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Management of Technology and Innovation in Japan

Management of Technology and Innovation in Japan

16 K. Sakakibara

16 K. Sakakibara and Y. Matsumoto kana mode), which was a major improvement from the 110 characters/second of the notebook printer BJ-10v Lite (February, 1993). However, they compromised portability as they aimed at the desktop market. As the competitive dimension in the market shifted, the ability to profit changed as well. Table 3 contrasts the BJ-220JS/JC and the BJ-330J/300J business printers introduced in February 1991. It indicates that the printing speed and running cost of the 220JS/JC were downgraded from the earlier business models 330J/300J. In particular, running cost doubled from Y3 to Y6. Table 3. Evolution of Canon products: functionality Model name (launching date) Price – body only (Y) BJ-330J/300J (2/91) BJ-220JS/JC (6/93) 330J: Y190,000 300J: Y140,000 JS: Y128,000 JC: Y98,000 Resolution (dpi) 360 x 360 360 x 360 Print speed (char/sec) 300 248 Running cost (Y) Y3 Y6 Replacement cartridge style Source: Appendix 1 and 2. No head, black ink All-in-one head, black ink We have learned that by means of altering the product architecture to expand the range of replaceable parts and increasing the added value of replacement parts, Canon was able to extend the post-sales profitability of the BJ-10v. Nevertheless, models BJ-330J and BJ-300J, introduced around the same time, did not have a replaceable cartridge. In fact, all Canon business ink jet printers at that time used the head as a permanent component. On the other hand, the head of the BJ-220JS/JC was an all-in-one consumable, the same as that of the BJ-10v. Similar to the BJ-10v, the architecture of the BJ-220JS/JC supported a wider range of consumables, which ultimately caused high running costs and high added value of consumables. Thus, unlike previous business-purpose printers, the BJ-220JS and the BJ-220JC were designed to earn “exponential” profit from consumables. It was the business model that Canon used when it dominated the market. The key target of the desktop printers BJ-220JS/JC was supposed to be personal use as that of notebook printers. For this reason, an all-in-one cartridge was employed to cut maintenance requirements. By doing so, profitability was also expected to increase.

Designing the Product Architecture for High Appropriability: The Case of Canon 17 Colorization The pioneer of color in personal ink jet printers was Canon’s BJC-600J with a 4-color ink tank introduced in February 1994. It was revolutionary because the BJC-600J made colorization a new competitive dimension in the market in which portability and functionalities for desktop use were two key competitive criteria. Based on the competition in the market at that time, the introduction of the BJC-600J was contingent upon a steppingstone – Epson’s MJ-500. From a financial perspective, the MJ-500 sacrificed profitability. It separated print head and ink cartridge. When the ink was used up, the ink cartridge alone was replaced. The conventional support and maintenance cost of Y7 per A4 page were reduced to Y3.2 (Nikkei Sangyo Shinbun, April 9, 1993). The outcome was dramatic. Epson began to regain market share in the ink jet printer market after 1993 in which Canon had dominated before. Canon responded with its high-speed printers BJ-220JS/JC. In February of the following year Canon introduced the BJC-600J and further differentiated itself from Epson. It kept the printing speed of the BJ-220JS/JC, while it dramatically improved running cost as shown in Table 4. The running cost of Y2.3 in black was less than that of Epson’s MJ-500 (Appendix 1). Table 4. Evolution of Canon products: colorization Model name (launching date) Price - body only (Y) BJ-220JS/JC (6/93) BJC-600J (2/94) JS: Y128,000 JC: Y98,000 Y120,000 Resolution (dpi) 360 x 360 360 x 360 Print Speed (char/sec) 248 240 (MAX) Running Cost (Y) Replacement cartridge style Source: Appendix 1 and 2. Y6 (black) Y2.3 (black) Y18.1 ( color) All-in-one head, black ink No head, separate color ink The product architecture of the replacement parts was the key to this improvement of performance. Unlike the all-in-one cartridge used in the BJ-220JS/JC, the print head of the BJC-600J was permanent and only color ink tanks were replaceable (Refer to the icons in Table 4). This significantly improved running cost; on the other hand, it meant lowering of after-sales profitability.

  • Page 1 and 2: Management of Technology and Innova
  • Page 3 and 4: Prof. Dr. Cornelius Herstatt Christ
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  • Page 15 and 16: XVI Preface and Introduction 60�
  • Page 17 and 18: Table of Contents Part I: Strategic
  • Page 19 and 20: List of Contributing Authors Yaichi
  • Page 21 and 22: List of Contributing Authors XXIII
  • Page 23 and 24: Designing the Product Architecture
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  • Page 49 and 50: 30 A. Takeishi and Y. Aoshima “gr
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  • Page 61 and 62: 42 A. Takeishi and Y. Aoshima Table
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    68 K. Kusunoki level system. To acq

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    70 K. Kusunoki music editing softwa

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    Part II: Process Aspects

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    88 S. J. Harryson An important sugg

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    90 S. J. Harryson Introducing a Kno

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    92 S. J. Harryson Their data also s

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    94 S. J. Harryson view of transacti

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    96 S. J. Harryson but never produce

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    98 S. J. Harryson Know-Who in Produ

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    100 S. J. Harryson Leveraging Intra

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    102 S. J. Harryson naka stated that

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    104 S. J. Harryson protect Canon’

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    106 S. J. Harryson Consequently, a

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    108 S. J. Harryson References Abegg

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    110 S. J. Harryson Johansson U and

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    Fig. 3. Japanese creativity with lo

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    144 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto low

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    146 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto in

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    148 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto sup

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    150 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto Mea

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    152 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto com

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    154 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto Jap

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    156 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto The

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    158 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto As

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    160 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto The

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    162 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto The

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    164 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto Bru

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    Number of companies 250 200 150 100

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    N=551 “Fuzzy Front End” Practic

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    186 R. Haak The Toyota production s

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    188 R. Haak (1988, p. 3) pointed ou

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    190 R. Haak Essentially, the key fa

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    192 R. Haak movement of materials n

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    194 R. Haak ent from traditional me

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    196 R. Haak Total Quality Control (

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    198 R. Haak or shared with other co

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    200 R. Haak Görgens J (1994) Just

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    202 R. Haak Ohno T (1988) Toyota Pr

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    Part III: Organizational Aspects

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    208 K. Nobeoka Firms such as Toyota

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    210 K. Nobeoka to share technology

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    212 K. Nobeoka launched an initiati

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    214 K. Nobeoka only 23 departments

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    216 K. Nobeoka product introduction

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    218 K. Nobeoka 1993. Rather the cha

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    220 K. Nobeoka Second, Toyota also

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    222 K. Nobeoka and it was not often

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    224 K. Nobeoka The hierarchical chi

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    226 K. Nobeoka tion. Engineers can

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    228 K. Nobeoka believes that five d

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    230 K. Nobeoka Discussion and Concl

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    232 K. Nobeoka essential to support

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    234 K. Nobeoka Markides C and Willi

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    236 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto ownership

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    238 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto shares th

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    240 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto Table 1.

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    242 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto Based on

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    244 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto Discussio

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    246 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto sourcing

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    248 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto Nishiguch

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    250 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    252 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    254 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    256 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    258 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    260 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    262 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    264 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    Part IV: Cultural Aspects

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    270 C. Nakata and S. Im have not be

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    272 C. Nakata and S. Im ucts, such

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    274 C. Nakata and S. Im customers a

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    276 C. Nakata and S. Im New Product

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    278 C. Nakata and S. Im Measures We

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    280 C. Nakata and S. Im analysis in

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    282 C. Nakata and S. Im Managerial

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    284 C. Nakata and S. Im derstanding

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    286 C. Nakata and S. Im Fukuyama F

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    3.94 To adapt products to local req

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Acknowledgment Differences in the I

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    330 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    332 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    334 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    336 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    338 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    340 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    342 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    344 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    346 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    348 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    350 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    352 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    Objectives of IP management To cont

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    Technology Planning Function From P

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    Index 3G 148 f., 152 5 S process 19

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    Japanese consumers 125, 129, 135 Ja

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