Core Progress™ for Reading - Renaissance Learning

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Core Progress™ for Reading - Renaissance Learning

Integral

components of

STAR Early Literacy

Enterprise and

STAR Reading

Enterprise

Core Progress for Reading

Empirically validated learning progressions


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07/13


Contents

Executive Summary...............................................................................................................................................iii

Introduction........................................................................................................................................................... 1

What are learning progressions.......................................................................................................................... 2

Stage One: The development of Core Progress for Reading................................................................................ 3

Stage Two: Early literacy skills added into Core Progress for Reading................................................................ 8

Mapping Core Progress for Reading to the Common Core State Standards..................................................... 10

Stage Three: Building a new learning progression specifically for the Common Core State Standards............ 12

Core Progress: An integral component of STAR Reading Enterprise and STAR Early Literacy Enterprise........ 14

Conclusion........................................................................................................................................................... 20

References.......................................................................................................................................................... 35

Appendices

Core Progress for Reading Learning Progression

Appendix A: Grade-Level Domain Expectations for Analyzing Literary Text...................................................... 21

Appendix B: Organization of Skill Areas within the Five Domains...................................................................... 23

Appendix C: Progression of Skills for Identifying Author’s Purpose.................................................................... 25

Appendix D: Example of how skills serve as prerequisites for other skills......................................................... 26

Appendix E: Common Core State Standard mapped to Core Progress skills.................................................... 27

Core Progress Learning Progression for Reading - Built for the Common Core State Standards

Appendix F: Grade-Level Expectations for Informational Text: Craft and Structure........................................... 28

Appendix G: Organization of Skill Areas within the Four Domains..................................................................... 30

Appendix H: Progression of Skills and Mapping to CCSS for Inference and Evidence..................................... 32

Appendix I: Example of how skills serve as prerequisites for other skills........................................................... 34

Figures

Figure 1: Core Progress for Reading..................................................................................................................... 3

Figure 2: Progression of grade-level skill statements within a skill area............................................................... 4

Figure 3: Interrelationships between skills across domains.................................................................................. 5

Figure 4: Correlation of STAR Reading Enterprise to Core Progress.................................................................... 7

Figure 5: Core Progress for Reading with the addition of early literacy skills....................................................... 9

Figure 6: Correlation of STAR Reading Enterprise to Core Progress Reading built for CCSS............................ 13

Figure 7: STAR Enterprise provides a student’s entry point into Core Progress................................................. 16

Figure 8: STAR Early Literacy links with Core Progress for Reading to provide instructional

planning resources............................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 9: STAR Record Book............................................................................................................................... 18

Figure 10: Kindergarten example of Core Progress tool and instructional resources........................................ 19

i


Tables

Table 1: Examples of how skills serve as a prerequisite for other skills................................................................ 5

Table 2: Common Core State Standard maps to Core Progress skills................................................................ 11

Table 3: Headings within the Domains of Core Progress Learning Progression for Reading -

Built for the Common Core State Standards......................................................................................... 12

Table 4: STAR Reading Enterprise item mapped to a third-grade-level skill statement...................................... 14

Table 5: STAR Early Literacy Enterprise item mapped to a Kindergarten-level skill statement.......................... 15

ii


Executive Summary

Learning Progressions are descriptions of how students typically advance their learning in a subject area.

Several views of how learning progressions can be developed have been set forth (for example, Alonzo and

Steedle, 2008; Anderson, 2008a; Corcoran, Mosher, and Rogat, 2009; Confrey and Maloney, 2010; Pellegrino,

2011; Smith et al., 2006). Common to these perspectives is the idea that the development of learning

progressions is an iterative process. It begins with a hypothesis, informed by what we know about student

learning, which undergoes empirical testing and subsequent refinement based on the data. Core Progress

for Reading was developed according to this iterative model.

Renaissance Learning first developed the Core Progress Reading learning progression taking into account

the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), as well as other standards and research. In July, 2013, a second

learning progression built explicitly for the CCSS was released. The skills and understandings in the new

Core Progress Learning Progression for Reading - Built for the Common Core State Standards provide the

intermediate steps necessary to reach the levels of expertise identified through the standards. It progresses to

the level of reading competence required to be college and career ready.

To reflect the organization of the standards, Core Progress Reading built for CCSS has four domains, including

1) foundational skills, 2) language, 3) literature, and 4) informational text.

This paper describes the Core Progress learning progressions developed by Renaissance Learning. It begins

with the explanation of what learning progressions are, and then describes a new empirically validated

approach used to develop the original Core Progress learning progression for reading. Next, it demonstrates

how learning progressions support the intent of the Common Core State Standards with its new Core Progress

Reading built for CCSS. Finally, it explains how learning progressions support instruction and assessment.

iii


Introduction

Over the last decade, much of the focus of educational reform in the United States has been on the creation

and improvement of standards of learning. In 2010, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for learning in

math and English language arts were released. As the CCSS mission statement explains, “The Common Core

State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers

and parents know what they need to do to help them.”

At the same time, within the field of education, the idea of learning progressions has received increasing

attention (for example, Alonzo and Gearhart, 2006; Corcoran, Mosher, and Rogat 2009, 2011; Heritage, 2008,

2009; Leahy and Wiliam, 2011). One of the reasons for this interest is the desire to provide precise

descriptions of the incremental steps of learning than can be represented in any standards statements

and that can be effectively used in guiding the design of instruction and assessment.

While the Common Core State Standards represent

a clear step toward providing a more coherent

pathway to meeting educational goals than many

prior standards, by their nature, the CCSS do not

describe a fully formed pathway along which

students are expected to progress. The next step,

clarified and largely made possible by the Common

Core State Standards, is the development of

fully formed learning progressions.

The next step, clarified and

largely made possible by the

Common Core State Standards,

is the development of fully

formed learning progressions.

1


What are learning progressions

Pellegrino (2011, 9) defines learning progressions as “descriptions of successively more sophisticated

ways of thinking about key disciplinary concepts and practices across multiple grades” which outline “the

intermediate steps toward expertise.” Leahy and Wiliam (2011, 1) view learning progressions as descriptions

of “what it is that gets better when someone gets better at something” (2011, 1). They “reflect what is known

from research and experience to tell a reasonable and comprehensive story of how students move from naïve

understanding to mastery in a domain” (Anderson 2008b as cited in Heritage 2011).

Masters and Forster (1997, 1) describe progressions as “a picture of what it means to ‘improve’ in an area

of learning.” Confrey and colleagues suggest that learning progressions assume a progression of cognitive

states that move from simple to complex and, while not necessarily linear, the progression is not random, but

rather is sequenced and ordered as “expected tendencies” or “likely probabilities” of how learning develops

(Confrey and Maloney, 2010).

Finally, Heritage (2011, 3) suggests that learning

progressions provide descriptions of “how

students’ learning of important concepts and skills

in a domain develops from its most rudimentary

state through increasingly sophisticated states over

a period of schooling.”

The benefit of progressions is that

they lay out a continuum to guide

teaching and learning over time so

that student competence in the

domain can be advanced

coherently and continuously.

Inherent in these views of progressions is the idea

of a coherent and continuous pathway along which

students move incrementally through states of increasing competence in a domain. Every incremental

state builds on and integrates the previous one as students accrue new levels of expertise with each

successive step in the progression. It is important to note, however, that while progressions may provide

clear descriptions of how learning develops in a domain, they are not developmentally inevitable. Rather,

they are dependent on good curriculum and instruction (National Research Council, 2007; Pellegrino, 2011).

As Herman (2006, 122) observes, “whether and how children are able to engage in particular learning

performances and the sequence in which they are able to do so are very much dependent on previous

opportunities to learn.” The benefit of progressions is that they lay out a continuum to guide teaching and

learning over time so that student competence in the domain can be advanced coherently and continuously.

2


Understanding Author’s Craft

Stage One: The development of Core Progress for Reading

Phase one: Qualitative analysis to determine structure, content, and instructional order

During the first phase, the content analysis drew on reading theory, knowledge derived from previous

product development, and review of national documents such as the National Assessment of Education

Progress Reading (NAEP) framework, Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, state standards, and the

Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Through this analysis, the organizational structure for the reading

learning progression that emerged was domains (5), skill areas (36), and grade-level skill statements

(more than 650).

The learning progression is comprised of five (sub) domains: 1) word knowledge and skills;

2) comprehension strategies and constructing meaning; 3) analyzing literary text; 4) understanding

author’s craft; and 5) analyzing argument and evaluating text. 1 The five domains are each represented by

a different color in Figure 1. For each grade pre-K through 12, grade-level domain expectations were

identified to describe the desired level of student understanding by the end of the year. These expectations

form the foundation of the learning progression. The learning progression then goes a step further to identify

the intermediate skills and concepts necessary for students to move toward those expectations. See

Appendix A for a list of the grade-level domain expectation statements for Analyzing Literary Text.

Figure 1: Core Progress for Reading

Analyzing Argument and

Evaluating Text

Analyzing Literary Text

Comprehension Strategies

and Constructing Meaning

Word Knowledge and Skills

Kindergarten

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Grade 8

Grade 9

Grade 10

Grade 11

Grade 12

Core Progress for Reading is an The empirically learning progression validated for reading continuum is a research-based to guide continuum teaching, to guide learning, teaching and and learning assessment over time so that over time so that student

competence in reading can be student advanced competence coherently in reading can and be continuously.

advanced coherently and continuously.

1

Note that the five domains are all technically subdomains of the overall domains of reading.

3


The skill areas represent the various skills and understandings that students gain as they progress in their

reading development. After the first stage of development, Core Progress included 36 skill areas. A complete

list, including the original 36 skill areas, can be found in Appendix B.

The grade-level skill statements identify the incremental steps students take as they progress in acquiring

specific skills and understandings. These statements begin in the early grades and run through twelfth grade.

In phase 1, there were more than 650 grade-level skill statements identified.

The grade-level skill statements provide specific examples of relevant words and texts, but do not specify

reading content or identify the activities students should be able to perform to reflect attainment of a skill.

They are intended as statements of the skill itself, which serves to advance reading competence. The skill

statements reflect levels of relative difficulty of skills and understandings identified in the progression from

their most basic, foundational states through increasingly sophisticated states of competency.

Figure 2 illustrates that in the domain of Comprehension Strategies and Constructing Meaning, the skill area

identifying author’s purpose begins with grade 2 students developing an understanding “that authors write

texts for different purposes.” Having established this understanding, students move incrementally through

successive steps of increasing competence so that by the middle grades they are able to “evaluate the

appropriateness of the form chosen by the author in light of the author’s purpose,” and in the upper grades

they “analyze and critique how the author’s use of language, organizational structures, techniques and

rhetorical devices further or detract from the author’s purpose.”

Each step of the progression subsumes and builds on the previous one, describing a pathway of increasing

expertise within the skill area. (For the full progression of this skill, see Appendix C.)

Figure 2: Progression of grade-level skill statements within a skill area

Identifying Author’s Purpose

Understand that authors write

texts for different purposes

Evaluate the appropriateness of

the form chosen by the author in

light of the author’s purpose

Analyze and critique how

the author’s use of

language, organizational

structures, techniques

and rhetorical devices

further or detract from the

author’s purpose

In addition to identifying the progression of skills within a domain and skill area, content-area experts

identified a sub-set of skills, across domains, which are the key skills to students’ development at each grade

level. These are referred to as focus skills.

4


The focus skills and prerequisites act as building blocks, each representing a specific level of competency

of a skill or understanding that rests on prior development and that also provides a foundation for the next

level of learning. Moving toward increased understanding over time requires continually building up and

building on a solid foundation of knowledge, concepts, and skills. For each focus skill, the associated

prerequisites necessary to understand that skill were identified across grades, skill areas, and domains. To

illustrate the interrelated nature of the skills and how they serve as prerequisites to each other, see Table 1.

In this example, the 10th Grade focus skill, Analyze the cumulative impact of figurative language on wider

themes and meanings of the text, from the domain Understanding Author’s Craft, has five prerequisite skills

that span two grades and three domains. For an additional example, see Appendix D.

Table 1: Example of how skills serve as a prerequisite for other skills

Prerequisites across domains and grades for the skill: Analyze the cumulative impact of figurative

language on wider themes and meanings of the text (Domain: Understanding Author’s Craft)

Grade Grade Level Skill Statement Domain

Grade 10

Grade 9

Grade 9

Grade 9

Grade 9

Elaborate on ideas in text in order to clarify them

and understand their impact

Analyze how subtle themes are revealed (e.g.,

how characters affect its development)

Analyze the cumulative impact of figurative

language on the text as a whole

Analyze how the author's choice of words and use

of language appeal to the senses and impact

mood, tone, theme, and aesthetic quality

Recognize the meaning of patterns of imagery

and symbolism in literary text

Comprehension Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Analyzing Literary Text

Understanding Author’s Craft

Understanding Author’s Craft

Understanding Author’s Craft

To further illustrate how grade-level skill statements weave across

the domains, see the example in Figure 3. Student ability to

“recognize themes in a story that are stated directly or indirectly,”

in fifth grade builds on earlier learnings about theme within the same

domain of Analyzing Literary Text. Recognizing themes also builds

on earlier acquired skills within the domain of Comprehension

Strategies and Constructing Meaning, including “identify main

ideas and implied messages” (main ideas, Grade 4) and “use

prior knowledge and textual details to draw conclusions about

information or events in texts” (draw conclusions, Grade 3).

Figure 3: Interrelationships between skills

across domains

Recognize themes in a

story that are stated

directly or indirectly

As the progression of skills and understandings within each

domain was written, multiple drafts and revisions went through

expert review. The emphasis of the review process was to ensure

adequate and realistic advancement of skill statements within and

across domains.

Use prior knowledge

and textual details to

draw conclusions

Identify

main ideas

and implied

messages

5


After the qualitative analysis and subsequent creation of the learning progression, Renaissance Learning then

conducted a quantitative analysis and “cross check” by calibrating items that assess specific comprehension

skills on the STAR Reading Enterprise 1,400-point scale.

Phase two: Quantitative analysis to determine where skills fall on the STAR assessment scale

Method

In the second phase, the order of skills in the learning progression was re-examined quantitatively through a

calibration process used to analyze assessment items. This analysis compared the empirically observed order

of skills (i.e., where skill difficulty falls on a measurement scale) to the pedagogically determined order of skills

(i.e., the most productive order of skills for learning a particular skill).

Between February 2010 and July 2011 over 3,400 items were field tested, calibrated, and analyzed using a

process called dynamic calibration. In this process, a small number of experimental items (one to three) were

added onto each student’s STAR Reading Enterprise assessment nationwide. Response data from thousands

of students were collected for each of these experimental items, and the items were then calibrated by fitting a

logistic regression model (the Rasch model) to the relationship between scores on each item and a student’s

Rasch ability scores on STAR Reading. The result was to calibrate the difficulty of each new item on the same

Rasch scale that is used for adaptive item selection in STAR Reading.

Following the calibration process, the average of the calibrated Rasch response functions for each of the

items assessing a skill was determined; the average is a “skill characteristic curve.” For each skill, a skill

difficulty parameter was then calculated: the point on the Rasch scale at which a student of the same Rasch

ability would have an expected percent correct of 70 if tested on all of the items that measure the skill. This

parameter is designated SD70, or Scaled Difficulty 70. Finally, the relationship between the empirically

calibrated SD70 skill difficulties and the sequential order of STAR Reading skills in the learning progression

was evaluated, as a means of validating the Core Progress for Reading learning progression.

Results

Figure 4 on page 7 is a scatter plot of the scaled difficulty parameters (SD70) of a sampling of the 716

skills against the school grade and month that characterize its instructional order in the learning progression.

Best-fitting linear functions relating SD70 to instructional order have been calculated for each of the five

domains of STAR Reading. These are plotted as color-coded straight lines superimposed on the scatter plot.

For each domain, the parameters of the linear function are displayed, along with the squared correlation

between the skill difficulty parameters and instructional order. These squared correlations range from 0.81

(for analyzing argument and evaluating text) to 0.95 (for word knowledge and skills). The square roots of

those values—0.90 and 0.97—are the low and high ends of the range of correlation coefficients between skill

difficulty and instructional order. These may be thought of as measures of the validity of the Core Progress

learning progressions for describing the developmental sequence of the hundreds of skills that make up the

STAR Reading domains.

6


Figure 4: Correlation of STAR Reading Enterprise to Core Progress

The high correlation between

the scaled difficulty of STAR Reading

Enterprise skills and their

instructional order in Core Progress

provides empirical evidence of the

direct link between the assessment

scores generated by STAR and the

instructional direction then provided by

the Sample Items and other educator

helps within the software.

Because of the correlation between STAR items and Core Progress, a student’s scaled score (representing

his or her location on the STAR scale) can be mapped to the learning progression, enabling research-based

inferences about which skills that student has likely already developed, which skills are ready to be

developed, and which skills will likely develop soon. Core Progress learning progression for reading was

initially released as an integral part of STAR Reading Enterprise, in June 2011.

After the initial release, development of the learning progression continued. The next stage incorporated

the early literacy skills measured by the STAR Early Literacy assessment into the same Core Progress

learning progression.

7


Stage Two: Early literacy skills added into Core Progress for Reading

During the second stage of development, early literacy skills were added to the Core Progress learning

progression for reading. The same mixed-method approach was used in stage two. Content-area experts

determined the organization, content, and instructional order of the early literacy skills using qualitative

methods, including a literature review and analysis of standards. Then a quantitative analysis using calibration

data from STAR Early Literacy Enterprise items was conducted in order to determine the empirical order of the

early literacy skills on the STAR scale.

Phase One: Qualitative analysis

In 2007, Renaissance Learning began an extensive

literature review that spanned the next four years.

The purpose was to distill the research base for

early literacy development to identify a realistic,

sustainable learning map for K – 3. Key research

reports and resources from the National Early Literacy

Panel (NELP), National Center on Education and the

Economy (NCEE), Mid-Content Research for Education and Learning (McREL), SEDL and others were used

to help identify skills that are important and most predictive of later success in reading. The skills list was

then compared to McREL’s Content Knowledge Compendiums, McREL’s Early Literacy Standards and

Benchmarks, multiple state standards, and most recently the Common Core State Standards. After this

qualitative analysis, a preliminary order of early literacy skills was formed.

Phase Two: Quantitative analysis

As in the initial stage of development, the next step was to reexamine the order quantitatively using calibration

data from STAR Early Literacy assessment items. Through dynamic calibration, researchers and developers

add one to three experimental items into students’ STAR Early Literacy assessments nationwide. Response

data from a minimum of 300 students are collected on each item. Over 3,500 items were field tested,

calibrated and analyzed. Examination of the item calibration results confirmed and informed the rank order of

the early literacy skills added to the learning progression. The final result was a list of early literacy skills that

were used to expand the Core Progress learning progression for reading.

The early literacy skills fell neatly into two of

the five established domains, word knowledge

and skills, and comprehension strategies and

constructing meaning, and followed the same

organization structure of domains, skill areas,

and grade-level skill statements. An additional

27 skill areas were added within the word

knowledge and skills domain. A complete list of

Content-area experts determined

an instructional order of the early

literacy skills using qualitative

methods, including a literature

review and analysis of standards.

The early literacy skills fell neatly into

two of the five established domains,

word knowledge and skills, and

comprehension strategies and

constructing meaning.

the skill areas by domain is available in Appendix B. At the most specific level, 67 grade-level skill statements

were added to new and existing skill areas within these two domains and six existing skills were deemed to

also be early literacy skills, making 73 early literacy skills in total. The early literacy skills span grade levels

Pre-Kindergarten through 2nd grade.

8


Understanding Author’s Craft

Core Progress for Reading includes five domains, 63 skill areas, and 716 grade-level skill statements that

range from Pre-Kindergarten through 12th Grade. Each domain is represented in Figure 5 by a different color.

The boxes represent groups of skills within the domain at each grade-level and shows how the skills are

generally connected within the domains and often across domains. The highlighted area shows where the

learning progression was enhanced with early literacy skills.

Figure 5: Core Progress for Reading with the addition of early literacy skills

Analyzing Argument and

Evaluating Text

Analyzing Literary Text

Comprehension Strategies

and Constructing Meaning

Word Knowledge and Skills

Pre-Kindergarten

Kindergarten

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Grade 8

Grade 9

Grade 10

Grade 11

Grade 12

The learning progression for reading is a research-based continuum to guide teaching and learning over time so that

student competence in reading can be advanced coherently and continuously.

The early literacy skills span grade levels Pre-Kindergarten through 2nd grade within the Comprehension Strategies and Constructing

Meaning and Word Knowledge and Skills domains.

9


Mapping Core Progress for Reading to the Common Core State Standards

The Common Core State Standards represent a clear step toward providing a more coherent pathway to

meeting educational goals than many prior standards. At the same time, standards do not describe a fully

formed pathway along which students are expected to progress. The next step, clarified and largely made

possible by the CCSS, is the development of fully formed learning progressions.

Core Progress for Reading was designed to

take the foundation laid by Common Core State

Standards and apply the intermediate steps and

prerequisite skills necessary to reach the levels of

expertise identified through the standards. They

begin with emergent reading and progress to the

level of reading competence required to be

college and career ready.

Core Progress for Reading was

designed to take the Common Core

State Standards to the next level by

mapping the intermediate steps

and prerequisite skills necessary

to reach the levels of expertise

identified through the standards.

The process of analyzing and mapping the

Common Core State Standards began before the

final draft of the standards was even released. As the movement to create the Common Core State

Standards was getting underway, Renaissance Learning was already reviewing and learning from the work

of independent educational organizations such as Achieve. Then, as the Common Core State Standards

entered into various stages of completion, Renaissance Learning carefully monitored them in draft form and

provided public commentary. Core Progress was developed with a deep understanding of the CCSS.

Renaissance Learning has long been recognized for excellence in standards analysis and alignment. For over

ten years, the company has maintained a dedicated team of standards experts. This committed team often

consults with content-area experts and regional educational laboratories such as the Mid-continent Research

for Education and Learning (McREL) and Education Northwest.

To illustrate the mapping of a Common Core standard, consider the following performance statement from

the Common Core in Table 2: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical

inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from

the text.

Through a rigorous analysis process, this statement was mapped to the Comprehension Strategies and

Constructing Meaning domain in the learning progression. Within that domain, it was further analyzed to reveal

two main reading skills: identifying details and drawing conclusions. These skills were then mapped to the

grade-level skill statements for first through fourth

grade. For an example of how Core Progress

is mapped to the CCSS foundational skill,

Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in

spoken single-syllable words, see Appendix E.

The contribution of Core Progress

for Reading is identification of the

embedded antecedent foundational

steps within Common Core

performance statements.

The Common Core State Standards do not

propose the foundational understanding and skills

related to making inferences and drawing conclusions

below fourth grade (focusing solely on identifying and understanding details in the early grades). The

contribution of Core Progress for Reading is identification of the embedded antecedent foundational steps

within Common Core performance statements.

10


Table 2: Common Core State Standard maps to Core Progress skills

CCSS College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard “Read closely to determine what the text says

explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to

support conclusions drawn from the text” maps to the following Core Progress skills for identifying details

and drawing conclusions for Grades K-4.

Domain Skill Area Grade Skill

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Comprehension

Strategies and

Constructing Meaning

Identify Details

K

Draw Conclusions 1

Identify Details 1

Identify Details 1

Draw Conclusions 2

Ask and answer questions about a text’s

details (e.g., What is the cow doing in Good

Night Moon)

Answer leading questions to draw conclusions

about text (e.g., Why do you think Max was

sent to his room in Where the Wild Things Are)

Answer who, what, where, when, why, and

how questions

Understand that details support the main idea

in an informational passage

Draw simple conclusions about a text using

evidence and details from text and illustrations

Identify Details 2 Identify supporting details in informational text

Identify Details 2

Draw Conclusions 3

Locate details in text and determine what they

describe or explain

Use prior knowledge and textual details to

draw conclusions about information or events

in text

Identify Details 3 Explain how details support the main idea

Draw Conclusions 4

Identify Details 4

Draw multiple conclusions about information,

events, or characters in text, and cite textual

details that support the conclusions

Use main and supporting ideas and details to

understand text

Common Core Standards are end-of-grade expectations. The Core Progress learning progression provides the prerequisite

and intermediary steps for reaching the standards.

11


Stage Three: Building a new learning progression specifically for the Common

Core State Standards

As more states implemented the Common Core, the need for a learning progression built specifically for the

new standards was recognized. In July 2013, the Core Progress Learning Progression for Reading – Built for

the Common Core State Standards was released. This progression includes incremental steps of learning that

fulfill the intent and specifics of the standards, culminating in college and career readiness.

To create a learning progression built on the CCSS, the content team at Renaissance Learning started with

a close analysis of each standard. They identified the skills inherent in the standard and its intent, as well as

key terminology used to describe the standard. Developers also immersed themselves in the literature

and resources available regarding the Common Core to determine how the standards were being interpreted

and implemented by states and relevant consortia.

From the deep study of the standards, the order of the new learning progression emerged. To reflect the

organization of the standards, Core Progress Reading built for CCSS learning progression has four domains,

including 1) foundational skills, 2) language, 3) literature, and 4) informational text. 2 (This is a significant

change from Core Progress for Reading, which has five domains.) The Informational Text domain emphasizes

the importance the CCSS place on nonfiction text. Within each domain, the headings match those in CCSS

and are shown in Table 3. Grade-level domain expectations were identified for each heading. See Appendix F

for a list of the grade-level expectation statements for Informational Text: Craft and Structure.

Using the framework of the four domains, the content

team began the process of identifying skill areas and

skill statements for each standard—within each grade

and from grade to grade for Kindergarten through

grade 12. To track the skill statements, the team used

spreadsheets, to provide a visual representation of

how skills support the standards, progress from

Kindergarten through grade 12, and how they

collectively described standard skill sets at each

individual grade. As they identified skill statements that

fulfilled the intent of each standard, the team could look

vertically at the document to see how skills fit within a

given grade. Looking horizontally, it was easy to see

how skill areas developed in sophistication from grade

to grade—while ensuring there were not gaps in skills. A

complete list of domains, headings, and skill areas can

be found in Appendix G.

Many of the skill statements from the original Core

Progress for Reading learning progression were perfect

matches to the standards in the Common Core. These

skill statements had been quantitatively analyzed in

the calibration process (see Phase Two—Quantitative

Table 3: Headings within the Domains of Core

Progress Learning Progression for Reading -

Built for the Common Core State Standards

Domain

Foundational Skills

Language

Literature

Informational Text

Heading

- Print Concepts

- Phonological Awareness

-Phonics and Word

Recognition

- Fluency

Vocabulary Acquisition

and Use

- Key Ideas and Details

- Craft and Structure

- Integration of Knowledge

and Ideas

-Range of Reading and

Level of Text Complexity

- Key Ideas and Details

- Craft and Structure

-Integration of Knowledge

and Ideas

-Range of Reading and

Level of Text Complexity

analysis to determine where skills fall on the STAR assessment scale earlier in this white paper) so they were

known to be accurate grade-level descriptions of learning. Figure 6 (next page) shows a sampling of the skills

plotted by their difficulty level on the STAR Reading Enterprise assessment scale and their instructional order

according to Core Progress Reading built for CCSS. This chart is organized by CCSS domain headings.

2

Note that the domains in the learning progressions are all technically subdomains of the overall domain of reading.

12


Scaled Difficult

800

600

400

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

200

y = 68.868x + 17.207

R² = 0.881

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Grade Equivalent Order

Figure 6: Correlation of STAR Reading Enterprise to Core Progress Reading built for CCSS

1400

1200

Core Progress Reading built for CCSS:

Skill Difficulty (June'13)

Key Ideas and Details

Craft and Structure

Scaled Difficulty 70

1000

800

600

400

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Range of Reading/Text Complexity

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

y = 87.805x + 34.663

R² = 0.867

The correlation between STAR

Reading Enterprise and Core Progress

Reading built for CCSS provides

empirical evidence of the bridge

between assessment and instruction.

200

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Grade Equivalent Order

While adding skill statements into the learning progression, the team also identified “bridges” and “gaps.”

Bridges are skills that may not be explicitly stated in the CCSS but are nonetheless necessary to acquire the

skills represented in the standards. Gaps describe skills that are not emphasized in a particular grade-level

standard but are given importance in the grades before or after. In many instances, these bridges and gaps

were filled with existing skill statements from the original Core Progress for Reading learning progression. In

other cases, the content team drafted entirely new skill statements, drawing on their knowledge of the

standards while analyzing information from multiple states. Whether using existing skill statements or

creating new ones, each skill statement was reviewed from the perspective and stated philosophy of the

Common Core. See Appendix H to view a progression of skills for Inference and Evidence.

After the content of the Core Progress Reading built for CCSS learning progression was completed, focus

skills were identified—skills that underpin the ability to grasp and demonstrate other skills at the current or

future grades and/or are especially central to the intent of a given standard. Focus skills address the “shifts”

in focus and priority at each grade as defined by CCSS and addressed in the Publishers’ Criteria for Common

Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy, Grades 3-12. When using the Core Progress

Reading built for CCSS learning progression, educators will be able to easily identify focus skills and then

access additional information pertinent to the teaching and learning of the skill, such as content-area

vocabulary, conceptual knowledge, linguistic competencies, and ELL support. See Appendix I for an

example of how skills serve as prerequisites for other skills.

As with the earlier Core Progress for Reading learning progression, Renaissance Learning consulted with Dr.

Margaret Heritage, an academic expert on learning progressions. Dr. Heritage reviewed each section of the

Core Progress Reading built for CCSS learning progression and provided suggestions and guidance. Dr.

Heritage considered the adequacy of each skill in addressing the standards, the progression of skills from

grade to grade, and the language used to describe skills.

With the Core Progress Reading built for the CCSS learning progression, educators can feel confident they

are accessing a continuum of interrelated development of strategies, skills, and behaviors. The progression

incorporates the core ideas of each domain from their least to most sophisticated manifestation. It includes

skills that may not be explicitly stated in the CCSS standards but are nonetheless necessary to address

the skills represented in the standards. In learning the skills in the Core Progress Reading built for CCSS

learning progression, students will be on the path to achieving the common goal of attaining college and

career readiness.

13


Core Progress : An integral component of STAR Reading Enterprise and

STAR Early Literacy Enterprise

In their landmark report Knowing What Students Know, the authors clearly establish learning progressions as

the foundation for assessment. As they state, “Models of student progression in learning should underlie the

assessment system, and tests should be designed to provide information that maps back to the progression”

(National Research Council, 2001, 256).

More recently, James Pellegrino, one of the authors of Knowing What Students Know, has suggested that

learning progressions can guide the specification of learning performances, which in turn can guide the

development of tasks that enable educators to infer students’ level of competence for the major constructs

that are the target of instruction and assessment (Pellegrino 2011). If assessments are developed from a

progression, they can provide a continuous source of evidence about students’ learning status as their

learning evolves toward increasingly sophisticated levels of understanding and skills.

Core Progress learning progressions are an integral part of STAR Reading Enterprise and STAR Early Literacy

Enterprise assessments. The test items from both assessments are based on the learning progression and the

assessments dynamically adjust for difficulty according to the student’s successive responses. After a student

completes the test, teachers view the placement of the student on the learning progression, including specific

skills and understandings students are prepared to acquire next.

Through the learning progression, STAR Enterprise items enable teachers to monitor student progress within

specific reading domains. To see this in action, see Table 4, which illustrates how a STAR item is mapped to a

domain, skill area, and grade-level skill statement (third grade).

Table 4: STAR Reading Enterprise item mapped to a third-grade-level skill statement

Domain: Analyzing literary text

Skill Area: Identify characters and understand characterization

Grade-level skill

statements:

2nd

Grade

Identify and describe major and minor characters and their traits

Identify and describe main characters’ traits, motives, and feelings, and

recognize how characters change.

3rd Grade STAR Reading Enterprise Item

3rd

Grade

4th

Grade

Understand the relationship between a character’s actions, traits, and motives

14


The item in Table 4 (previous page) is designed to assess a student’s ability to understand characterization

in literary texts at a specific place within the learning progression. It reflects a level of skill and understanding

beyond the ability to “identify and describe major and minor characters and their traits” (Grade 2), but not yet

at the level of sophistication needed to “understand the relationship between a character’s actions, traits, and

motives” (Grade 4).

While the item is designed to offer feedback specifically on a student’s understanding of characterization,

it also necessarily requires the student to draw a conclusion from the narrative—a reading skill that is tracked

in another skill set within the progression.

In the example illustrated in Table 4, the level of sophistication of the conclusion being drawn in a third-grade

skill-level “identify characters and understand characterization” item falls within the range of the second-grade

skill-level of the “drawing conclusions” progression. A student’s performance on the question is thus more

likely to be a reflection of his understanding of characterization than of his ability to draw conclusions at grade

level. At the same time, the item demonstrates the web of interrelation that informs the development and

progression of individual reading skills.

In the same manner that STAR Reading Enterprise items align to the skills within Core Progress, STAR Early

Literacy Enterprise items also align. See Table 5 for an example.

Table 5: STAR Early Literacy Enterprise item mapped to a Kindergarten-level skill statement

Domain: Word Knowledge and Skills

Skill Area: Blending word parts

Grade-level skill

statements:

Understand that blending phonemes produces words (e.g., blend the

sounds sh- and -ip and choose the word’s picture from a ship, a shower,

and a lip) and that the sounds in words can be segmented

Kindergarten STAR Early Literacy Enterprise Item

Kindergarten

Listen carefully to what I say.

H-ook. Pick the picture whose

name I say. H-ook... H-ook.

Kindergarten

Identify 2- and 3-syllable patterns in spoken words by blending,

counting, and segmenting syllables (e.g., tar-get makes the word target)

15


Bridging Assessment and Instruction with STAR Enterprise

Core Progress learning progressions inform instruction within STAR Reading Enterprise and STAR Early

Literacy Enterprise. The STAR Record Book bridges assessment and instruction by using a STAR scaled

score to suggest skills to focus on in order to advance group or individual students from one level of

understanding to the next. These suggested skills can also be viewed using the Instructional Planning reports.

To further expand understanding of skills and support instruction, educators find sample items and teacher

activities associated with each skill in the Record Book. Each tool also highlights prerequisite mapping and

provides a skill elements table for each focus skill that identifies vocabulary, conceptual knowledge, and

linguistic competencies needed to understand the skill, along with suggestions for supporting English

language learners.

Instructional Planning using Record Book

A student’s STAR Enterprise score is the entry point into the learning progression. Both STAR Reading

Enterprise and STAR Early Literacy Enterprise map to the same continuous learning progression. Using

the Record Book or Instructional Planning Reports, educators can find a student’s location on the learning

progression and identify skills they have partially mastered and are ready to learn next. (See Figure 7)

Figure 7: STAR Enterprise provides a student’s entry point into Core Progress

1400

College &

Career

Ready

Skills

Remaining

to Learn

680

Skills

Ready

to Learn

900

0

Skills

Mastered

300

Early

Literacy

Based on item response theory, the STAR Enterprise assessments have a robust, vertical scale that together

span grades Pre K–12. Because of the vertical nature of the scales, student scores are related to previous

scores—both during one school year and longitudinally. In addition, because the STAR scales are linked to

the learning progressions, there is continuity of skill-based recommendations for instruction. All skills and

items sit on one robust, vertical scale.

16


Literacy Classification: Early Emergent Reader Est. ORF: 0

1. ˜ Understand that sounds that are paired with letters represent spoken speech in print

2. Understand that words are read from left to right and top to bottom

3. Distinguish between the shapes of different letters (e.g., pick the letter that is different in S, S, C; pick the letter that is

different in E, f, f )

4. ˜ Understand and identify rhyming sounds (e.g., The sound is /arn/. Look at pictures of a heart, a card, and a barn. Pick

the picture that has the /arn/ sound.)

3. Understand vocabulary in context

˜ Designates a focus skill. Focus skills identify the most critical skills to learn at each grade level.

The result of this process is that learning is not conceived of as a series of discrete, disparate chunks, but

rather as a connected, integrated framework of understanding and skills. Such a framework enables students

to apply what they have learned in novel situations, as well as to acquire related new learning more quickly

(Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 2000).

Figure 8: STAR Early Literacy links with Core Progress for Reading to provide instructional planning resources

College &

Career

Ready

Instructional Planning Report

for Lisa Carter

Printed Monday, September 12, 2011 11:22:38 AM

School: Oakwood Elementary School Teacher: Mrs. C. Rowley

Class: Mrs. Rowley’s Class Grade:1

STAR Early Literacy Test Results

Current SS (Scaled Score): 475 Test Date: 09/08/2011

1 of 1

Projected SS for 06/10/12: 695 Based on research, 50% of students at this student's level will achieve this much growth.

Lisa’s Current Performance

School Benchmark

Current


Current

Projected

Skills

Remaining

to Learn

Scaled Score 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

• Urgent Intervention • Intervention • On Watch • At/Above Benchmark

Skills to Learn


Projected

Skills listed below are suggested skills Lisa should work on based on her last STAR Early Literacy test. These skills should

be challenging, but not too difficult for Lisa. Combine this information with your own knowledge of the student and use your

professional judgment when designing an instructional program. Use Core Progress learning progression for reading to

find additional information for each skill, teacher activities, and sample items.

Word Knowledge and Skills

This score suggests Lisa has an understanding that sounds paired with letters represent spoken speech in print. Based on

this score, Lisa should practice sounding out simple printed words and blending two-syllable words.

Skills to Learn

475

Skills

Ready

to Learn

5. Know all the letters of the alphabet and recognize their lower- and uppercase forms (e.g., Pick another way to write the

letter G from q, g, j.)

Comprehension Strategies and Constructing Meaning

This score suggests Lisa should practice the following emergent reading strategies and skills: identifying directly stated main

ideas and supporting details.

Skills to Learn

1. Make predictions based on the cover, title, and illustrations

2. C Identify a book's front and back covers; recognize where to find the names of the author and illustrator

Early

Literacy

Skills

Mastered

4. C Identify the topic of a text

5. Ask and answer questions about a text's key details (e.g., what is the cow doing in "Good Night Moon")

The STAR Record Book provides a streamlined way for educators to plan instruction for individuals or a group

of students, by providing details on students’ current performance, projected growth and suggested skills that

they are ready to focus on. Figure 9 on page 18 shows a class broken out into small instructional groups and

then the suggested skills from Core Progress that a teacher can focus on, to advance the first group of

students in their understanding of the Literature domain. In Instructional Resources, educators will quickly find

the Teacher Activities and Sample Items available for selected skills.

The Suggested Skills Page in the Record Book not only provides a way to view the prerequisite skills, but it

also shows the skills that lie ahead in the progression. Educators can reference the grade-level domain

expectations to help see how the discrete skills form the foundation to help move students between the

different levels of understanding.

17


Figure 9: STAR Record Book

STAR Reading

Karen Jones, Teacher 2012 - 2013

Home > Record Book

Manuals | Help | Log Out

Return to Home

Go To

Screening,

Progress Monitoring

& Intervention

Reports

Record Book

School: Pine Hill Middle School

Class or Group: Grade 7, Mrs. Jones class

Benchmark: School Benchmark Legend

Sort by: Instructional Groups

Edit Instructional Groups

Sorting by Instructional Groups shows Enterprise test scores only

Create

Instructional

Groups

Group 1 - Median Scaled Score: 804

View Suggested Skills

Student

Scaled

Score

Percentile

Rank

Test Date

Instruc tional

Groups

Rice, Heather

1342

97 9/13/2012

1

Curtis, Jason

1193

85 9/13/2012

1

Hunger, Stephanie

1165

83 9/13/2012

1

Clark, Darius

804

53 9/13/2012

1

Johnson, Tim

784

51 9/13/2012

1

Reyes, Christina

719

45 9/13/2012

1

Mackowski, Gregory

696

42 9/13/2012

1

Group 2 - Median Scaled Score: 574

View Suggested Skills

Student

Scaled

Score

Percentile

Rank

Test Date

Instruc tional

Groups

Dubaz, Taylor

664

38 9/13/2012

2

Atkinson, Rebecca

579

26 9/13/2012

2

Major, Jasmine

568

24 9/13/2012

2

Farrens, Cathy

538

20 9/13/2012

2

Group 3 - Median Scaled Score: 442

View Suggested Skills

Student

Scaled

Score

Percentile

Rank

Test Date

Instruc tional

Groups

Rivas, José

481

13 9/13/2012

3

Locke, Kimberly

459

10 9/13/2012

3

Daniels, Noah

425

7 9/13/2012

3

Okada, Casey

304

1 9/13/2012

3

View

Suggested

Skills

Connotation and Denotation

Teacher Activity

Find

Instructional

Resources

Sample Item

© 2011-2012 by Renaissance Learning, Inc. All rights reserved.

Reproduction for educational use by STAR Reading Enterprise licensees and their educators, students, and parents allowed.

18


Instructional Resources

Instructional resources, teacher activities, and sample items are continually being developed and added to

Core Progress for Reading. Many of the initial teacher activities, available after the first stage of development,

use a standard lesson plan format, and include the objective, materials, and overview of the lesson (see Figure

9 for an example). These instructional resources can be either printed or used with an interactive white board.

The most recent teacher activities created for early literacy skills consist of three stand-alone components,

each centered on the same skill. Each component is designed for small group instruction and may serve the

differentiated needs of students at a range of ability levels:

1. Core Activity: (Includes a Questions for Reading feature): This component is designed for students

who need specific instruction and practice in a given skill. The core activity is intended to be facilitated

by the classroom teacher, rather than an aide or adult volunteer.

2. Writing or Fluency Activity: This component is for students who have some proficiency in the skill and

can benefit from additional focused practice. The activity is designed such that a classroom aide or

adult volunteer may facilitate the instruction.

3. Practice and Extension Activities 3 : This optional component is designed for students who have

mastery of the skill and require practice activities that offer a different way to explore the skill. These

activities may incorporate art, movement, games, and other means of exploring a given

concept or skill.

The format of the teacher activities for the early literacy skills was designed after consultation with experts

who are active in the classroom. In addition to the new format, the early literacy teacher activities now include

references to the Common Core State Standards that the lesson and skill address. (See Figure 10.)

Figure 10: Kindergarten example of Core Progress tool and Instructional resources

Teacher Activity

Sample Item

Common Core State Standards Copyright 2010, produced by NCA and CCSSO

CC RP.K.3 - Know and apply grade level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

CC RP.K.3.d - Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ..

3

Practice and Extension Activities are still under development and will be released periodically as they are completed.

19


Conclusion

Renaissance Learning has developed two learning progressions for reading to fill a need that is only now

becoming fully realized in education. Developed by experts in reading content and learning progressions,

and supported by a framework of assessments and instructional tools, each has been designed to help

educators connect data to instruction. The goal of the Common Core State Standards is to ensure that all

students in all schools be fully prepared for college or career by the time they graduate from high school.

The benefit of progressions is that they lay out a continuum to guide teaching and learning over time so that

student competence in the domain can be advanced coherently and continuously.

20


CORE PROGRESS FOR READING LEARNING PROGRESSION

Appendix A: Grade-Level Domain Expectations for Analyzing Literary Text

Grade

Level

K

1

2

Domain Expectation

Students ask and answer questions about major events in stories. They identify a story’s beginning,

middle, and end. They identify a story’s characters and setting.

Students distinguish between reality and fantasy. They ask and answer questions about plot, setting,

and characters. They recognize general differences among basic genres of print material.

Students understand the difference between fiction and nonfiction. They identify and describe a

story’s plot, setting, and characters, and they recognize that a story has a narrator. They identify and

understand a moral stated in a story. They distinguish the differences in literary genres such as poetry,

drama, and fiction.

3

Students recognize basic structural characteristics of different genres. They describe characters’ traits

and motivations, and how characters change. They describe how problems in the plot are resolved

and how setting contributes to the story. They recognize first-person point of view and can identify a

story’s narrator.

4

Students gain knowledge of traditional literature and mythology and recognize distinctive elements of

the basic genres of drama, poetry, and prose literature. They analyze plot, setting, characterization,

and theme. They recognize first- and third-person narration.

5

Students increase their knowledge of traditional literature and mythology. They analyze the

characteristics of different genres of literature. They analyze plot, setting, characterization, and point

of view with increasing precision and appropriate terminology. They infer themes that are not

directly stated.

6

Students continue to expand their knowledge of literature and deepen their familiarity with a variety of

genres through wide reading including literary nonfiction. They analyze plot, setting, characterization,

point of view, and the ways these elements are related with increasing sophistication. They explain

how an implied theme is conveyed.

7

Students analyze a variety of forms of literature, drawing on prior literary knowledge and recognition of

structural elements and genre characteristics. They analyze the interrelation of narrative elements

such as plot, setting, characterization, and point of view with increasing sophistication. They recognize

recurring and universal themes and support their interpretations of themes with details from text.

8

Students analyze the characteristics of a variety of genres and understand the relationship between

genre characteristics and purpose. They analyze narrative elements and their functions with

increasing sophistication, drawing on recognition of common plot devices, conflicts, and character

types. They analyze how themes develop and support their interpretations with details.

9

Students expand their analyses of literary forms to include literary nonfiction, classical drama, and

poetic forms such as ballads and sonnets. Their analysis of narrative function and elements includes

that of nonlinear plots and consideration of historical/cultural context and the influence of other literary

works. They recognize themes drawn from classical and traditional sources.

10

Students analyze an array of literary forms of drama, poetry, fiction, and nonfiction. They analyze

narrative function and elements with increasing sophistication, evaluating the contribution of parts to

the whole, assessing the historical/cultural setting and context of the text, and identifying archetypal

characters. They evaluate the effects of narration and point of view on a text's meaning. They infer

the theme of increasingly complex literary works.

21


CORE PROGRESS FOR READING LEARNING PROGRESSION

Grade

Level

11

Domain Expectation

Students analyze more sophisticated works of literature from a wide array of genres of drama, poetry,

fiction, and nonfiction. They recognize and use literary terms and conventions and use them as an aid

to gaining greater insight into literature. They consider multiple interpretations and critical perspectives

and assess a text’s cultural and intellectual contribution. They analyze narrative elements and theme

through close readings of details that connect back to a text’s greater meaning.

12

Students critically evaluate literature. They situate texts within literary traditions and forms. They

consider multiple interpretations and critical perspectives and evaluate the cultural and intellectual

influences on and contributions of a text. They analyze and evaluate narrative function, elements,

and themes through close readings of details that connect back to a text’s greater meaning.

22


CORE PROGRESS FOR READING LEARNING PROGRESSION

Appendix B: Organization of Skill Areas within the Five Domains

Domain

Word Knowledge and Skills

Skill Area

• Alphabetic knowledge*

• Alphabetic sequence*

• Letter sounds*

• Print concepts*

• Visual discrimination of letters and words*

• Rhyming and word families*

• Blending word parts*

• Blending phonemes*

• Initial and final phonemes*

• Consonant blends (PA)*

• Medial phoneme discrimination*

• Phoneme segmentation*

• Phoneme isolation/manipulation*

• Short vowel sounds*

• Initial consonant sounds*

• Final consonant sounds*

• Long vowel sounds*

• Variant vowel sounds*

• Consonant blends (PH)

• Consonant digraphs*

• Other vowel sounds*

• Sound-symbol correspondence: consonants*

• Word building*

• Sound-symbol correspondence: vowels*

• Word Families/Rhyming*

• Use context clues

• Use structural analysis

• Word facility*

• Recognize and understand synonyms

• Antonyms*

• Recognize and understand homonyms and multi-meaning words

• Recognize connotation and denotation

• Understand idioms

• Understand analogies

Comprehension Strategies

and Constructing Meaning

• Make predictions

• Identify author’s purpose

• Identify and understand text features

• Recognize an accurate summary of text

• Use repair strategies

• Understand vocabulary in context

• Draw conclusions

• Identify and understand main ideas

• Identify details

• Extend meaning or form generalizations

• Identify and differentiate fact and opinion

• Identify organizational structure

• Understand cause and effect

• Understand comparison and contrast

• Identify and understand sequence

* Skill area added during stage two of development

23


CORE PROGRESS FOR READING LEARNING PROGRESSION

Domain

Analyzing Literary Text

Skill Area

• Identify and understand elements of plot

• Identify and understand setting

• Identify characters and understand characterization

• Identify and understand theme

• Identify the narrator and point of view

• Identify fiction and nonfiction, reality and fantasy

• Identify and understand characteristics of genres

Understanding Author’s Craft

• Understand figurative language

• Understand literary devices

• Identify sensory detail

Analyzing Argument

and Evaluating Text

• Identify bias and analyze text for logical fallacies

• Identify and understand persuasion

• Evaluate reasoning and support

• Evaluate credibility

24


CORE PROGRESS FOR READING LEARNING PROGRESSION

Appendix C: Progression of Skills for Identifying Author’s Purpose

Grade

Domain: Comprehension Strategies and Constructing Meaning

Skill: Identifying Author’s Purpose

Skill Statement

K –

1 –

2 Understand that authors write texts for different purposes

3 Identify the author's purpose (e.g., to inform, describe, entertain, explain, share feelings)

4

Identify the author's purpose (e.g., to inform, describe, entertain, explain, share feelings) and explain

how the reader can determine the purpose

Evaluate the appropriateness of the form chosen by the author in light of the author’s purpose

5

Identify author’s purpose and adjust reading strategy accordingly (e.g., take notes for informational

text; weigh evidence in persuasive text)

Analyze text to identify when an author has more than one purpose

6

Identify the author’s purpose and explain how the purpose is conveyed

Compare authors’ purposes in informational text on similar topics

Analyze how the author’s purpose or opinion is conveyed

7

Identity how authors use characteristics of different genres (fiction, poetry, nonfiction, drama) to

accomplish different purposes

Determine author’s purpose and how the author fulfills that purpose (e.g., language use, evidence)

8

Evaluate how the author’s purpose is conveyed

Explain how word choice, syntax, and organization are used to further the author’s purpose

9 Understand and evaluate how the author’s purpose is reflected in tone and word choice

10

11

12

Analyze how an author’s choices (e.g., text organization, style, use of language, literary devices,

rhetorical devices) further the purpose

Analyze how the author’s style, tone, and diction and rhetorical devices further or detract from the

author’s purpose

Evaluate the author’s purpose for consistency and clarity

Analyze and critique how the author’s use of language, organizational structures, techniques, and

rhetorical devices further or detract from the author’s purpose

25


CORE PROGRESS FOR READING LEARNING PROGRESSION

Appendix D: Example of how skills serve as prerequisites for other skills

Prerequisites for the Skill: Understand that a compound word is a word

whose parts are also whole (e.g., everyone)

Grade Skill Set Grade-Level Skill Statement

Grade 1

Phonemic Awareness

Identify single-syllable words by blending and segmenting consonant

blends, long vowel digraphs, and other phonemes (e.g., /th/ /r/ /ee/

makes the word three)

Grade 1

Phonics

Read single-syllable words and identify short vowel sounds (e.g.,

read the words cup, nap, and man; cup has the same middle vowel

sound as run)

Grade 1

Phonics

Decode grade-appropriate words (e.g., The word is last. Last means

the opposite of first. Pick the word last from last list lost.)

Grade 1

Phonics

Read single-syllable words and distinguish between short vowel

sounds (e.g., read the words dip, cat, and nap; dip has a different

middle vowel sound than hat)

Grade 1

Phonics

Decode single-syllable words with long vowel sounds (e.g., reading

the words heat, let, and end, and recognizing that heat has the long

vowel sound)

Grade 1

Phonics

Decode single-syllable words and identify long vowel sounds with

common spellings (graphemes) in order to decode single-syllable

words (e.g., Read the words feel, let, and end. Feel has the same

middle vowel sound as meat.)

Kindergarten

Concept of Word

Know that spaces separate words (e.g., recognize the

difference between Thecatsleeps. and The cat sleeps.)

Kindergarten

Concept of Word

Distinguish between words that have different letters (e.g., pick the

word that is different from the others in: an, as, an)

Kindergarten

Phonemic Awareness

Identify 2- and 3-syllable patterns in spoken words by blending,

counting, and segmenting syllables (e.g., tar-get makes the

word target)

Kindergarten Phonics Decode CVC words (e.g., cat, get, mom)

Kindergarten

Vocabulary Knowledge

Read grade-appropriate high-frequency (e.g., Dolch, Fry) words

by sight

26


CORE PROGRESS FOR READING LEARNING PROGRESSION

Appendix E: Common Core State Standard mapped to Core Progress skills

CCSS: Reading: Foundational Skill “CCRF.1.2.a Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken

single-syllable words.” Maps to the following Core Progress skills:

Grade Skill Domain

Kindergarten

Grade 1

Grade 1

* Focus Skill

*Identify short vowel sounds in spoken words (e.g.,

the middle vowel sound in sit is the same as in did;

rat has the same middle vowel sound as cab)

Identify and distinguish medial long vowel

phonemes in spoken words (e.g., plane has the

same middle vowel sound as make; phone has a

different middle vowel sound than seat)

*Distinguish short vowel sounds from long vowel

sounds in order to discriminate between those

sounds in single syllable words (e.g., reading the

words egg, we, and key, egg has the short

vowel sound)

Word Knowledge

and Skills

Word Knowledge

and Skills

Word Knowledge

and Skills

Common Core Standards are end-of-grade expectations. The Core Progress learning progression provides the

prerequisite and intermediary steps for reaching the standards.

27


CORE PROGRESS LEARNING PROGRESSION FOR READING - BUILT FOR THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

Appendix F: Grade-Level Expectations for Informational Text: Craft and Structure

Grade

Level

K

Expectation

Students develop the understanding that informational texts provide information. They understand

the roles of the author and illustrator and identify the basic parts of a book, establishing the basic

understanding of text structure. With appropriate scaffolding, they recognize when they are not

familiar with a word and use various strategies to determine word meaning.

1

By differentiating between books that tell stories and those that provide information, students learn the

different purposes of texts. They continue to ask and answer questions about words and phrases in

order to build comprehension as well as their core vocabulary. They begin to navigate books and

digital media using text features such as headings, electronic menus, and glossaries, recognizing that

authors incorporate these into a text to help the reader find information. They understand that a book

provides information though illustrations and other text features as well as through words.

2

Understanding that authors write informational texts for different reasons, students now identify

what an author wants to accomplish through the text. They use strategies such as context clues for

comprehending unknown words related to topics of study. They become more efficient in their use of

text features to locate information, expanding their knowledge to include subheadings, bold print, and

indexes. They begin to recognize chronology or sequence in a text, laying the foundation for later

analysis of a text’s organizational structure.

3

Students continue to read informational texts to gain background knowledge, using simple strategies

to access meaning and build knowledge of specific content-area vocabulary. They start to determine

the meaning of nonliteral language as well. Recognizing that an author has a point of view distinct

from their own prepares them to analyze the author’s perspective in subsequent grades. They now

use advanced text features and search tools to efficiently locate particular information on a topic,

understanding that different text features are used for different purposes.

4

Students become more aware of the authors’ point of view and understand that firsthand and

secondhand accounts may differ in focus and content by comparing and contrasting multiple texts

on the same event. They describe an author’s opinion, and they continue to use various strategies to

access the meaning of words in informational texts. Recognizing the common ways of structuring a

text, they describe a particular text’s overall structure.

5

Students begin to work with the concept of tone, recognizing that an author’s word choice creates

the overall tone of a text. They continue to employ various strategies to determine the meanings of

increasingly complex words in informational texts. They expand their understanding of organizational

structure by comparing how different authors choose to structure their work. They understand that an

author’s opinions may not be directly stated and that an author’s point of view or opinion may differ

from those of other authors.

6

As students continue to expand their knowledge of academic and technical words, they interpret

figurative and connotative meanings of words as well. They begin to analyze how particular parts of

the text function within the whole. They recognize both an author’s purpose and viewpoint in a text and

explain how they are conveyed.

7

Students’ analysis of informational texts deepens as they consider the impact of an author’s

specific word choice on meaning and tone. They analyze how a text’s structure impacts meaning,

understanding that authors structure their work according to what they seek to convey. Students

analyze an author’s position and how an author approaches a topic differently than others.

8

Students continue to analyze the effect of an author’s specific word choice on the meaning and tone

of an informational text, broadening their analysis to include interpretation of allusions and analogies.

They analyze a text’s structure with greater detail, considering the contribution of particular sentences

in developing key concepts in the text. Their consideration of author’s viewpoint now includes

recognizing bias and analyzing an author’s response to conflicting evidence and viewpoints.

28


CORE PROGRESS LEARNING PROGRESSION FOR READING - BUILT FOR THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

Grade

Level

9

Expectation

Students’ analysis of language gains sophistication as they consider the overall effect an author’s

word choice has on the meaning and tone of a text. They also begin to analyze how rhetorical devices

are used to advance an author’s purpose. They understand how a particular section of a text can

expand or refine an author’s idea or claim.

10

Students’ consideration of craft and structure broadens to include the cumulative impact of an author’s

word choice and use of rhetorical devices on an informational text’s meaning and tone. They analyze

informational texts intended for various audiences to determine how language is used to achieve

different purposes or advance viewpoints. Their continued analysis of how an author’s ideas are

developed by particular portions of the text prepares them to evaluate a text’s overall structure.

11

Students evaluate an author's language choices, determining whether rhetorical devices further or

detract from the author's purpose or viewpoint. They analyze how an author develops and refines the

meaning of a key term over the course of a text, and they evaluate how organizational structure affects

clarity of ideas. They understand how an author's assumptions about readers influence a text, and

they evaluate the extent to which an author's argument is convincing.

12

Through the study of texts with particularly effective rhetoric or powerful language, students become

adept at evaluating the overall effectiveness of a broad array of complex informational texts. They

evaluate the impact of choices an author makes regarding language, structure, and aesthetics and

how these choices further or detract from the author's purpose or viewpoint.

29


CORE PROGRESS LEARNING PROGRESSION FOR READING - BUILT FOR THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

Appendix G: Organization of Skill Areas within the Four Domains

Domain Heading Skill Area

Foundational Skills

Print Concepts

• Directionality

• Letters and Words

• Word Length

• Word Borders

• Visual Discrimination /

Alphabetic Principle

• Alphabetic Sequence

• Print Features

Phonological Awareness

• Rhyming and Word Families

• Blending, Counting, and

Segmenting Syllables

• Blending and Segmenting

• Distinguishing between Long

and Short Vowel Sounds

• Isolating Initial, Final, and

Medial Phonemes

• Adding/Substituting Phonemes

Phonics and Word Recognition

• Spelling-Sound

Correspondences: Consonants

• Spelling-Sound

Correspondences: Vowels

• Regular and Irregular Spellings /

High-Frequency words

• Inflectional Endings / Affixes

• Syllables

Fluency

• Purpose of Reading/Reading

with Comprehension

Reading Rate WCPM

• Prosody

• Repair Strategies

Language

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

• Real-Life Word Connections

and Applications

• Word Reference Materials

• Antonyms

• Synonyms

• Structural Analysis

• Word Relationships

• Context Clues

• Vocabulary in Context

• Multiple-Meaning Words

• Figures of Speech

• Connotation

30


CORE PROGRESS LEARNING PROGRESSION FOR READING - BUILT FOR THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

Domain Heading Skill Area

Literature

Key Ideas and Details

• Character

• Setting

• Plot

• Theme

• Summary

• Inference and Evidence

Craft and Structure

• Point of View

• Structure of Literary Text

• Word Meaning

• Author’s Word Choice and

Figurative Language

• Connotation

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

• Modes of Representation

• Analysis and Comparison

Range of Reading and Level of Text

Complexity

• Range of Reading

• Development of Independence

Informational Text

Key Ideas and Details

• Main Idea and Details

• Inference and Evidence

• Prediction

• Sequence

• Compare and Contrast

• Cause and Effect

• Summary

• Connections and Relationships

Craft and Structure

• Text Features

• Author’s Purpose and

Perspective

• Word Meaning

• Connotation

• Organization

• Author’s Word Choice and

Figurative Language

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

• Modes of Representation

• Argumentation

• Analysis and Comparison

Range of Reading and Level of Text

Complexity

• Range of Reading

• Development of Independence

31


CORE PROGRESS LEARNING PROGRESSION FOR READING - BUILT FOR THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

Appendix H: Progression of Skills and Mapping to CCSS for Inference and Evidence

Domain: Literature

Heading: Key Ideas and Details

Skill Area: Inference and Evidence

Relevant CCSS Anchor Standard: CC RI.CCR 1

Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific

textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

Grade CCSS Grade-level Standard Skill Statement

K

1. With prompting and support, ask

and answer questions about key

details in a text.

With prompting and support, ask and answer

questions about a story's key details (e.g., what

is the cow doing in Goodnight Moon)

1

1. Ask and answer questions about

key details in a text.

Answer simple questions about a story's key details

2

1. Ask and answer such questions

as who, what, where, when, why, and

how to demonstrate understanding

of key details in a text.

Ask and answer who, what, where, when, why, and

how questions about key details in a literary text

Draw simple conclusions about characters, settings,

and major events in a literary text using details from

text and illustrations

3

1. Ask and answer questions to

demonstrate understanding of a text,

referring explicitly to the text as the

basis for the answers.

Ask and answer questions about literary text and refer

to the text to support answers

Use textual details to draw simple conclusions about

characters, settings, or events in text (e.g., conclude

the character is angry because he stomped his feet)

4

1. Refer to details and examples

in a text when explaining what

the text says explicitly and when

drawing inferences from the text.

Make inferences about characters’ actions, traits, and

motives based on details found in a story or play

Cite textual details and examples to support

inferences and explanations about a literary text’s

meaning (e.g., conclude the poet thinks the tree

leaves are pretty because she says the colors

make her smile)

5

1. Quote accurately from a text

when explaining what the text

says explicitly and when drawing

inferences from the text.

Cite accurate evidence from a literary text to support

inferences and to explain the text’s explicit meaning

Use textual evidence to distinguish between valid

and invalid conclusions drawn in and from literary

texts (e.g., note when a character makes an

incorrect conclusion)

6

1. Cite textual evidence to

support analysis of what the text

says explicitly as well as inferences

drawn from the text.

Explain the basis for conclusions drawn about literary

texts and revise conclusions based on new evidence

in the text

32


CORE PROGRESS LEARNING PROGRESSION FOR READING - BUILT FOR THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

Domain: Literature

Heading: Key Ideas and Details

Skill Area: Inference and Evidence

Relevant CCSS Anchor Standard: CC RI.CCR 1

Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific

textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

Grade CCSS Grade-level Standard Skill Statement

7

1. Cite several pieces of textual

evidence to support analysis of

what the text says explicitly as well

as inferences drawn from the text.

Draw conclusions about characters, theme, and

situations based on analysis of textual details

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support

analysis of a literary text

8

1. Cite the textual evidence that most

strongly supports an analysis of what

the text says explicitly as well as

inferences drawn from the text.

Draw conclusions based on analysis of textual details

and patterns (e.g., draw a conclusion about an

author's intent by analyzing tone, word choice,

and connotation)

Cite the strongest textual evidence to support analysis

of a literary text

9

1. Cite strong and thorough textual

evidence to support analysis of what

the text says explicitly as well as

inferences drawn from the text.

Cite strong and sufficient textual evidence to support

analysis of a literary text

Analyze significant ideas and supporting details in

a literary text to draw larger conclusions about the

text’s meaning

10

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support

analysis of a literary text

Evaluate and weigh complex ideas, textual details,

and motifs in order to arrive at conclusions about the

meaning and/or significance of literary texts

11

1. Cite strong and thorough textual

evidence to support analysis of what

the text says explicitly as well as

inferences drawn from the text,

including determining where the text

leaves matters uncertain.

Select textual evidence based on evaluation of its

strength, completeness, and relevance to the analysis

of a literary text

Use a critical lens (e.g., philosophical, biographical)

or secondary sources to interpret a literary text and

draw conclusions about the text’s meaning and/or

significance

12

Determine where a literary text's meaning is

ambiguous, unclear, or open to interpretation, and

cite textual evidence to support this determination

Synthesize ideas from close reading of literary texts

and secondary sources to draw complex conclusions

about text meaning and/or significance

33


CORE PROGRESS LEARNING PROGRESSION FOR READING - BUILT FOR THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

Appendix I: Example of how skills serve as prerequisites for other skills

Prerequisites for the Grade 3 Foundational Skill:

Decode increasingly difficult multisyllable words by identifying syllable patterns

(e.g., transportation)

Grade Heading Skill Area Skill

Grade 2

Phonics and

Word

Recognition

Syllables

Use knowledge of regularly spelled syllable

patterns to decode multisyllable grade-level words

(e.g., read a word such as even by picking the

correct syllable breaks)

Grade 1

Phonics and

Word

Recognition

Syllables

Segment syllables in VC-CV words to decode basic

two-syllable patterns in words

Grade 1

Phonics and

Word

Recognition

Syllables

Segment printed words into syllables, making sure

each syllable contains a vowel sound

Kindergarten

Phonological

Awareness

Blending, Counting,

and Segmenting

Syllables

Blend, count, and segment syllables in spoken

words (e.g., from an oral prompt, students identify

that tar-get makes the word target)

34


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36


Contributing Advisor

Margaret Heritage, Ph.D., is assistant director for professional development at the

National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST)

at UCLA. Her current work focuses on the development of academic language for EL

students and formative assessment, including teachers’ use of formative assessment

evidence. She has made numerous presentations on these topics all over the United

States, in Europe, and in India.

L2727.0713.XX.XM

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