Engaging Aboriginal Communities in Conservation ... - CFAR Society

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Engaging Aboriginal Communities in Conservation ... - CFAR Society

Engaging Aboriginal Communities in Conservation

and Management of Cultural Landscapes

Experiences from Ontario

Shabnam Inanloo Dailoo, Ph.D.

Cultural Landscapes and Aboriginal Engagement Adviser

Western Heritage

Circle for Aboriginal Relations Conference

Aboriginal Consultation and Accommodation

Edmonton

June 6, 2012


Overview

• Western Heritage Company

• Cultural Landscapes

• Thunder Bay Region Example

• Cultural Landscape Approach &

Aboriginal Engagement


I N N O V A T I V E S O L U T I O N S T O A G E - O L D Q U E S T I O N S

St. Albert, Grand Prairie & Calgary (AB) . Saskatoon & Regina (SK) . Winnipeg, Swan River (MB) . Thunder Bay (ON)

www.westernheritage.ca


• cultural resource management (CRM)

• archaeological mitigations

• geomatics and near-surface geophysics

• GIS and modelling

and...

• traditional land use studies and Aboriginal

engagement


CULTURAL LANDSCAPES


Why Cultural Landscape Approach

• associative values and spirituality

• elder supervision

• traditional places names

• relationship of trust

indigenous knowledge and planning


Significance of Cultural Landscapes

Cultural Landscapes are important to

Aboriginal communities:

• cultural survival and renewal

• sustainability and community health

• economic development

• control over traditional territories


Cultural Landscapes

cultural landscape as a conceptual bridge

Culture

Cultural Landscape

Nature

Tangible

Cultural Landscape

Intangible


What is Cultural Landscape

“cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural

landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the agent,

the natural area is the medium.The cultural

landscape is the result.”

Carl O. Sauer, 1925

“any geographical area that has been modified,

influenced, or given special cultural meaning by

people”

Parks Canada, 2010


Cultural Landscape Categories

• defined landscapes

• organically evolved landscapes

• relict (fossil) landscapes

• continuing (living) landscapes

• associative cultural landscapes


Defined Landscapes

• Central Park - USA

• Shahzadeh Mahan - Iran

• Stourhead Garden - England

• Villa d'Este - Italy

• Château de Versailles - France

• Parkwood Garden - Canada

• Eram Garden - Iran


Organically Evolved Landscapes

relict (fossil) landscapes

• Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine - Japan

• Takht-e-Soleyman - Iran

• Lope-Okanda - Gabon


Organically Evolved Landscapes

continuing (living) landscapes

• Downtown Calgary - Canada

• Rice Terraces - Philippines

• Agave Tequila Fields - Mexico

• Abyaneh Village - Iran

• Portoverene - Italy


Associative Cultural Landscapes

• Spanish Levant

• Uluru-Kata Tjuta - Australia

• Nine Miles - USA

• Tongariro - New Zealand


Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes

• expresses their unity with the natural and spiritual

environment

• embodies their traditional knowledge of spirits, places,

land uses, and ecology

• material remains of the association may be prominent,

but will often be minimal or absent


Cultural Landscape Characteristics

interrelationships

• values

• linkages

• layers

• scales

• types

• continuity

• evolving

• stakeholders

• traditions


Cultural Landscape Values

• historical

• natural

• social

• economic

• cultural

• symbolic

• associative

• research

• education


Current Concerns

• developments and constructions

industry

• changes in land use


Conservation of Cultural Landscapes

conserving cultural landscapes ----> building stronger communities

• opportunities

• identity

• traditions

• sense of place

• values


Conservation of Cultural Landscapes

conserving heritage resources

conserving cultural landscapes

identifying values

understanding where values lie

managing values

identifying values

elements, layers, patterns

relationships, processes, patterns and land use

change

structure and functions

meanings

understanding where values lie

local community involvement

contextual conservation

managing values

local community involvement

training / capacity building


Conservation Challenges

• identification of values

• evaluation of values

• conservation strategies

• ownership and multiple stakeholders

• multiple jurisdiction

• sustaining traditional land-uses

• accommodating change


Cultural Landscapes and Aboriginal Way of Life

• links to the land

• traditional laws and knowledge

continuity

connectivity

time

Nature ! Interaction Culture

--------------------------!! ! ! ! ! --------------------------

! vegetation! ! ! ! ! ! people/community

! wildlife! ! ! ! ! ! ! traditions

! water ! ! ! ! ! ! ! myths

! soil! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! stories

! air! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! beliefs

! landform! ! ! ! ! ! ! identity

! topography!! ! ! ! ! ! associations

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! meanings

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! symbols

culture and nature interrelationship

change


THUNDER BAY REGION

NORTHERN ONTARIO


Cultural Places in the Area

Thunder Bay Region

MacKenzie Site


MacKenzie I Historic Site

• living documents with stories

• continuity of traditional land uses

• evidence of associations with the land


Cultural Landscape Approach and Archaeological Sites

• dispersed and discrete sites

or

network of connected places

• relationship between cultural places

• role of the communities


First Nation Communities in the Area


Métis Communities in the Area


Aboriginal Communities in the Area

• Union of Ontario Indians

Anishinabek Nation - Northern Superior Region


Red Rock First Nation


Biinjitiwaabik Zaaging Anishinaabek (Rocky Bay)


Fort William First Nation


Pays Plat First Nation

• The Métis Nation of Ontario


Thunder Bay Métis Council


Superior North Shore Métis Council


Greenstone Métis Council


Aboriginal Communities Involvement

• advisers

• elders and chiefs

• participants

• young community members

• monitors

• participants and advisers


Cultural Landscape Approach in Heritage Conservation

• recognizes cultural context

involves local community

• acknowledges multiple values

• application in Aboriginal cultural places

and archaeological practices


Cultural Landscape Approach Principles

• changing

• multilayered

• values and dialogues

• relationships and connections

• continuity


“Any landscape is composed not only of what lies before our eyes

but what lies within our heads” (D. W. Meinig, 1976)

and...

what lies within our hearts.

Thank you

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