here - Stakeholder Forum

here - Stakeholder Forum

About Stakeholder Forum

Stakeholder Forum is an international non-profit organisation working to advance sustainable

development and promote democracy at a global level. Our work aims to enhance open,

accountable and participatory international decision-making on sustainable development

through enhancing the involvement of stakeholders in intergovernmental processes.

Stakeholder Forum seeks to provide a bridge between those who have a stake in sustainable

development, and the international forums where decisions are made in their name. To this end,

we work with a diversity of stakeholders globally on international policy development and

advocacy; stakeholder engagement and consultation; media and communications and capacity

building – all with the ultimate objective of promoting progressive outcomes on sustainable

development through an open and participatory approach.

Stakeholder Forum was founded in 1987 as UNED UK – United Nations Environment and

Development UK (UNED UK), operating as the National Committee for UNEP in the UK. The

organization continues to fulfil this function, but was renamed Stakeholder Forum for a

Sustainable Future in 2000 to reflect the broad range of activities that the organization

undertakes. Stakeholder Forum has offices in London and New York and is a leading organisation

in developing and facilitating global multi-stakeholder processes on sustainable development.

For more information please contact the authors:

Jeannet Lingán, Project Manager

Jack Cornforth, Project Officer

*This briefing paper was prepared by Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future thanks to the

support of Aviva Investors. We would also like to thank UNDESA, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UNDP, UNEP,

for providing us with valuable information about the processes.

**The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of Stakeholder Forum.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1

2. Rio+20: A platform to give visibility to investors and progressive businesses ............ 1

3. A new milestone: Global goals for sustainable development and poverty eradication

......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4. Background: The Millennium Development Goals ................................................................. 3

The role of private sector in achieving Millennium Development Goals ............................................. 5

5. Why should investors engage in the defining of the next global sustainability goals

......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6. The next generation of global goals: Sustainable Development Goals and the Post

2015 Development Agenda .............................................................................................................. 5

7. Entry Points for Engagement and Advocacy around the Sustainable Development

Goals/Post 2015 Development Agenda ....................................................................................... 6

Processes and Opportunities for Engagement within the UN system ....................................................... 7

Key Milestones for Post-2015/SDGs Processes (2012-2013) ................................................................... 9

Relevant Spaces for Participation within the UN System ........................................................................10

ANNEXES ....................................................................................................................................................15

Annex 1: Millennium Development Goals Framework

Annex 2. Thematic areas for Sustainable Development Goals proposed by Governments

during the Rio+20 negotiations

1. Introduction

The recent UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in June 2012 was an opportunity

for governments to discuss the global sustainable development agenda and agree on priorities and

ways to address the challenges ahead. It was also an opportunity for different stakeholders to input

and influence this agenda and pledge for future commitments for action. The Conference was also an

important platform for businesses and investors. More than 1800 business leaders attended the

Conference and related events in Rio and hundreds of voluntary commitments (many measurable

and time-bound) outside of the formal negotiating process were announced to support different

international initiatives such as ‘Sustainable Energy for All’ or the UN Global Compact Water


Rio+20 was also a key opportunity for the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Coalition. The

Conference not only raised the profile of the sustainability reporting agenda as stipulated in

paragraph 47, but became an important stage for a more visible and active role of progressive

businesses and investors in sustainable development and the multilateral process. It also showed

how the private sector and civil society can effectively work together towards a common goal.

The sustainability reporting agenda will develop through numerous post-Rio+20 work programmes,

including the new Friends of Paragraph 47 governments’ group 1 . However, other important

platforms for investors’ engagement could include work around the creation of Sustainable

Development Goals (SDGs) and the Post 2015 Development Agenda. The SDG process has been

launched as one of the primary Rio+20 outcomes, and the latter constitutes part of the ongoing

process to define the successor framework to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), set to

expire in 2015. These processes will engage governments, intergovernmental organisations and

stakeholders globally and will be the basis for the agreement on the next sustainable development

global goals, targets and indicators against which progress in these areas will be measured.

This briefing aims to inform the coalition about these new spaces for action and attempts to identify

some areas for potential engagement from investors in the context of these processes. For this

purpose we have collated information on these processes from a range of sources and conducted

some informal conversations with staff members from relevant UN agencies and programmes.

2. Rio+20: A platform to give visibility to investors and progressive


The Corporate Sustainability Reporting Coalition (CSRC) has been convened by Aviva Investors since

January 2011 and was launched in September of the same year at the UN General Assembly Private

Sector Forum. Collectively, the CSRC represents investors with assets under management of more

than US$2 trillion, as well as financial institutions, professional bodies, NGOs and other stakeholders.

1 Launched by Denmark, South Africa, France and Brazil.


Over the past year and a half, the CSRC has campaigned for governments to agree on an international

policy framework (Convention) on Corporate Sustainability Reporting through the Rio+20 process.

While this outcome was not fully achieved, Rio+20 was progressive in this area and this progress is

expressed in paragraph 47 of the Outcome Document, in which Member States acknowledge the

importance of corporate sustainability reporting and encourage companies to integrate

sustainability information in their reporting cycle. More importantly, they have encouraged the UN

system to support industry, interested governments and relevant stakeholders to develop models of

best practice and facilitate action for the integration of reporting, paying particular attention to the

needs of developing countries. This process, currently in development, can still provide an

opportunity to maintain momentum and further advance this agenda.

Overall, the work of the CSRC has resulted in three major achievements. Firstly, it raised the profile

of the role of regulation in accelerating businesses’ impact on sustainable development. Policies on

sustainability reporting offered a way forward for starting this reform process, by levelling the

playing field in which companies account for and manage sustainability issues. This encourages the

voluntary reform of companies’ operations as part of their business strategy, as well as the

transformation of capital markets through offering investors important information for investment

decisions, creating trust and providing opportunities for dialogue by encouraging better governance,

accountability and transparency in the sector.

Secondly, this work has been a very important opportunity for members of the coalition and

especially for progressive investors to publicly support policies that will improve the way markets

and companies work. This involvement can be seen as a significant change in attitude from a sector

within business, something which was acknowledged during the negotiation processes by multiple

actors including the media and NGOs. 2 There is increasing awareness of market actors being more

pro-active in attempts to improve governance, transparency and accountability, and actively seeking

reform of how markets and the sector operate.

Thirdly, the CSRC has shown that joint efforts between investors, businesses and civil society can

deliver both a strong and coherent message that is able to create synergies between these actors and

mobilise resources efficiently. Since its inception the coalition has successfully raised public

awareness, fostered ideas for action and informed governments at national and international level

on the benefits of improved and more coordinated sustainability reporting policies. These efforts

have been directly dependent upon the continuous exchange of information, transmission of clear

messages and agreement on a common goal.

3. A new milestone: Global goals for sustainable development and

poverty eradication

The next milestone for multilateral conversations to define new international development

priorities is 2015. This is the year in which the MDGs are set to expire; therefore governments will

convene to agree on a successor framework. The UN is currently undertaking three processes: the

2 An example of this has been Greenpeace’s recognition of the work of the coalition: “… a more positive change that

has occurred since 1992 is that today it is mainly progressive investors and businesses that have been calling for

improvements in corporate governance. Specifically, they are calling for a convention on mandatory corporate



Post 2015 Development Agenda, launched in 2011 as mandated by the General Assembly (High

Level Plenary Meeting on the progress towards the MDGs) in 2010; the Secretary General’s High

Level Panel on post-2015; and the SDGs, a process agreed in the Rio+20 Outcome Document as

previously mentioned. The outcome of these processes is set to define the sustainable development

priorities of member states for the 15 years after 2015 so are therefore of the upmost importance to

all stakeholders, not least investors.

4. Background: The Millennium Development Goals

The MDGs were agreed in response to the Millennium Declaration, which was signed by 189 UN

Member States at the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000. 3 The Declaration put forward a set

of fundamental values and eight development objectives to guide international relations in the

twenty first century. Based on this declaration, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP),

working with other UN departments, the World Bank, and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation

and Development (OECD), identified a set of specific targets and indicators known as the

MDGs to operationalise the Millennium Declaration. 4

Three years before MDG’s expiring date, the Millennium Development Goals Report 2012 5 gives

account of the current progress towards achievement of these goals. The targets set for poverty

reduction, access to drinking water, improving the living conditions of slum dwellers, parity in

primary education for girls and boys has been achieved; while significant progress has been made on

primary school enrolment rates, under five mortality reduction, access to treatment for people living

with HIV, reversing the spread of tuberculosis and malaria related deaths. However, in spite of this

progress, the achievement of these goals is unequally distributed across regions and countries and

some of the targets are far from being achieved for example, the proportion of people in full

employment and decent work is still low, as is the progress reducing maternal mortality and access

to contraceptives for women.

The role of private sector in achieving Millennium Development Goals

Since their inception, the role of the private sector has been recognised as pivotal to achieve the

MDGs. There is increasing recognition that businesses’ potential contribution to poverty eradication

can be significantly higher than that of international aid. 6 Its importance for inclusive economic

growth, job creation, innovation, investment in essential infrastructure and partnerships for

development has been expressed in many fora. We are all aware, however, that this contribution is

not straight forward. Business practices can also undermine the social, economic and environmental

components of development and hold back countries from achieving these goals.

3 United Nations Millennium Declaration:

4 See Annex 1: Millennium Development Goals Framework (goals, targets and indicators)

5 Report can be accessed here:

6 Ellis, K. (2010) The Private Sector and Development. Overseas Development Institute Policy Brief


As with governments, intergovernmental organisations and other development actors, many

businesses have also focused efforts on demonstrating value through their contribution to the MDGs.

The impending expiration of the MDGs provides an opportunity to better understand and assess the

contribution of business and investors to this agenda; something which has led to increases in the

implementation of inclusive business approaches, the use of better measures to assess the impact of

core business and community investments, and of the impact of private sector investment in

development. 7

The benefits for businesses have also been widely discussed; aligning business practices with

development efforts enhance business shared value creation and competiveness by allowing them to

better assess and manage risks (both social and environmental), reduce direct costs, improve the

security of supply chains, identify new business opportunities, and generate competitive advantage.

Many companies are making progress in this regard, testing innovative business models and aligning

their practices against global and national development objectives. However, the current

international context defined by the financial crisis, environmental limits (planetary boundaries,

climate change) and social demands requires stronger commitments and accelerated action from

businesses and the reform of markets to address the urgent global sustainable development

challenges we face and increase the accountability of this sector.

5. Why should investors engage in the defining of the next global

sustainability goals

The progressive investor community has been recognised as one of the most active sectors in

promoting corporate governance and corporate sustainability. There are three main actions

identified as to how they have been contributing to driving markets and companies towards a more

sustainable path: by using sustainability information in their decisions on the allocation of capital, by

influencing companies’ policies and practices (e.g. through divestment, the exercise of shareholders’

rights), and by influencing relevant public policies (e.g. promoting more transparent policies and

relevant regulation). 8

The Rio+20 process was an important opportunity to display this work, not only by joining-up the

multiple commitments made by the business sector and raising awareness on current initiatives

such as Sustainable Stock Exchanges; but also by actively engaging in the negotiation process

through the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Coalition and partnering with other stakeholders

including civil society organisations.

7 Inclusive business has been defined as “doing business with low income population anywhere within a company’s

value chain incorporating them in the supply, production, distribution and/or marketing of goods and services”.

Business. Report on an Inclusive Business Dialogue during the Summit on the Millennium Development Goals.

October 2010.

8 Sullivan, R and Viñes Fiestas, Helena (ND) Responsible Investment: A Force for Poverty Alleviation, Framing the

Debate. Oxfam: Better Returns in a Better World Policy Brief No. 1


Building on this work, the current international discussions to agree on a global SDG framework will

provide an important space for action. The process will define the new sustainable development

priorities (Goals) agreed by countries, time-bound targets to achieve these Goals, and measurable

indicators to monitor progress and accountability.

This process can therefore be an important platform for investors to:

• Contribute to intergovernmental and multi-stakeholder conversations to help shape the global

sustainable development agenda.

• Raise governments’, businesses’ and other stakeholders’ awareness on the agenda of corporate

governance, corporate sustainability, sustainable capital markets and responsible investments as

a driver for sustainable development.

• Align their vision with global goals and targets and better communicate these with their multiple


• Engage in international discussions on how businesses can contribute to global sustainable

development efforts by measuring, reporting and improving sustainability impacts.

• Raise awareness on the role of smart regulation to create a better enabling environment for

sustainable business practices and capital markets. The SDGs/post-MDG consultations can

potentially provide a platform to keep momentum for this agenda.

• Early identify priority areas for long term investments and market opportunities that contribute

to sustainable development.

6. The next generation of global goals: Sustainable Development Goals

and the Post 2015 Development Agenda

There are several initiatives agreed in the Rio+20 outcome document that commit governments to

provide an enabling environment for promoting sustainable and inclusive growth (green economy

policies), strengthening corporate sustainability reporting, launching a process to agree on SDGs,

and another process to assess financing needs for sustainable development, consider the

effectiveness of existing instruments and explore how to mobilise greater funds. 9 The follow-up

efforts on the SDGs will be one of the most important intergovernmental processes taking place over

the next two years. It will give stakeholders an opportunity to articulate different agendas around

sustainable development and be part of the discussions to agree on global priorities that will define

the way in which the performance of governments and other stakeholders in areas of sustainable

development will be scrutinised and held to account.

The process around the SDGs will have to be closely linked with that of the Post 2015 Development

Agenda, the primary vehicle to inform what should succeed the MDGs. Ideally, both processes will

need to be part of a single integrated framework that intertwines the three key dimensions of

sustainable development. Therefore, it is important to closely follow both processes.

The next section will give a better picture of these processes and the entry points for engagement

(updated 10 October, 2012).

9 A list of thematic areas for SDGs proposed (but not agreed) at the Rio+20 negotiations is provided in Annex 2 and 3

for reference.


7. Entry Points for Engagement and Advocacy around the Sustainable

Development Goals/Post 2015 Development Agenda

As noted previously, the process to agree on the new framework for global sustainable development

goals is currently being defined. Engaging at this early stage; however, will allow investors to:

• Keep momentum on the sustainability reporting agenda. Development goals will be

accompanied by targets and indicators and there are already ongoing conversations on how

to align macro with corporate level indicators;

• build knowledge on the main issues at stake for different groups (stakeholders and member


• advocate for reforms in capital markets, corporate governance and sustainability, in its

social, environmental and economic aspects, in different intergovernmental spaces;

• strengthen the coalition and involvement of investors in decision-making spaces;

• create more spaces for dialogue with different stakeholders; and

• engage early with government delegations/representatives.

In order to better inform investors on how to engage in these processes, we provide a summary and

timeline of the forthcoming events associated with these processes and some recommendations for

how/where to engage. We have also included in the annexes, for further reference, the main

thematic areas addressed by the Millennium Development Goals and those addressed during the

discussions for the Sustainable Development Goals during the Rio+20 negotiations.




Post 2015



High Level Panel

of Eminent

Persons on the

Post 2015



• Coordination: United Nations

Development Program (UNDP)

• System-Wide Task Team on Post

2015 Development Agenda: more

than 50 UN system entities and

other international organisations

such as the World Bank, the

International Monetary Fund, ILO.


• UN Development Group (UNDG)

MDG Task Force (lead stakeholders

mobilisation and engagement)


• Co-chairs: Susilo Bambang

Yudhoyono (President Indonesia);

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, (President

Liberia); David Cameron, (Prime

Minister UK)

• Liaison HLP and UNSG: Ms. Amina

J, Mohammed

• Advisory Panel: is composed by 26

members from civil society,

governments and private sector.

• Secretariat: Mr. Homi Kharas, acts

as Executive Secretary and lead

author for HLP report.

• Define the vision

for a concerted

action in the UN

agencies and



l organisations.

• Define the

contours of the

Post 2015


Agenda (build



• Assessing UN efforts on MDGs,

consulting external stakeholders

(civil society, academia, private

sector), and defining a systemwide

vision and road map for a

post-2015 development


• 50 national consultations in

developing countries organised by

UN Resident coordinators (country

teams) 10 -can potentially expand to

more countries

• 9 thematic consultations 11

• Facilitating information on a web

portal and online consultation:



• Engage and consult widely with

relevant constituencies at

national, regional and global


• Prepare recommendations on how

to build and sustain political

consensus on a Post-2015 agenda

around dimensions of economic

growth, social equality and

environmental sustainability;

taking into account challenges of

countries in conflict and postconflict

situations, and advise on

connections with SDGs.

• Fist report of Task Team was

published in June 2012 with

recommendations for an

integrated framework

(economic, social,

environmental and peace

and security dimensions)

and roadmap

• On-going technical support

by task team to HLP on post-


• UN Development Group

Global Report


Report to be submitted to the

Secretary General informed


• National and thematic

consultations post-2015,

• The Sustainable

Development Solutions

Network (SDSN) a science and

technology group.

• Other processes:

Millennium Declaration,

Rio+20 outcome, report of UN

System-wide task team,

lessons learned and best

practices from MDGs, Global

Sustainability Panel Report

• Depending on UN

agency/organisation, they can involve

formally or informally other

stakeholders in their input to the report

(see UN entry points section)

• Participating in country consultations.

They are suggested to be multistakeholder

but decision rests upon

national offices. Taking place in

developing countries but list could be


• Participating in thematic consultations

(organisers can be contacted-see foot


To be defined but:

• Secretariat could potentially organise

some consultative mechanism

• Advisory panel members could

potentially liaise with their

constituencies/other stakeholders

• Liaising with the Sustainable

Development Solutions Network’s (it

has a mandate

to work with all stakeholders):

10 List of country consultations can be found in page 37 (Annex A) of Consultation Guidelines:

11 Growth and employment (Japan, May 2012-UNDP, ILO); For 2013: Inequalities (Denmark, UNICEF, UN Women); Health (WHO, UNICEF); Education (UNESCO, UNICEF); Environmental

sustainability (UNPBSO, UNDP); Governance (OHCHR, UNDP); Conflict and fragility (UNEP, UNDP); Population dynamics (UN Habitat, UNFPA); Food security and nutrition (FAO, IFAD)






Committee on a



Financing Strategy

• Open Working Group: 30

representatives nominated by

member states from the 5 UN

regional groups

• Secretariat (tbc)

• Coordination for consultations:


UNDESA to lead, supported by:


• UNDP, FAO, IFIs and

• other UN-system organizations

An intergovernmental committee,

comprising of 30 experts nominated

by regional groups, with equitable

geographical representation, will

implement this process.

The ToR of the group should be

formulated by the end of 2012.

• Decide how to

engage and consult

with all

stakeholders at

national and

regional level

• Propose global

SDGs with targets

and indicators.

• To assist the


process consider

options for a

sustainable finance

framework, a

technical working

group from the UN

system could be

established with an

aim to channel the

efforts of finance

stakeholders and

catalyse real

actions on the


• Secretariat, work plan and

activities still to be defined

• Exact details of its activities are

still to be confirmed, however it

is likely the group will report

regularly to the General


• Report to be submitted to

member states for further

deliberation in 2013.

• Group to conclude its work

by 2014 and deliver

recommendations to the

General Assembly for its

consideration/ to inform

appropriate actions.

• Formal consultative processes to be

defined (major groups).

• Open Working Group/secretariat

could potentially liaise with other


• ‘…open and broad consultation with

relevant international and regional

financial institutions and other relevant

stakeholders’ – of which investors will

be a key group. Exactly how and when

input/participation will be possible is

still unclear however.



2012 2013

Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

HLP First


High Level Panel Secretariat and Activities tbc

Post-2015 Development Agenda


Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) –

science/technology based support

National Consultations (UN Country teams)

UNDG’s consultation/mobilization activities (tbc)


of SDGs’

Open WG

Thematic Consultations

(different agencies)

UN System Task Team on Post-2015 (On-going work)




Expert panels and Consultative process (tbc)

HLP Post-


Report (31




Report on


68 th General


High Level

Event on Post-






Decision Making

Process to agree

on goals, targets,

indicators (tbc)


SDG Open




Inter-agency technical support



‘…open and broad consultation with relevant international and regional financial institutions and other relevant stakeholders’

Report to

GA by 2014



Note: this list is not exhaustive and we will continue updating it as more information is made available at:


United Nations





United Nations

Department of

Economic and

Social Affairs


• Specialized agency that promotes

industrial development for poverty

reduction, inclusive globalization and

environmental sustainability. Three

main thematic areas:

o Poverty Reduction through

Productive Activities

o Trade Capacity-Building

o Energy and Environment

• DESA provides support to

intergovernmental processes on

development issues in the General

Assembly and in the Economic and

Social Council, its functional

commissions and expert bodies.

• It has set up a formal consultative process through the Green Industry Platform (GIP)

• This platform will have a formal consultative mechanism (Multi-stakeholder Advisory Board to be selected

and work plan decided in September 2012)

• GIP has more than 70 members and includes businesses, member states (eg. Switzerland, Mexico) and civil

society organisations.

• They will follow up on green economy issues (from Rio+20) and will input on Post-2015/SDG processes

(focus on economic dimension: industrial development for poverty eradication)

• Open to engage with investors as their role is very important to leverage finance for (sustainable) industrial

development and sustainable business activities/practices.

• DESA will coordinate the activities around the SDGs process and the finance committee.

• They have a formal consultative mechanism for stakeholder participation through Organizing Partners and

Major Groups (women, NGOs, business and industry, indigenous peoples, local governments, trade unions,

children youth, science and technology, farmers)

• Different spaces to engage (participate):

o Council for Sustainable Development Meeting in May 2013

o 5 regional economic commission meetings (early spring 2013)

o A post Rio+20 event in Bangalore (November 2013)

o DPI Conference (date tbc)

United Nations

Conference on

Trade and



• Functions as a forum for

intergovernmental deliberations,

supported by discussions with

experts and exchanges of

experience, aimed at consensus


o Works on issues of trade,

investment, finance and


o Conducts research and


o Provides technical assistance

to developing countries.

• Post-2015/SDG focus: inclusive economic development (role of trade and investment)

• It can provide a space to liaise and exchange information with member state representatives, businesses,

and other stakeholders on these issues.

• Different spaces to engage:

o Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR). Supports

developing countries to implement best practices in corporate transparency and accounting.

o Investment Framework for Sustainable Development-UNCTAD is developing a framework for

investment policies that incorporates sustainable development issues. The consultative process in ongoing.

o World Investment Forum in 2014. A multi-stakeholder meeting gathering ministers, heads of state,

businesses and other stakeholders. It can be an opportunity to bring sustainable investors’ agenda.

o Work with G20 in investment and development: UNCTAD supports the work of this group through an

interagency working group to identify and promote the best existing standards (developmental, social and

environmental) for responsible investment in value chains, as well as voluntary investor compliance with

such standards.


United Nations




United Nations




United Nations

Global Compact

• Division of Technology, Industry

and Economics works with business

and industry on environmental

issues at global and regional levels

encouraging partnerships and

investments in green sectors.

• Through UNEP-FI: over 200

institutions, including banks,

insurers and fund managers, work

with UNEP to understand the

impacts of environmental and

social considerations on financial


• Build a strategic coalition of

partners to shape the post-2015

development agenda through broad

engagement of poor and vulnerable

people, governments, NGOs and

grassroots organisations, the

private sector, trade unions and

workers, and the academic


• Ensure that the post-2015

development agenda accounts for

the changing development context

and critical challenges of our time,

builds on the momentum of and

lessons learned from the MDGs,

and is guided by core UN norms,

values and commitments.


• Mainstream the ten principles in

business activities around the


• Catalyze actions in support of

broader UN goals, including the

Millennium Development Goals


• Activities for SDGs/Post-2015/finance committee (tbc)

• UNEP provides secretariat support (together with the Global Reporting Initiative) to the governments

grouping ‘Friends of Paragraph 47’ working on corporate sustainability reporting (Rio+20 Outcome


To facilitate the process, the following activities are in preparation:

• UNDP coordinates work around the 50 national consultations for the Post-2015 Development Agenda (see

entry points chart). The national consultations would provide an opportunity for different stakeholders to

engage at national level.

• Activities for SDGs/Post-2015 (tbc)




Official list of MDG indicators

All indicators should be disaggregated by sex and urban/rural as far as possible.

Effective 15 January 2008

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Goals and Targets

(from the Millennium Declaration)

Indicators for monitoring progress

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Target 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of

people whose income is less than one dollar a day

Target 1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and

decent work for all, including women and young people

Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of

people who suffer from hunger

1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day i

1.2 Poverty gap ratio

1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed

1.5 Employment-to-population ratio

1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per


1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers

in total employment

1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age

1.9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary

energy consumption

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

Target 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys

and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary


Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

Target 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and

secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of

education no later than 2015

2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education

2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade

of primary

2.3 Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men

3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary


3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the nonagricultural


3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality

Target 4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the 4.1 Under-five mortality rate

under-five mortality rate

4.2 Infant mortality rate

4.3 Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against


Goal 5: Improve maternal health

Target 5.A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, 5.1 Maternal mortality ratio

the maternal mortality ratio

5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

Target 5.B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive


5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate

5.4 Adolescent birth rate

5.5 Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four


5.6 Unmet need for family planning


Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Target 6.A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the

spread of HIV/AIDS

6.1 HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years

6.2 Condom use at last high-risk sex

6.3 Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with

comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS

6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance

of non-orphans aged 10-14 years

Target 6.B: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for

HIV/AIDS for all those who need it

Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the

incidence of malaria and other major diseases

6.5 Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with

access to antiretroviral drugs

6.6 Incidence and death rates associated with malaria

6.7 Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticidetreated


6.8 Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated

with appropriate anti-malarial drugs

6.9 Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with


6.10 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under

directly observed treatment short course

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development 7.1 Proportion of land area covered by forest

into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of 7.2 CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)

environmental resources

7.3 Consumption of ozone-depleting substances

7.4 Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits

7.5 Proportion of total water resources used

7.6 Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected

7.7 Proportion of species threatened with extinction

Target 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a

significant reduction in the rate of loss

Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without

sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

Target 7.D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant

improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

Target 8.A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable,

non-discriminatory trading and financial system

7.8 Proportion of population using an improved drinking water


7.9 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation


7.10 Proportion of urban population living in slums ii

Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for

the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked

developing countries and small island developing States.

Includes a commitment to good governance, development and

poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally

Target 8.B: Address the special needs of the least developed

Official development assistance (ODA)

8.1 Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as

percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income

8.2 Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of

OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education,

primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)

8.3 Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of



Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed

countries' exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for

heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of

official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries

committed to poverty reduction

Target 8.C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing

countries and small island developing States (through the

Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small

Island Developing States and the outcome of the twentysecond

special session of the General Assembly)

Target 8.D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of

developing countries through national and international

measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term

Target 8.E: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies,

provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing


OECD/DAC donors that is untied

8.4 ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a

proportion of their gross national incomes

8.5 ODA received in small island developing States as a

proportion of their gross national incomes

Market access

8.6 Proportion of total developed country imports (by value

and excluding arms) from developing countries and least

developed countries, admitted free of duty

8.7 Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on

agricultural products and textiles and clothing from

developing countries

8.8 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a

percentage of their gross domestic product

8.9 Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity

Debt sustainability

8.10 Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC

decision points and number that have reached their HIPC

completion points (cumulative)

8.11 Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives

8.12 Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and


8.13 Proportion of population with access to affordable essential

drugs on a sustainable basis

Target 8.F: In cooperation with the private sector, make

available the benefits of new technologies, especially

information and communications

8.14 Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants

8.15 Mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

8.16 Internet users per 100 inhabitants




European Commission Non-paper Rio+20 for the Informal Environment Council




Oceans and




Ensure universal access to

drinking water and sanitation,

and sustainable water use

through integrated water

resource management and

increased resource efficiency.

Goal: Ensure Healthy Oceans

and Marine Environments by

protecting and restoring the

health of marine ecosystems,

and ensure sustainable

economic activities, in

particular by ensuring that all

fish populations are

maintained within safe

biological limits, enabling their

sustainable use for present and

future generations.


Target 1: By 2030 significantly improve access to safe

drinking water and to basic sanitation, as necessary to

protect human health and the environment, with the

ultimate objective of achieving universal access.

Target 2: By 2030 significantly improve the implementation

of integrated water resource management, with the aim to

promote water resource allocation among competing uses

in a resource efficient way that balances the satisfaction of

basic human needs and the requirement of preserving

ecosystems, their functions and the services they provide,

while controlling pollution to achieve good water status.

Target 3: By 2030 significantly improve water efficiency

globally through the setting of targets and the

development water efficiency plans, with the aim of

significantly decreasing the number of river basins that are

water stressed, according to the Water Exploitation Index

Target 1: By 2020 marine ecosystems are healthy and

resilient. Marine biodiversity is maintained, and habitats

and species are protected and restored.

Target 2: By 2020 illegal, unreported and unregulated

fishing is eliminated.

Target 3: By 2025 halve the levels of marine litter 30

compared to 2012.







Goal: Restore land and soil

quality to good conditions and

manage land and soil resources

sustainably ensuring that food

production can meet growing

demand, and ensure that, in

line with the CBD's Strategic

Plan vision, biodiversity is

valued, conserved, restored

and wisely used and that

ecosystem services are


Target 1: Arrive at zero net rate of land and soil

degradation within internationally agreed timeframe.

Target 2: Take effective and urgent action to halt the loss

of biodiversity in order to ensure that by 2020 ecosystems

are resilient and continue to provide essential services,

thereby securing the planet's variety of life, and

contributing to human well-being, and poverty eradication.

Target 3: By 2020, increase public and private investment

in sustainable agriculture and agri-food chains and ensure

that sustainable agriculture and agro-forestry systems are

fully integrated in national agriculture policies, in povertyreduction

strategies, in research and innovation planning,

and in investment decisions.

Target 4: As agriculture is a main contributor of achieving

food security in the long term, by 2030 achieve an increase

of global agricultural productivity, based on sustainable

Governments of Colombia, Peru, and United Arab Emirates (Proposal tabled on

May 2, 2012)

Extract from Concept Note on Sustainable Development Goals. Governments of Colombia, Peru, and

United Arab Emirates

Indicative Listing of SDGS

1. The Governments that present this proposal do not have their own list of priority SDGs. Based on

recommended lists and inputs from informal dialogues there appears to be broad consensus around a

core of issues as reflected in the table below. These issues are considered to be politically mature and

to address widely acknowledged needs. The following are proposed as an initial, preliminary and

indicative list of SDGs for adoption at the Rio Conference. Additional thematic areas might be

identified, or recommendations emerge on clustering different areas through the process that follows

upon Rio.

2. Poverty eradication is an overarching goal to which all SDGs contribute.

3. Each SDG would include an assessment of specific requirements for effective implementation

(means of implementation).

• Food security: production, access and nutrition

Potential issue areas:

- Reduction in food waste and food losses


- Achieve zero net land degradation (Increase in productive land)

- Increased global food production (Close yield gaps in agriculture and achieve MSY in fisheries)

- Improved provision of daily nutritional requirements for all

→ MDG Linkage: Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

• Integrated water management for sustainable growth

Potential issue areas:

- Increased access to water supply and sanitation

- Improved quality of water resources and ecosystems

- Increased water efficiency

- Reduced health risks from water-related diseases

→ MDG Linkage: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe

drinking water and basic sanitation

• Energy for sustainable development

Potential issue areas:

- Ensured access to basic energy services for all

- Improved energy efficiency

- Increase in the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix (differentiated approaches)

• Sustainable and resilient cities

Potential issue areas:

- Improvements in quality of life (water, energy, housing, transport, air quality)

- Improved resource productivity in cities and urban systems

- Improved integrated planning for cities

→ MDG Linkage: By 2020, achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slumdwellers

• Healthy and productive oceans

Potential issue areas:

- Global fish stocks sustainably and effectively managed

- Reductions in marine pollution from land based sources

- Marine and coastal ecosystems sustainably managed and protected

• Enhanced capacity of natural systems to support human welfare


Potential issue areas:

- Reduced rate of destruction of critical and provisioning ecosystems

- Reduced rate of species/ genus loss (note links to food security)

- Local sustainable livelihoods supported

• Improved efficiency and sustainability in resource use (Sustainable consumption and production


Potential issue areas:

- Sustainable public procurement

- Promotion of life cycle approaches (including sound chemical management)

- Promotion of cleaner production approaches

• Enhanced Employment and Livelihood Security

Potential issue areas:

- Social protection floors tailored to national needs and capacities promoted

- Supportive economic, social and environmental policies for employment generation

- Promotion of entrepreneurship and sustainable enterprise development

- Enabling environment for full participation of women and youth in labor markets

→ MDG Linkage: Halve the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day

→ MDG Linkage: Achieve decent employment for women, men, and young people


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