons c.597-700.

Mesolithic Horizons. 2 vols.

Parks in Medieval England.

Anglo Saxon Deviant Burial Customs.

English Church Monuments in the Middle

Ages.

We are grateful to the following for their donations to the Library:

S. Bernard; S. Berry; J. Butler; G. Doel; D. Green; S. Parsons;

R. Salter (WSCC); A. Stallard; A. Vincent.

Esme Evans

Hon. Librarian

NEW

BENEFITS

FOR MEMBERS

At the invitation of the Kent

Archaeological Society, Sussex

Archaeological Society has paid a

small fee to become an Affiliated

Member of KAS which entitles

our members to the following four

benefits:

1) Use of the KAS’s Reference

Library and research facilities at

Maidstone Museum. This contains

a large collection of books on

archaeology and local history,

many archaeological journals, and

a complete set of the KAS’s annual

journal, Archaeologia Cantiana,

first published in 1858. The Library

catalogue can be viewed on-line

at www.kentarchaeology.ac.

The Library is open at all times that

the museum is open (including

Sundays).

2) Access to advice from KAS’s

curator and other experts.

3) Members may attend the

society’s programme of events.

4) Members may purchase books

published by the KAS at members’

rates.

Our Library at Barbican House

will continue to receive copies of the

KAS Newsletter three times a year,

containing news of forthcoming

events, reports of past activities,

letters, reviews and short articles

as well as the annual Archaeologia

Cantiana, which features academic

papers on historical research and

fieldwork relating to Kent .

Lorna Gartside

Membership Secretary

Origins

of

‘Church’ Fields

IN attempting to identify and

map the rectorial glebeland at

East Grinstead, secularized on

the dissolution of Lewes Priory,

in an article in the East Grinstead

Society’s Bulletin 88 (Spring 2006)

I located [to my satisfaction] what

might be termed its ‘home farm’.

This, however, only accounted for

about a third of its known total

area and only one of its three

tenants in 1537. Seeking clues to

the whereabouts of the remainder,

I discussed possibly relevant fieldnames

in the parish, including two

Church Fields, neither anywhere

near the church or each other and

with no indication that the farms to

which they belonged had ever had

any ecclesiastical connection.

I attempted to find alternative

explanations of the name Church

Field in further discussion of the

glebelands in Bulletins 90, 91 and

93, and the short piece on the

subject by D. Macleod in Sussex

Notes & Queries Vol.1, pp.148f.

also proved no help. Progress

reports of excavations at Church

Field, Barcombe, in Sussex Past

& Present gave me another idea

however, which I published in

Bulletin 95 (Autumn 2008) and on

which I should welcome thoughts

or relevant information from

archaeologists and local historians,

not only those working on that

project.

Mention of a possible Roman bath

house discovered in Church Field,

Barcombe, prompts me to wonder

whether that field, and Church

Fields elsewhere, might owe their

names to evidence of old buildings

in the soil, popularly interpreted as

remains of former places of worship,

whether Christian or earlier. If the

age of the Barcombe name and

its explanation can be known, my

theory might prove baseless, but

someone might be able to ascertain

if there are any vestiges of buildings

in or under the Church Fields here.

Note: All East Grinstead Society

Bulletins (ISSN 0308-8685) are in

Barbican House library.

M J Leppard

20 St George’s Court

London Road

East Grinstead RH19 1QP

The Society’s

Changing

Membership

BECAUSE I wanted to discover

how the composition of the Society

had changed since I joined it 60

years ago I recently analysed the

1949 list of members’ names and

addresses.

Of the total number of 1077

individuals (995 members and 82

associates) 41.5% lived in what is

now East Sussex, 33.5% in West

Sussex, 10% in Brighton and

Hove, and 15% outside the county.

Men outnumbered women 60:40,

with 18.5% of the women being

associates: only in one household

was the wife a member and the

husband an associate. A fair proportion

of the members were titled

in one way or another: 4.5% were

peers, baronets, knights, ladies or

‘honourables’; 5% had a military or

naval rank; 5% were clergy.

Today there are 1720 individual

members (with family members

counting as one) but, because

their names and addresses are no

longer published, it is impossible

to make a comparative analysis

with 1949. But I suspect that,

while the geographical distribution

of the membership may not have

changed greatly, it now includes

a much smaller proportion of men

with handles to their names. It is

to be expected that changes in

the make-up of our Society reflect

those in that of society as a whole.

Jeremy Goring

Volunteers

Wanted

THE ESCC Archaeology Section is

looking for volunteers with a good

knowledge of their local area to

help with adding archaeological

data to the computerised Historic

Environment Record (the HER,

formerly known as the Sites and

Monuments Record or SMR). We

are summarising reports from work

carried out through the planning

system, and linking them to our

electronic map or Geographical

Information System (GIS).

We’d provide training which would

give you a very good introduction

to modern archaeological software.

You’d get access to the most upto-date

archaeological information

about your area whilst making a

great contribution to this important

work.

You wouldn’t need previous

experience of using the HER or GIS,

but you will require good computer

skills. Other qualities we are looking

for are:

• local knowledge of the history/

archaeology of an area of East

Sussex and/or Brighton and Hove.

• good writing skills; ability to

summarise complex information in

comprehensible English

• archaeological knowledge;

familiarity with archaeological terms

and interpreting archaeological

reports

• familiarity with large-scale OS

mapping (interpreting contours,

field boundaries etc accurately)

and a good understanding of grid

references.

The work will have to be done

weekdays at County Hall, Lewes

– but times can be arranged to suit

individual volunteers.

Please contact Greg Chuter on

01273 336177, 07500123634, or

gregory.chuter@eastsussex.gov.

uk to discuss further.

Greg Chuter

Assistant County Archaeologist

East Sussex County Council

12 Sussex Past & Present December 2009

www.sussexpast.co.uk www.romansinsussex.co.uk Sussex Past & Present December 2009 13


Books

BOOK REVIEWS

BOOK REVIEWS

Books

Peacehaven &

Telscombe

Through Time

THIS is a volume of ‘then and now’

images of the two communities of

Peacehaven and Telscombe and as

the author is a past president of the

local history society he has a close

knowledge of the area. In the 21st

century there is more emphasis on

the history of suburbs rather than

purely ‘historic’ urban and rural

communities. Peacehaven, long

reviled by the architectural elite

(who do not live there) is home to

a large and growing community, it

deserves reasoned recording, as it

has undergone great changes both

in appearance and (confusingly)

road naming. Some key buildings

in the early life of the settlement

have been demolished, The

Peacehaven Hotel is one example,

and precious few of the original

domestic structures have survived.

Stanley Bernard has used vintage

illustrations from a variety of

sources and has taken 21st century

images from as close a spot as

was possible to the original. Local

knowledge has enabled him to spot

small but significant landscape

features which to the untrained eye

would be lost in the present day

urban scene.

The volume starts with the village

of Telscombe and goes on to chart

its unspectacular changes before

crossing The Tye to the coast road

where the early 20th century growth

was an example of the dispersed

suburbs that developed rapidly in

the immediate post First World War

landscape.

The lack of a map to locate the

scenes is a drawback and there

needed to be some form of ‘further

reading’ especially as the author

has published earlier volumes on

this locality.

Geoffrey Mead

By Stanley Bernard, 2009.

Amberley Publishing.

ISBN 978-1-84868-199-6.

Paperback 96 pp. Price £12.99.

‘Lepers outside the

gate’: Excavations

at the cemetery

of the Hospital of

St James and St

Mary Magdalene,

Chichester, 1986-97

and 1993.

THE hospital of St James and

Mary Magdalene was founded

before AD 1118. The graves date

from the 12th to the 16th centuries

and the cemetery expands in a

southwest-northeast direction.

Nothing was found of the hospital

buildings during excavation. In

the earlier phase, the majority of

burials were male and nearly half

showed signs of leprosy. This is

further evidence of the epidemic of

leprosy in medieval Europe. More

women and children were buried

in the later phases when the use

of the hospital changed to being

an almshouse, but there was still a

20% incidence of leprosy amongst

the adults, although rather less

severe in nature.

This report is intended to be

accessible to a number of different

audiences. The local historians

will find the description of the

excavations and the documentary

research backed up by a thorough

review of the role of such hospitals

in the middle ages. Those whose

interest and background knowledge

lies with the bones will be equally

well served by learning about

the social and cultural context.

Unfortunately, the accessibility

is not reciprocal. Those not

already reasonably familiar with

paleopathology will probably find

that section much harder going.

A glossary is provided, but the

essential diagrams for the facial

changes are relegated to the CD.

In addition, as is only too often the

case in osteoarchaeology, there

are no illustrations of the normal

appearance of the bones.

I found myself much better able

to appreciate the detail in the

report after reading the excellent

account of the site by Magilton

and Lee in a recent issue of “British

Archaeology,” and the inclusion of

such an overview would have been

very welcome. The main weakness

in the report is the almost inevitable

one of a lack of integration. This

shows in a lot of ways, from the lack

of an overall index to the tendency

of the osteoarchaeologists to deal

only with their particular aspect of

the bones. All too often I got the

impression that only the editors

had read all the chapters, and their

firm grasp of the overall picture

comes through both in the detailed

description of the cemetery by

Magilton, where plots of the graves

are used to effectively summarise

the data and also in the final

discussion by Magilton and Lee.

Undoubtedly the Chichester

site is an important one and the

bioarchaeological data from it

will continue to be analysed.

In particular, because there is

continuity here from a leper hospital

to post-medieval almshouse it will

continue to figure in the debate

about the end of the leprosy

epidemic in post-medieval Europe.

Liz Somerville

School of Life Sciences

University of Sussex

Edited by John Magilton, Frances

Lee and Anthea Boylston. Chichester

Excavations Volume 10 / CBA

Research Report 158. 2008

ISBN 978-1-902771-72-4.

Paperback, 312pp, Price £40.

Hastings: Wartime

Memories and

Photographs

THE impetus for this book came

during a number of book-signing

events undertaken by the author

when he was approached by people

who wanted to share their wartime

stories with him. The result is a

fascinating book devoted to 130

photographs alongside the stories

of 75 people, and through them a

host of others who lived and died

in the town during the war years.

The book is divided into 7 chapters

beginning with ‘The Path to War’

and ending with ‘Peace Returns to

Hastings.’

I found this book very difficult

to put down as the voices come

through very clearly telling about

a variety of subjects such as ARP

duties, the testing of gas masks,

the blackout, life as an evacuee,

the fun of apple scrumping and the

horrors of the air raids.

The initiative of civilians in war

time is well illustrated – ‘If you

saw a queue, you joined it…’

– as is their heroism. Several

story tellers remember being

thrown to the ground as children,

and heroic mums lying on top of

them protecting them as bullets

ricocheted around them.

The longest chapter is entirely

devoted to recollections of air

attacks. Houses looked like

dolls’ houses as their fronts were

blown off though several bombs

penetrated buildings in such a way

that they passed straight through

detonating elsewhere. Eleven

Canadians were killed in the Albany

Hotel by a 250kg bomb which had

already gone through the Queen’s

Hotel without exploding.

In this the 70th anniversary year

of the outbreak of the 2 nd World

War, it is a pleasure to recommend

Nathan Dylan Goodwin’s collection.

It would sit well alongside the

book about Wadhurst which was

reviewed in the August edition of

Sussex Past & Present.

Maria Gardiner

By Nathan Goodman, 2008.

Published by Phillimore and Co Ltd.

ISBN 978-1-86077-582-6

Hardback.141pp. Price £16.99

Hove and Portslade

Through Time

HOVE, often overlooked in histories

of the city, has a doughty champion

in Judy Middleton, who has

published a wide range of historical

accounts of the former borough.

In this pictorial account of Hove

and Portslade she has utilised the

rapid advances in digital imagery

to compare and contrast old and

(very) new pictures of the area with

sets of ‘before and after’ views

sharply delineated.

As is often the case with Judy’s

writings it is the inconsequential

detail which is the most fascinating,

in this case the number of colonels

at Hove Club in 1897 caught my

eye! The pictures are arranged

in a general geographical order,

although to someone not ‘au fait’

with the topography of the area

a location map would have been

useful.

There seems an imbalance in

the number of images of certain

locations and a similar puzzling

omission of some expected views.

Why three views of Portslade High

Street (two almost identical) but

none of Hove Manor house

Nothing at all of Dyke Road

(or my old grammar school, now

BHASVIC) or of the luxury interwar

housing of Tongdean or Woodland

Drive. There are some typos in

street names.

This is a volume that will be pored

over by both present day residents

and ex-pats and is a useful addition

to the canon of Hove literature.

Floreat Hova!.

Geoffrey Mead

Convenor for Local History

CCE, Sussex Institute

University of Sussex

By Judy Middleton, 2009.

Published by Amberley Publishing.

ISBN 978-1-84868-416-4.

Paperback. 96pp, Price £12.99.

14 Sussex Past & Present December 2009

www.sussexpast.co.uk www.romansinsussex.co.uk Sussex Past & Present December 2009 15


Snippets

Margary Grants

ANYONE considering applying

for a Margary grant for financial

assistance with a research project

in 2010 should be aware that the

closing date for submissions is

January 31st. Full details of the

regulations governing these grants

and an application form are available

on our website www.sussexpast.

co.uk/research or by contacting

our Research Officer, Luke Barber

at research@sussexpast.co.uk or

01273 405733.

Lewes Castle Steps

IT is still possible to have your

name, or that of a loved one,

immortalised as a patron of Lewes

Castle. Make a donation of £500

and an inscription of your choice

can be engraved on one of the

steps leading up to the keep.

Please contact Emma O’Connor

at molewes@susexpast.co.uk or

01273 405735 for further details of

this exciting opportunity!

Library Photocopying

Charges Increase

FROM 1st January 2010, the charges

for photocopying in Barbican House

Library will rise to 7p per A4 sheet

and 12p per A3 sheet. This is the

library’s contribution to increasing

the Society’s income!

Members’ Survey

PLEASE spare two minutes to

complete and return the enclosed

survey to help us gain a clearer

picture of how members view and

make use of the Society. You don’t

need to add your membership

number, but if you do, your form

will automatically be entered into

our prize draw and one member

will win a £20 book token.

Kitchen Garden

Planned for AoC

PLANS for the creation of a Late

Tudor Period Kitchen Garden are

taking shape at Anne of Cleves

House. The purpose of the project

is to create a garden that will not

only complement and enhance

the House, but will hopefully also

become a specific feature attracting

new visitors whilst being a source

of income to the Society. One of

its anticipated uses is to form the

basis of educational courses for

both adults and school parties in

the cultivation and use of herbs

and plants in, for example, cloth

dyeing.

The proposed area, on the

western side of the house, has

previously been a private garden.

The initial scope and creation of the

garden will depend upon voluntary

help and donations of specific

plants and artefacts, though if an

application for a grant is successful,

could be developed further. The

aim is that, once established, it will

require the minimum of attention

and be maintained mainly by

volunteers.

When external repairs to the

western elevation of the house are

completed, anticipated to be by the

spring of 2010, the work of planting

out the garden can begin. If you

are interested in helping in any

way, either by donating plants or

offering your time, please contact

Emma O’Connor at molewes@

sussexpast.co.uk or 01273

405735.

A working party meeting will be

arranged and all those interested

invited to attend. News of the

project’s progress will appear in

future editions of Sussex Past &

Present.

Scan Reveals

Nero’s Head

A 3D scan of a damaged boy’s

statue head which took place at

Fishbourne Roman Palace recently

has revealed that it is probably a

rare depiction of Emperor Nero

as a youngster, making it just the

third surviving piece of its kind in

the world. Curator of archaeology

Dr Rob Symmons, in collaboration

with Bournemouth University, ran

the scans to try to recreate the

damaged parts of the face. The

marble head was found in 1964

during the excavation of the Palace

and if it is confirmed as Nero will

have international significance as

most portraits of the disgraced

leader were destroyed after his

suicide in AD68. Full story and

pictures in the next issue.

Next Issue

THE next issue of Sussex Past &

Present will be published in April

2010. Copy deadline is February

12th. Letters and ‘snippets’ are

welcome; longer items should be

kept to a maximum of 500 words

unless prior arrangements have

been made with the editor, Wendy

Muriel, at spp@sussexpast.co.uk,

or Luke Barber on 01273 405733.

Please note that we require images

with most contributions, preferably

in high quality colour format. To

submit digitally, please use MS

Word (97-2003 format) for text

and send images in JPEG or TIF

formats, at a minimum resolution

of 600dpi. Correspondence and

details of events should be sent to

Wendy Muriel, Editor, Sussex Past &

Present, Bull House, 92 High Street,

Lewes, East Sussex, BN7 1XH, or

emailed to the above address.

Rates for insertions into the

newsletter, which goes out to over

2000 members, start at £100 (plus

minimum handling charge of £20).

Contact Lorna Gartside on 01273

405737 for details.

16

Sussex Past & Present December 2009

www.sussexpast.co.uk

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