SUSTAINABILITY THROUGHOUT THE CHAIN - Bioenergi

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SUSTAINABILITY THROUGHOUT THE CHAIN - Bioenergi

SUSTAINABILITY THROUGHOUT THE CHAIN

Barbara Bramble,

Chair, RSB Steering Board

Sustainable Aviation Day

Copenhagen, October 11, 2012

11-10-2012 Take off: A Sustainable Aviation Day 1


© iStockphoto.com/Logan Buell

© BC Bioenergy Strategy

What Biofuels are Expected to Deliver

Climate Change

Mitigation

Economic Development

Employment

Energy Security

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What Biofuels Might also Cause

Increased deforestation

and loss of ecosystems

© Sébastien Haye/Terre des Hommes Suisse © Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels

Increased GHG emissions

Pollution

© Sébastien Haye

Increased conflicts over land and resources

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AVIATION – CAUGHT IN A BIND

•Agriculture Expansion (for all uses, not yet

biofuels) is largest driver of deforestation

•Population and wealth are growing – food needs

alone will double by 2050

•Add in all the demand for animal feed, fiber,

forest products, much less fuel

•Climate change likely to make agricultural

production more difficult, uncertain.

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•Biofuels production for road transport is high priority for many

governments

•Expansion based on mandates, not markets or sensible resource

allocation

•Water scarcity is likely the limiting factor, not accounted for in

many expansion plans.

AVIATION – EVEN TIGHTER BIND

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EU RENEWABLE ENERGY DIRECTIVE (RED)

•Sets minimum environmental standards for biofuels

•No biofuels from specific ecosystems or high carbon

lands count toward mandate

•GHG reduction threshold

•Assumes criteria from other laws are adequate on

soil, water and air

•Leaves all social issues for future consideration.

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US RENEWABLE FUEL STANDARD (RFS)

•Sets minimalist environmental standards

•No biofuels from land cleared after 2007 for crops, or

biomass from federal lands, qualify for mandate

•Defines “renewable biomass” for cellulosic biofuels:

residues, thinnings, wastes, grasses

•Sets GHG reduction threshold

•Assumes criteria from other laws are adequate on soil,

water and air and leaves out all social issues.

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THIS SETS THE STAGE FOR CONTROVERSY

•Other nations have biofuels plans and mandates, few

sustainability requirements

•None we have found examine the full Life Cycle of expanded

agricultural production

•“Food vs Fuel” – the debate is a false premise: most crops

produce both

•But conflict is really even more difficult – all land uses are in

competition with all others

•Deforestation, Land grabbing and Water wars

•Direct and Indirect land use change

•Adding a new use for biomass requires producing “more

stuff” from same land.

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So What is to be Done

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SUSTAINABILITY AND BIOFUELS:

THE RSB STANDARD

Global, voluntary, multi-stakeholder standard on sustainability for biofuels –

Certification System now open

• Enables producers and purchasers to

differentiate better biofuels

• Covers entire supply chain, all

feedstocks and all types of fuels

• Uses Independent 3 rd party audits

and risk management approach

• “Benchmarking”: working with other

standards & regulations

• Fulfills “market access standards” for

specific regulated markets, i.e. EU

© Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels

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•To provide and promote the global standard for socially,

environmentally and economically sustainable production

and conversion of biomass.

•To provide a global platform for multi-stakeholder

dialogue and consensus building.

•To ensure that users and producers have access to

credible, practical and affordable certification.

•To support continuous improvement through application

of the standard.

RSB MISSION

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RSB Membership at a Glance

• Around 110 members in 40 countries + International Organisations &

Governmental Agencies.

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RSB Governance

Chamber 1 - Feedstock

Producers

(Solazyme, Sun BF, Fedepalma,

etc.)

Chamber 7 - Research, Govt,

IGOs

(Ministries from Peru,

Switzerland, Berkeley, UNEP,

FAO, etc.)

Chamber 2 - Biofuel Producers

(BP, Poet, Neste Oil, etc)

Chamber 6 - Envt,

Conservation & Climate

(WWF, IUCN, CI, Wetlands

Int, etc.)

RSB Steering

Board

Chamber 3 - Retailers

Transport/Investors

(Boeing, Airbus, IDB, SAFUG,

Shell, etc.)

Chamber 5 - Devt, smallholder &

indigenous people organisations

(German NGO Forum, Function

Solar, MFC, etc.)

Chamber 4 - NGOs & Trade

Unions

(ALU-TUCP, NUPAWU, Sucre

Ethique, etc.)

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RSB Principles & Criteria

Principle 1:

Legality

Principle 4:

Human & Labor

Rights

Principle 2:

Planning,

Monitoring &

Continuous

Improvement

Principle 5:

Rural & Social

Development

Principle 3:

Greenhouse Gas

Emissions

Principle 6:

Local Food

Security

Principle 7:

Conservation

Principle 8:

Soil

Principle 9:

Water

Principle 10:

Air

Principle 11:

Use of Technology, Inputs, &

Management of Waste

Principle 12:

Land Rights

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LONG TERM VISION FOR AVIATION FUEL –

DEMONSTRATING POTENTIAL

FOR SUSTAINABLE EXPANSION

•Carbon Neutral Growth – Expansion of industry while

lowering GHG emissions

•Ensuring sustainable feedstocks – water use/rights,

biodiversity, land tenure rights, etc.

•Aviation demand can spur new technologies for

producing “more stuff” from existing production

lands – but use of existing biomass risks higher

GHG, not lower

•These are hallmarks of current plans – the keys to

aviation’s “social license” to expand.

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SUSTAINABILITY CHALLENGES –

•GHG reductions actually difficult to prove –

•accounting error in IPCC

•recycling CO 2 is improvement, but is not sequestration

•Agricultural yield improvements require investment, and

most modern techniques add GHGs

•New technologies (algae, cellulosic, efficient jet fuel

conversion) not ready or in flux.

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CERTIFICATION TO ROBUST, MULTI-

STAKEHOLDER STANDARDS – THE

ESSENTIAL PROOF

•Civil society wants to see verification of performance to strong

standards

•Ultimately mandatory, but for now, only voluntary standards cover

all the issues

•Certification demonstrates actual performance, not selfdeclaration

•Look for hallmarks of credible standards – ISEAL membership.

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Thank you!

Barbara Bramble:

bramble@nwf.org

RSB Secretariat: rsb@epfl.ch

http://www.rsb.org

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