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critical thinking: challenges, possibilities, and purpose - CiteSeerX

critical thinking: challenges, possibilities, and purpose - CiteSeerX

critical thinking: challenges, possibilities, and purpose -

CRITICAL THINKING: CHALLENGES, POSSIBILITIES, AND PURPOSE by: Marvin S. Cohen and Eduardo Salas Cognitive Technologies, Inc. 4200 Lorcom Lane Arlington, VA 22207 (703) 524-4331 and Sharon L. Riedel U.S. Army Research Institute Field Unit-Leavenworth Ft. Leavenworth, KS 66027 March 2002 Contract No. DASW01-00-C-3010

  • Page 2 and 3: TECHNICAL REPORT 02-1 CRITICAL THIN
  • Page 5 and 6: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We were pleased and
  • Page 7 and 8: The framework that emerged from the
  • Page 9 and 10: point of view determines what cogni
  • Page 11 and 12: TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgments .
  • Page 13 and 14: According to Walton................
  • Page 15 and 16: Figure 18. Evaluative criteria appl
  • Page 17 and 18: PART I: THE PROBLEM 1
  • Page 19 and 20: justified confidence. The implicit
  • Page 21 and 22: 4. Increasing responsibility, hence
  • Page 23 and 24: Is critical thinking appropriate fo
  • Page 25 and 26: • What did Sud presuppose in the
  • Page 27 and 28: • Were Sud and Nord obligated to
  • Page 29 and 30: distinction among normative, cognit
  • Page 31 and 32: issues interpenetrate each other. T
  • Page 33 and 34: as well as a consensus definition.
  • Page 35 and 36: How Are Normative and Cognitive Def
  • Page 37 and 38: schemata, I.Q., introversion-extrov
  • Page 39 and 40: order to “run.” Performance cap
  • Page 41 and 42: Thus, a mechanistic definition of c
  • Page 43 and 44: thinking (looking at the grounds of
  • Page 45 and 46: Govier (1987) Johnson (1992/1996) M
  • Page 47 and 48: Author Glaser (1941; quoted in Walt
  • Page 49 and 50: Facione/American Philosophical Asso
  • Page 51 and 52: Some authors assert that critical t
  • Page 53 and 54:

    • Must the evaluation process inc

  • Page 55 and 56:

    under consideration is a belief, th

  • Page 57 and 58:

    and applied levels of analysis. Two

  • Page 59 and 60:

    Thus, the third person point of vie

  • Page 61 and 62:

    epistemologists have acknowledged u

  • Page 63 and 64:

    Normative Definition of Critical Th

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    Taken together, these constraints o

  • Page 67 and 68:

    The traditional paradigm combines l

  • Page 69 and 70:

    Cognitive mechanisms • Rationalit

  • Page 71 and 72:

    Internalists and externalists agree

  • Page 73 and 74:

    Second, for an evaluation to be fea

  • Page 75 and 76:

    Normative Definition of Critical Th

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    that mistakes are impossible (e.g.,

  • Page 79 and 80:

    factors if any she will monitor and

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    party evaluator. The result will be

  • Page 83 and 84:

    Differences for Training The intern

  • Page 85 and 86:

    Conclusion Internalist critical thi

  • Page 87 and 88:

    Table 1. A taxonomy of major positi

  • Page 89 and 90:

    illuminating, therefore, to discuss

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    of dialogue is adopted in order to

  • Page 93 and 94:

    Table 2. Internalist views of concl

  • Page 95 and 96:

    Table 3. Externalist views of concl

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    Table 4. Views on the role of other

  • Page 99 and 100:

    them after the processes that peopl

  • Page 101 and 102:

    PART II: A SOLUTION 85

  • Page 103 and 104:

    Mental Models of alternative possib

  • Page 105 and 106:

    the reasoner to cut short the explo

  • Page 107 and 108:

    (modus tollens) will be relatively

  • Page 109 and 110:

    time actual processes of argumentat

  • Page 111 and 112:

    Table 5. Dialogue types classified

  • Page 113 and 114:

    agreed to as the accepted starting

  • Page 115 and 116:

    Argumentation Schemes, Burden of Pr

  • Page 117 and 118:

    goals of the relevant type of dialo

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    participants of a dialogue, such as

  • Page 121 and 122:

    Table 6. Different types of challen

  • Page 123 and 124:

    By contrast, Table 7 shows that the

  • Page 125 and 126:

    Prop gives a reason for thesis Thes

  • Page 127 and 128:

    Defeasibility is an open-ended aspe

  • Page 129 and 130:

    Prop Thesis Evidence1 Defeater1 Def

  • Page 131 and 132:

    Formal logicians handle defeasibili

  • Page 133 and 134:

    linkage seems to be at a more abstr

  • Page 135 and 136:

    information to make a decision, but

  • Page 137 and 138:

    Cognitive Processes Learn / develop

  • Page 139 and 140:

    chain of arguments can legitimately

  • Page 141 and 142:

    Normative Definition of Critical Th

  • Page 143 and 144:

    Validity Is the inference Validity

  • Page 145 and 146:

    Example of Type B Challenges COL Bl

  • Page 147 and 148:

    Defeater Defeater p Derived belief

  • Page 149 and 150:

    to Type B challenges. Finally, prop

  • Page 151 and 152:

    Example MAJ Jones believes that she

  • Page 153 and 154:

    eliefs are not trustworthy if viewi

  • Page 155 and 156:

    MAJ Sud has just provided a brief a

  • Page 157 and 158:

    hand, if all versions of the premis

  • Page 159 and 160:

    Defeater Defeater p Derived belief

  • Page 161 and 162:

    negation of its conclusion. If the

  • Page 163 and 164:

    unless the G-2 staff’s report was

  • Page 165 and 166:

    is almost always more than one poss

  • Page 167 and 168:

    Coherentism’s answer to the regre

  • Page 169 and 170:

    contribution of coherence to holist

  • Page 171 and 172:

    inferences in an argument, and trea

  • Page 173 and 174:

    satisfaction mechanism and the amou

  • Page 175 and 176:

    Event Event Event Event Event Event

  • Page 177 and 178:

    explanations are defeaters for the

  • Page 179 and 180:

    Logical Consistency Logical consist

  • Page 181 and 182:

    Comprehensiveness What Questions Do

  • Page 183 and 184:

    observed data equally well (i.e., p

  • Page 185 and 186:

    An especially important dimension o

  • Page 187 and 188:

    account the error in the observed d

  • Page 189 and 190:

    changes in beliefs. Conservatism wi

  • Page 191 and 192:

    inherited traditions in specific do

  • Page 193 and 194:

    Coherentism did not create this pro

  • Page 195 and 196:

    Constraints on freedom of invention

  • Page 197 and 198:

    Why Is Perception Special Even if n

  • Page 199 and 200:

    Conservatism fails to provide a con

  • Page 201 and 202:

    view to account for the priority gi

  • Page 203 and 204:

    long-term memory). It thus promises

  • Page 205 and 206:

    The second problem, concerning the

  • Page 207 and 208:

    plans of a similar kind, not by try

  • Page 209 and 210:

    11. EVALUATION OF DIALOGUES IN TEAM

  • Page 211 and 212:

    Furthermore, “... argumentation s

  • Page 213 and 214:

    Communication skills, e.g., ability

  • Page 215 and 216:

    A critical discussion involves the

  • Page 217 and 218:

    • The process is sequential, and

  • Page 219 and 220:

    M1 M2 Argumentation Stage 3: Argume

  • Page 221 and 222:

    • The antagonist must ask for amp

  • Page 223 and 224:

    Stage 2: Opening Yes No Describe Ev

  • Page 225 and 226:

    Process steps Strategy Leader’s e

  • Page 227 and 228:

    According to van Eemeren et al. The

  • Page 229 and 230:

    unclear, or ambiguous formulations.

  • Page 231 and 232:

    the existence of a common ground so

  • Page 233 and 234:

    Unexpressed premises must be defend

  • Page 235 and 236:

    The reasoning underlying the argume

  • Page 237 and 238:

    Misunderstandings can result from i

  • Page 239 and 240:

    According to Walton Walton has also

  • Page 241 and 242:

    12. CHALLENGES AND POSSIBILITIES FO

  • Page 243 and 244:

    possibilities based on existing ele

  • Page 245 and 246:

    A. GOALS FOR A CRITICAL THINKING CU

  • Page 247 and 248:

    5. Identify unstated assumptions; (

  • Page 249 and 250:

    B. ASSUMPTIONS AND PROBLEMS IN MAIN

  • Page 251 and 252:

    some of the problems with informal

  • Page 253 and 254:

    to the conclusion by each separate

  • Page 255 and 256:

    of defeaters and defeaters of defea

  • Page 257 and 258:

    evaluation begins. They suggest com

  • Page 259 and 260:

    the conclusion not acceptable Is th

  • Page 261 and 262:

    normative level, but it does not su

  • Page 263 and 264:

    Will the Criteria Work As we have s

  • Page 265 and 266:

    another. But this does not capture

  • Page 267 and 268:

    The combination of P1, P2, and P3 c

  • Page 269 and 270:

    erroneous assumptions he made about

  • Page 271 and 272:

    The engineering staff reported that

  • Page 273 and 274:

    in the reliability of the G-2 repor

  • Page 275 and 276:

    eport was unreliable. We could have

  • Page 277 and 278:

    absolute probability of a model dep

  • Page 279 and 280:

    REFERENCES Alfaro-LeFebre, R. (1999

  • Page 281 and 282:

    Dancy, J., & Sosa, E. (1992). A com

  • Page 283 and 284:

    Fumerton, R. (2001). Classical foun

  • Page 285 and 286:

    Jones, D. (1996). Critical thinking

  • Page 287 and 288:

    Nozick, R. (1981). Philosophical ex

  • Page 289 and 290:

    Sosa, E. (1991). Knowledge in persp

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